With its plurality and paradoxes, India never ceases to fascinate. And education in India is only one among various other elements that have captured the attention of the world. While the United Nations is worried about the presence of a large number of illiterates, various other countries are amazed by the quality of some of the human resources that the Indian education system has produced.
The growth of the Indian economy in the recent past and the compulsion to sustain it is also forcing the Indian government to accelerate the process of developing all the branches of the Indian education system. Therefore, it would be very interesting to understand and analyze the various structures of education in India, its present condition and future developments.
India Education Present Condition:
Soon after gaining independence in 1947, making education available to all had become a priority for the government. As discrimination on the basis of caste and gender has been a major impediment in the healthy development of the Indian society, they have been made unlawful by the Indian constitution.
The 86th constitutional amendment has also made elementary education a fundamental right for the children between the age group- 6 to 14. According to the 2001 census, the total literacy rate in India is 65.38%. The female literacy rate is only 54.16%. The gap between rural and urban literacy rate is also very significant in India. This is evident from the fact that only 59.4% of rural population is literate as against 80. 3% urban population according to the 2001 census.
... (Datt, 12).Bibliography:Terhal, Piet, Towards Employment Guarantee in India : Indian and International Experiences in Rural Public Works Programmes, McGraw Hill ... Evidence for Two Indian Villages (Lsms Working Paper, No 100), NY Random House, 2001.Rehman, M. M., Education, work, and women ... hours are paid at higher rate 150% to 200% of the normal wage. The Indian employer/employee relations also touch ...
In order to develop the higher education system, the government had established the University Grants Commission in 1953. The primary role of UGC has been to regulate the standard and spread of higher education in India. There has been a marked progress in the expansion of higher education if we look at the increase of higher educational institutes in India. The higher education system in India comprises of more than17000 colleges, 20 central universities, 217 State Universities, 106 Deemed to Universities and 13 institutes of National importance. This number will soon inflate as the setting up of 30 more central universities, 8 new IIts, 7 IIMs and 5 new Indian Institutes of Science are now proposed.
Education for the Marginalized in India:
As education is the means for bringing socio- economic transformation in a society, various measures are being taken to enhance the access of education to the marginalized sections of the society. One such measure is the introduction of the reservation system in the institutes of higher education. Under the present law, 7.5% seats in the higher educational institutes are reserved for the scheduled tribes, 15% for scheduled castes and 27% for the non creamy layers of the Other Backward Classes (OBCs).
Under the Indian constitution, various minority groups can also set up their own educational institutes. Efforts are also being taken to improve the access to higher education among the women of India by setting up various educational institutes exclusively for them or reserving seats in the already existing institutes. The growing acceptance of distance learning courses and expansion of the open university system is also contributing a lot in the democratization of higher education in India.
Background Of Indian Sports
India – known for its fanaticism for cricket and hockey; started its sports odyssey long back during the great Vedic Era of India. Initially, the development of sports (games) in India gathered momentum after its important role, in maintaining the physical health, was coined by the people of India. Hunting, swimming, boating, archery, horse riding, wrestling and fishing mark the stage of infancy of Indian Sports (Games).
... personality. They make life charming and useful. Games and sports impart the real education for future life. Many good qualities are ... taught by games and sports. Discipline, Mutual Corporation, unity and obedience ... vital of caution which is the impact of games and sports. Games and sports bring about national and international honour to us. ...
Then came the Martial Arts which was also a strong way of self defence apart from a vigorous physical exercise.
In India, sports (games) is seen as ‘a way of realizing the body potential to its fullest’; also known as “Dehvada” in ancient India. The philosophical foundation of the sports (games) in India lies in the history of India dating back to Vedic Era in which the Atharva Veda said: ,” Duty is in my right hand and the fruits of victory in my left”. These words in the traditional mantra hold the same spirit as that of the Olympic oath that implies: “…….For the Honour of my Country and the Glory of Sport.” The history of India also beckons of an interesting link between Greece (The Motherland of Sports in the world) and India which dates back to 975 B.C. when both the nations pioneered in the sports (games) like chariot racing and wrestling.
