BY BETTY J ALLEN OUTLINE Thesis statement: cell anemia Hemoglobin Disease Red">sickle cell Disease is an inherited disease that affects the red blood cells. This disease can be treated so a person can live a long health life. 1. Sickle Cell Disease a.
What is sickle cell disease? b. Whom does this disease affect? c. What race and geographic region do they belong to? d. c.
Causes of sickle cell disease. e. Signs and symptoms and how it affects the body. 2. What problems are caused by sickle cell disease? 3. How can this disease be treated? Allen 1 Shortly after the birth of my daughter Tracie, my husband and I discovered that we both were carriers of the Sickle Cell Disease called Sickle Cell Trait.
The fact that my husband and I had a high percentage of this trait in our blood stream; resulted in our daughter Tracie being diagnosed as having the Sickle Cell Disease. The fact that I had no knowledge of what this disease was, I was determined to learn everything I could about this earth shattering disease. I wanted to know what caused it and how it could be treated. Through an endless search I found out that Sickle Cell anemia is an inherited disease that affects the red blood cells. This disease can’t be treated, however the symptoms can be treated when they arise. Sickle Cell Anemia is a blood disorder (Linde 17).
... good as regular blood cells. As a result of having the sickle-cell anemia disease, or trait many things in life can be affected. When both ... and receiving proper Vaccinations. Regular blood transfusions is something good to do too. Treat anemia by replenishing red blood cells, and other complications such ...
This disease produces distorted red blood cells (moon shaped) that are unable to transport oxygen properly through the blood stream (Asimov 1).
Because the oxygen in the red blood cells isn’t properly transported the red blood cell changes it shape. Instead of the cells being round and smooth the cells become hard and sticky (Lessing 3).
These cells look something like a Allen 2 banana or a sickle, a hand tool used to cut tall grass. Sickle cell disease got it name from the shape of the abnormal red blood cell. Because of the shape of the abnormal cells the blood vessels are clogged which doesn’t allow oxygen to reach the tissues in the body (Lessing 3).
These cells sometime clog the small arteries and veins in the body, often cutting off oxygen supplies in vital organs (Linde 18).
A normal red blood cell lives for approximately 120 days and an abnormal cell only lives anywhere from 10-20 days (Segal 3).
Sickle cell disease can be expressed in a very mild or a very severe form. In the mild form the individual rarely or only in special circumstances suffers from the effects of his or her sickness. In the very severe form the individual is usually debilitated, suffers frequently from bouts of critical illness, called crises, and has a shortened life expectancy. Sickle Cell disease is inherited; and it is passed on through the genetic apparatus from parents to their children.
It is not contagious and is inherited birth (Francis 1).
If both parents have the sickle cell trait then there is a 75% chance that a child would be born with the disease. On the other hand if one parent has the trait and the other partner has the disease the risk of the child having the disease doubles; however, the child will be a carrier. If neither partners have any of the recessive genes their child will have Hb A, the normal red blood cell (Asimov 3).
Dr. James B.
Herrick first reported sickle cell anemia in 1904 (Linde).
This disease affects approximately 50, 000 Americans (About Sickle Cell Trait and Anemia 3).
... sickle cell anemia are Bilirubin, Blood oxygen, Complete blood count (CBC), Hemoglobin electrophoresis, Serum creatinine, Serum potassium, and Sickle cell test. The treatments for people with sickle-cell disease are blood ... healthy blood cells are round shaped blood cells, they move through small blood vessels to carry oxygen to all parts of the body. People with sickle-cell disease their blood cells ...
People use to think that sickle cell disease was common in black American of African Descent. Today it is found that different groups of people throughout the world carry different forms of the sickle cell recessive gene in their blood (Hampton 1).
Most of these victims appear to be from Africa, the United States, Greece, Italy and other Mediterranean countries, India, Central and South America and the Caribbean Islands (Linde 24).
As I mention before this disease occur mostly in black persons of American descent, this also include Puerto Ricans, Indians, Native Americans, people of Hispanic backgrounds individuals from Greek, Turkey, Italy, and Europeans, as well as people of color in general. Allen 4 Only a few cases have been reported in American Indians (Linde 24).
Even though sickle cell is present at birth the symptoms usually appear after 6 months (About Sickle-Cell Trait and Anemia 10).
Some people may want to know how they can tell if they have sickle cell anemia. There are two major groups of clinical symptoms, which is the sickle cell crisis and the other one is the chronic ones such as the tiredness and the listlessness that the sickle cell anemia patient put up with on a constant basis (Linde 35).
