The Iliad Focus Questions Book I 1. What do the first six lines tell us about Achilles? The first six lines tell us that Achilles might be a military general or some one who can lead Greeks into battle, It states that Achilles is full of rage also that he is murderous, and doomed. I would think this meant that he would be going to “hell” for all the bad and murder that he has done. It says that he has killed a lot of people “hurling down to the House of Death so many sturdy souls” (stanza 1, line 3).
This also means that he is strong and a great fighter because he has killed so many men but the men that he killed were sturdy so he must be strong and skilled to be able to bring down many sturdy men.
2. What does the priest, Chryses, ask for? What happens when his request is rejected? Chryses asks Agamemnon for his daughter Chryseis back that he had kidnapped. Agamemnon rejects his request for his daughter and tells Chryses that Chryseis will spend the rest of her life in his house sharing a bed with him and if Chryses ever comes back to his ship to beg for his daughter or offer a ransom he will kill him. Chryses leaves the ship and prays to Apollo to send a plague to the Greeks, and Apollo answers his prayers and sends a plague to them. 3. What is Calchas’ explanation for the “plague” destroying the Argives? What solution does he give to solve the problem? What is Agamemnon’s response? Calchas’ explanation of the plague is that it is not because the Argives have not kept a vow or a sacrifice but because Agamemnon spared his priest and refused to free his daughter back to him and even refused the ransom.
... retiring the rest of the androids and her was to kill his beloved goat. His goat, the thing that he loved ... he loved her. Now, she knew that he could possibly killed her. She doesn’t want to end her life where ... head, everything was about “ I need to kill this goat! I need to kill this goat! So he will stop!” She went ...
Calchas’s o lution to get rid of the plague is to return the girl Chryseis to her father, without any price or ransom paid for her return and to carry a sacred hundred bulls to Chryses town. Agamemnon gets mad at Calchas’ response and accuses him of only foreseeing bad fortune. Agamemnon agrees to return Chryseis but he wants another prize in her place so that his pride isn’t damaged and makes the comment that maybe the prizes that the other Argives had won should be given to him and if they don’t he will just simply take it from them. 4. Why does Achilles become so angry with Agamemnon? Why does he finally grant Agamemnon’s demand? Achilles becomes mad with Agamemnon because him and the other Argives had earned their treasures but Agamemnon fights no battles and still gets the biggest share of every thing.
“whenever we sack some wealthy Trojan stronghold my arms bear the burnt of the raw, savage fighting, true, but when it comes to dividing up the plunder the lion’s share is your… .” (p 108, stanza two, lines 193-196).
Also Agamemnon orders Achilles or one of the other leading captains to return Chryseis to her father, instead of himself. Achilles tells him no and Agamemnon threatens him that if he leaves and returns home he will be there to take his girl from him. “I will be there in person at yours tents to take Bris eis in all her beauty, your own prize.” (p 108, stanza 4, lines 217-28).
This out rages Achilles so much that he draws his sword to kill Agamemnon, but Hera and Athena appeared before Achilles and Athena asked Achilles to put his sword down and not fight Agamemnon because Hera loved both of them the same and did not want to see them fight.
Athena also assured Achilles that Agamemnon’s arrogance would soon be the cause of his death and that there is treasure in Achilles future that is three to four times in fold to what he has now. 5. What is Nestor’s advice to Agamemnon? Nestor’s advice to Agamemnon is to not seize the girl (the girl he threatened to take from Achilles is he left).
Book XVI 1. Why doesn’t Zeus intervene to save Sarpedon from death? Zeus doesn’t save Sarpedon because his wife Hera reminds him that Sarpedon might be his son but he is still a mere mortal and if he saves his life than other God who all have many mortal son’s will be tempted to save their lives as well, also if he saves Sarpedon the deathless God’s will no longer praise him.
... books, only the three greatest kings of Greece: Agamemnon, Achilles, and Odysseus, are shown holding the sceptre. ... the mountains, he constructed an immortal device for Zeus. Hephaistus' creation of the sceptre both bolsters ... Argos. (II, 102-109) 'In naming Hephaistus, Zeus, Hermes, and the kings of Mycenae, Homer describes ... . This relic, a sceptre once owned by Zeus, has a kingly and divine past and, ...
2. Why is Sarpedon important to Zeus? What does this relationship show regarding the Greek view of their gods? Sarpedon is important to Zeus because he is his son. Zeus’ relationship for his son shows even though the Gods are immortal and revered in the highest they still have feeling of mortals. “But he showered tears of blood that drenched the earth” (p 151, stanza 2, line 47) Zeus cries tears of blood for his son when he is about to dye, this shows how Zeus the king of the God’s feels love, pain, and grief.
