However, I have recently stumbled upon more and more research that is also including parental factors as well as the mass media that can have detrimental side effects to young as well as older females. I would like to change my previous hypothesis that stated, “The mass media has a very profound effect on the body image of young females” and include parental factors. Therefore, I hypothesize that both parental factors and the mass media has led young females to further their body dissatisfaction and sometimes even leading to eating disorders.
Literature Review In the two-part study, the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale, and a body image attitudes measure, broke down the participants into race; 66. 7% White American, 17. 6% African American, 6. 3% Mexican American, 5% Asian American, 0. 6% Native American, and 3. 8% unreported (Petrie, Tripp & Harvey, 2002).
Affirmative analysis established that the two tests fit the data; influences of eating disorders measures strengthened their hypothesis and similar validity. Additionally, the two effects were unrelated (Petrie, Tripp & Harvey, 2002).
Heinberg used one hundred thirty-nine women that observed television commercials that restricted either person-related commercials or non-person-related commercials. Pre-post measures of unhappiness, irritation, apprehension, and body dissatisfaction were observed (Heinberg & Thompson, 1995).
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Participants receiving high marks on these measures developed considerably more depression subsequent to exposure to the appearance of individuals in commercials and considerably less depressed subsequent to observing of the non-individuals in commercials.
Sands, Maschette, & Armatas (2004) used a technique for measuring body image satisfaction created on a computer influence of a digital picture platform by means of a sample of fifty-six female students aged seventeen to twenty-two years (Sands Maschette, & Armatas, 2004).
Their computer alteration technique develops a measurement of body image dissatisfaction on the foundation of the comparative significance of separate body measures. Martinez-Gonzalez used a regional representative sample of 2,862 girls who were twelve to twenty-one years of age that used the Eating Attitudes Test (2003).
In the study, a greater risk of developing an eating disorder was caused from several experiences. For example, younger age was a factor, as well as habitually read female magazines, listened to radio programs, and parental factors such as divorce (most commonly using both media).
Their outcomes backup the negative role that the mass media plays and parental position (divorced or not) in the starting of eating disorders (Martinez-Gonzalez, M. , 2003).
The study, presented by L.
Pinhas, observed variations in a females’ disposition consequential from their looking at photographs in style magazines of models who characterize a thin ideal. Female university students took the Profile of Mood States (POMS), the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale (BPSS), and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) (Pinhas, L. , 1999).
The contributors were separated into two groups; the experimental group saw pictures of thin, female models and the control group saw pictures containing normal human figures, then the roles and pictures changed.
All participants then finished the POMS and the BPSS once more. Their final outcome verified that women were unhappy as well as irritated resulting from contact with photographs of female fashion models (Pinhas, 1999).
... , music videos, magazines, etc. portray the perfect female body. America and its’ media need to begin portraying women with all types ... inflict on them self like an eating disorder. All of these images in the media have cultivated many different stereotypes ... five to ten million adolescent girls and women struggle with eating disorders and borderline conditions. Women today constantly feel as ...
Consequences from this evaluation of the studies completed showed that in majority of the studies measured, body dissatisfaction turned out to be less favorable after contact with mass media. Method section I would conduct a two part study. The first part of my study would involve using three different measures and scales questionnaires.
Essentially, I would use these measures and scales for background information on the participants as well as rating the body dissatisfaction. For example, the Body Shape Figure Scale (BSFS), and the body image attitudes measure (BIAM), (Petrie, Tripp & Harvey, 2002) and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) (Pinhas, L. , 1999).
The second part of my study would include visual surveys with written questionnaires. Participants would observe television commercials that limited either person-related commercials or non-person-related commercials like the study conducted by Heinberg, L. J. , & Thompson, J. K. (1995).
The second survey would be exposing the participants to pictures in fashion magazines of models who represent a thin ideal and recording the outcome. The perfect example of a study done was by L. Pinhas (1999).
In reference to my survey study, the independent variable is the one that is assumed to impact, or at least be connected with the dependent variable which would actually be the mass media. My dependent variables would be body dissatisfaction and eating disorders. Participants Since it is nearly impossible to interview every individual of the target audience in the country, I would like to use at least a hundred participants nd I believe anything less than a hundred wouldn’t get as accurate results as, say twenty five participants. It gives myself a broader range of young females to adult females to choose from. The inclusion characteristics would be 1) have to be female 2) range of ages from 12 – 60 year olds 3) participants use mass media. For example, television, magazines, etc… The exclusion characteristics would be 1) no males 2) young children 3) participants that don’t use mass media. Using diversity in my sample would only be needed a couple of areas.