Listed below are some signs of this disease: Paleness of various mucous membranes such as the gums and the inside part of the eyelid, fingernails, and toenails.
Another sign of this disease is a yellow color of the whites of the eyes, shortness of breath after exercising or climbing stairs, frequent headaches, and severe abdominal pain. People with this disease also experience pain and swelling in the joints, hands, and feet. They have a constant thirst, Allen 5 repeated loss of appetite, frequent colds and flu. They have a difficult time fighting off infections, their urine is dark, and they are always tired and have a lack of energy (Linde 35-36).
There are approximately six symptoms of this disease I will briefly described each one of them and how they affect the body. The first one is Leg Ulcers, which are leg sores that don’t heal caused by poor circulation around the ankles.
Then there is the Hand-Foot Syndrome; clogged blood vessels cause hands and feet to swell, they become hot, red and painful. Also you have the possibility of Slow Growth which means that the affected person will experiences small size, poor general health, and sore throats. Jaundice is another symptom of sickle cell anemia that causes a yellowish tinge on whites of the eyes. Unfortunately this disease causes painful joints especially shoulders, and hips area. This happened because of a poor blood supply to bones.
... bug is found in Latin America and carries this disease. These poor people in Latin America live in thatched roofs and dirt ... factors in the high rates of infectious diseases. In the urban life, too many people are crowded into small dirty areas. ... crowded and poor living conditions make the people living in poverty vulnerable to infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and cholera. Poor nutrition ...
Finally we have the Sickle-Cell Crisis the most common symptom. This crisis causes severe pain in the chest, abdomen, arms, and legs. Allen 6 A crisis can last for hours or even weeks (About Sickle-Cell Trait and Anemia 10-11).
Some of the most common problems caused by sickle cell disease are infections, pain, anemia (low blood), and damage to the body organs (Lessen 4).
The pneumonia infection is the most serious infection that occurs because of the largest lymph node in the body called the spleen is unable to help the body fight off germs (Lessen 4).
The cells pilling up and blocking the blood vessels cause pain.
When the blood vessels are blocked the body does not get enough oxygen causing the body to starts to hurt (Lessen 4).
Anemia happens when the red blood cells are not being produce faster enough to replace the old red blood cells. If anemia becomes severe a person may be given blood to prevent heart failure (Sickle Cell Disease 5).
Because the lack of oxygen due to clogged blood vessels damage to the body organs occur.
These damages can happen to any organ and not all tissues can be prevented form damages (Lessen 5).
Allen 7 There is no cure for sickle cell anemia, but there are several measures a person can take to prevent sickle cell crisis. Some other ways this disease can be treated is by administering medication for pain and antibiotics to fight infection, increase the fluid intake, blood transfusion, bed rest and surgery. The following treatments are being used on a small group of people; increase fetal hemoglobin decrease sickle cell stickiness, transplant bone marrow increase the water in sickle cells, and changing the hemoglobin gene (Lessen 75).
Just remember that sickle cell disease affects the body, and not the mind. Most people with sickle cell disease can lead full lives. Not every one with this disease will have all of these problems mention in this research. Many of these people may go years without pain or even being hospitalized. Allen 8 Works Cited About Sickle Cell Trait and Anemia. South Deerfield, MA: Channing, L.
... Sickle Cell Disease are episodes of pain called Sickle Cell Crisis, where the body is in need of oxygen, either from physical activities or a sickle blood cell blocking blood ... discoloring of eyes and skin, low blood cell counts (anemia), and delayed growth. For the cause of the Sickle Cell Disease, there has been many research ...
Bete Co, 1992. Asimov, Isaac. “Sickle Cell Anemia.” Asimov’s Chronology of Science & Discovery. 1 st ed. Harper Collins, 1994.
Searchbank. Francis, Yvette F. (Ed. ).
Sickle Cell Disease. In Collier’s Encyclopedia (pp 97 SI 019356).
Searchbank. Hampton, Maria. “Sickle Cell Disease: Genetic Disease.” Monkeyshines on Health & Science Spring 1989: 29-30.
Searchbank. Lessing, Shelly e MS. , and Elliott Vishinsky, MD. A Parent’s Handbook for: Sickle Cells Disease. Oakland: Children’s. Hospital-Oakland Sickle Cell Center, 1992? Linde, Shirley Matter M.
S. Sickle Cell. New York: Pavilion Publishing Company, 1972. Segal, Marian. “New Hope for Children with Sickle Cell Disease.” FDA Consumer Mar 1989: 14-19. Searchbank..