3. Who kills Sarpedon? What happens to Sarpedon’s body? Patroclus’ kills Sarpedon. Apollo takes Sarpedon’s body from the bloody battle field and bathes the body and anoints him with deathless oils and finally wraps the body in deathless ambrosial robes. He sends Sarpedon on his way with wind-swift escorts, the twin brothers Sleep and Death to send him to the green land of Lycia.
4. What events lead to and cause Patroclus’ death? Sarpedons last words were for his cousin and comrade, Glaucus to save his body and avenge his death. Caucus gets the others Trojans together and warriors and convinces them to help him save Sarpedons body from being mutilated and having his armor taken from him. They agreed and start to fight he Argives for Sarpedons body. Zeus caused the Trojans to retreat so that hey could kill more Argives. Zeus went to Apollo to ask for his help to kill Patroclus for killing his son Sarpedon.
Apollo agreed and Apollo knocked Patrol cus from his horse shattering his body and as he lay on the ground a Trojan speared him, the Hector speared him in the guts. 5. Summarize Patroclus’ final words. Patroclus’ final words add up to he tells Hector not to think that it was he who killed him but it was Apollo who doomed his fate.
Apollo struck first at him, them a Trojan speared him, and Hector did nothing but finish him off. He also told Hector to take to heart that he wont live long either because he had already seen him death. Book XXII 1. Summarize Hector’s argument with himself (“he probed his own brave heart”) before he faces Achilles. Hector agrees with him self that if he flees the Trojan walls he alone will doom his Trojan soldiers but if he faces Achilles, and either kills him or dies at his hands it will be far better for him because he will not be disc racing his family and fellow soldiers. 2.
... to her son. Zeus agreed and Thetis told her so to accept Priam's ransom for Hector's body. Achilles does what is asked ... . The treatment of Hector's body was appalling to the Gods and Apollo pleaded with Zeus to send for Thetis, Achilles mother so that ... he had been tricked. After dragging Hector's dead body around the city of Troy, Achilles left the body for the dogs. The only ...
What happens when Hector actually faces Achilles? When Hector finally came face to face with Achilles he began to tremble and lost his nerve. Hector tried to flee but Achilles followed him. 3. Why can’t Hector escape into the city of Troy? Hector can’t escape into the city walls of Troy because Achilles is chasing him and is so fast that there wouldn’t be enough time for him to make it through the city gates without Achilles making it inside also. 4. Describe the ways in which Athena helps Achilles.
Why? Athena helps Achilles by catching up with Hector while he is running and persuading Hector to follow her to Achilles because she made Hector think hat she would stand next to him and help him win in battle. She did this because she thought that it wasn’t right when her father Zeus made he comment to save Hectors life. 5. What does Hector beg of Achilles? Hector asks Achilles to make a pact with him that no matter who wins they will not mutilate the dead body and will return the body to their family / loyal comrade. 6. What is Achilles’ response? Achilles answered back that there are no binding oaths between men and lions, wolves and lambs can enjoy no meeting of the minds they are all bent on hating each other to death.
Achilles is telling him that even though he believes that he would keep the oath if he won that he Achilles could not because he is such a brutal man. He compares himself to a wolf and Hector to a lamb. 7. What happens to Hector’s body? After Achilles kills Hector all the other Argives come to see and stab Hectors body and laugh, they stripped Hector of his armor, Achilles pierced Hectors tendons in his ankles and knotted straps of rawhide through them both, lashed them to his chariot, and drug Hectors body behind his chariot. The Odyssey Book IX 1.
Odysseus describes himself in Book IX. 12-40. What do we learn about his character and personality? In my opinion it shows that Odysseus is a little conceded about his own glory and name. It also shows that he loves his homeland above all things and that nothing can compare to him. “Where shall a man find sweetness to surpass his own home and his parents? In far lands he shall not, though he find a house of gold.” (p 304, stanza 1, lines 36-38).
... falls down on the dusty ground, the great Achilles brags over Hector's dying body. "Hector, you were a fool to strike down ... armor, looks like a blazing fire. As they run, Achilles examines Hector's body for the best place to throw his spear ... the great god-like Achilles." While Hector taunts Achilles, the swift goddess goddess Athena retrieves Achilles's pear, without Hector seeing or knowing that ...
2. What causes the empty seats? “Six benches were left empty in every ship that evening when we pulled away from death.” 3. Describe the socio / economic life of the Cyclops. Does Odysseus approve of their lifestyle? Why not? Are the Cyclops regarded as “human”? What are they? The Cyclopes live by themselves not encountering with each other, they take orders from no one and follow no laws. 4. What is the first lie Odysseus tells the Cyclops? What is the second? What do these lies show about Odysseus? Books XX-XXII 1.
Why have the suitors invaded Odysseus’ home? They want to marry his wife so that they can become king and rule over Odysseus’ land and have his wealth. 32. Describe the “test of the bow.” 3. How does Odysseus identify himself to the herdsmen? 4.
What happens to the goatherd (Melan thos)? 5. What happens to the twelve “bad” women?