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First, diverse location; there might be a greater chance of availability of participants exposed to mass media in urban areas than in rural areas. Second, diverse females; diverse assortments of age, race, religion, etc… If I only used, for example, 30 year old, Caucasian women living in Illinois, I would get similar responses, but how diverse would the responses be? Results I would use probability sampling. All female participants have an equal opportunity of being involved in the sample (Shaughnessy, 2008).
Probability sampling is a lot better than nonprobability sampling in making certain that a selection of samples signify the populace.
As a result, if I select a hundred females unsystematically from the phone book, I am more probable to devise a representative sample than another study done that bases the survey consequences on the first hundred females who just walk into a supermarket (Shaughnessy, 2008).
Discussion Based only on the ten peer reviewed articles, my findings were in correlation to what I already believed. The mass media, whether it’s on the television, in magazines or displayed on oversized billboards, has been proven time and again that it has a negative effect when it comes to women and their own body idealization.
The most difficult part of the investigation into the mass media hype was learning that body dissatisfaction starts as such an early age. Validity refers to the “truthfulness” of a measure (Shaughnessy, 2008).
I would incorporate the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale is possibly the utmost widely used self-esteem test in social science studies (Chabrol, 2006).
Reliability is defined as a condition where a measurement procedure produces consistent totals (using a consistent measured occurrence) over repeated measurements (Shaughnessy, 2006).
For instance, using the same repeated pictures from magazines or repeated images from television. These experimental outcomes starts a theoretical change in the direction of recognizing the susceptibility influences that make females more or less reactive to the mass media effects and beginning to study the psychological effects pertaining to body image (Dittmar, 2005; Tiggemann, 2005).
... study and then find a relationship between it and the media. Body images of male and female undergraduates were shown a figure of ... a contributory factor as well as the media to negative social effects about body image.2) Which media are you most likely to read ... not comfortable with their body image and I believe there is a direct correlation to that and the media. Erving Goffman 1979 studied ...
Given this importance, it has grown into a necessity to progress in the responsiveness of risk factors and mental processes that is responsible for body dissatisfaction.
References Ahern A. L. , Hetherington M. M. (2006).
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Preliminary results of a scale assessing instability of self-esteem. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 38(2), 136-141. Retrieved from http://search. proquest. com/docview/220493512? accountid=34899 Dittmar, H. (2009).
How do “body perfect” ideals in the media have a negative impact on body image and behaviors?
Factors and processes related to self and identity. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28(1), 1-8. Retrieved from http://search. proquest. com/docview/224859660? accountid=34899 Lavine, H. , Sweeney, D. , & Wagner, S. H. (1999).
Depicting women as sex objects in television advertising: Effects on body dissatisfaction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25(8), 1049-1058. Retrieved from http://search. proquest. com/docview/ 213995988? Accountid=34899 Plunkett, Jack (2008) Plunkett’s Apparel & Textiles Industry Almanac. Published by Plunkett Research, Ltd.
Accessed on May 1, 2013. IBSN 10# 1-59392-453-4 Rowe, D. A. , McDonald, S. M. , Mahar, M. T. , & Raedeke, T. D. (2005).
Multitrait-multimethod investigation of a novel body image measurement technique. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 76(4), and 407-15. http://search. proquest. com/docview/218550055? Accountid=34899 Sands, R. , Maschette, W. , & Armatas, C. (2004).
Measurement of body image satisfaction using computer manipulation of a digital image. The Journal of Psychology, 138(4), 325-37. Retrieved from http://search. proquest. com/docview/213832822? ccountid=34899 Shapiro, I. (2010).
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... . Jerry Falwells Paradoxical Legacy. 2007. Reason Magazine Online.Retrieved January 10, 2008 from http://www.reason.com/news/show/120760.html Abstract ... Online Journalism?. 2007. USC Annenberg School for Communication. Retrieved January 10, 2008 from http://www.ojr.org/ojr/wiki/ethics/ Young, C ... Issues of Gender and the Body in Modern Art (1) It is not a secret that ...
Research Methods in Psychology (8th edition).
Published by McGraw-Hill Learning Solutions. Retrieved from http://digitalbookshelf. argosy. edu/books/007-7376463/id/B5-3f