The golden history of sports in India is also evident in the immortal Indian epics like Ramayana, Mahabharata etc. Whereas during the period of Ramayana; hunting, archery, horse riding, swimming were the royal games; Mahabharata made a mark in the sports like dicing, gymnastics, wrestling, chess (Shatranj) and gulli danda. Puranas mention about the threatening game of rope fighting. The archeological excavations of Harappa and Mohanjodaro along with the religious manuscripts like Puranas and Vedas are the standing testimonials of this glorious history of Indian sports.
The historians believe that many sports (games) like hockey, archery, wrestling and chess originated in India, which are synonymous to strength and speed nowadays. In the late Vedic Era, besides sports; the Yoga and Meditation, the inevitable parts of the toughest “Yogashastra” made India, acquire the seat of spiritualism, all over the world. This dignified discipline of Indian Sports finds its place in Bhagwat Gita too.
Today sports in India have achieved a zenith in terms of popularity and as a career option. Olympics, Commonwealth Games, Asian Games, SAF Games, Wimbledon and many other world sports tournaments see Indians as one of the most leading sports participants in the world. From Tendulkar, Paes, Bhupathi, Anand, Geet Sethi, Karthikeyan, Sania Mirza to Saina Nehwal lead the present sports generation of India. Cricket, Hockey, Football, Weightlifting, Snooker, Kabaddi, Kho Kho and Archery are the sports of India that have been deep seated into an Indian psyche, whether of a sports person or a sports lover. Not only physical strength, power and satisfaction but also a strong alternative of recreation; sports in India have paved a long way towards the road of success and have made themselves a hallmark in the world of sports.
... between physical education and sport. Physical education is focused on the child’s holistic development, stressing personal and social development, physical ... physical education curriculum which emphasis movement as a form of expression can be integrated with a creative writing exercise where students ... have a large exposure of activities such as games, dance and gymnastics. They should explore and ...
Objectives of physical education in Sports
Physical education is part of most of the school and college curricula. Some of the important objectives of physical education include, the development of one’s motor and social abilities, promoting the importance of physical fitness and encouraging the budding talents. Take a look at some of the main objectives of physical education.
Physical education is an important part of every school curriculum and a class every pupil awaits. Physical education is that segment of the daily timetable that every student eagerly waits to attend, as it is the only official time when the students can be on the grounds, engaged in their favorite sports. One of the main objectives of physical education is to bring in this element of joy to the academic orientation of schools.
Physical education aims at dedicating a daily time for some physical activity for the students. The physical training class, as it is also called, involves sports, games, exercise and most importantly, a break from the sedentary learning indoors.
One of the other important objectives of physical education is to instill in the students the values and skills of maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Daily physical activity promotes an awareness of health and well being among students. It boosts them to engage in physical activities on a daily basis. It promotes them to lead a healthy life in adulthood.
Physical education classes constitute programs to promote physical fitness in students, train them in sports, help them understand rules and strategies in playing and teach them to work as a team. A very vital factor in physical education is to develop interpersonal skills in children. Sports aim at making them team players, developing a sportsman spirit in them and enhancing their competitive spirit. Sports that form a part of physical education classes help the students invest time in fruitful and competitive activities.
... Having an intended or expected effect. Bibliography Caribbean Examinations Council: Physical Education and Sports Syllabus, the Garrison, Barbados, 2005. Fivb. org/ score ... their respective house colours Only 3rd to 6th form students are allowed to play TEAM MEMBERS Team Captain ... . All in all, this competition brought together us students through teamwork and cooperation. Obstacles were cleared out of ...
One of the other important objectives of physical education is to inculcate in the minds of the students, the importance of personal hygiene and cleanliness. Physical education classes aim at teaching the students, the habits of personal cleanliness and the importance of the maintenance of personal hygiene in life. Physical education classes also impart sex-education to the students, help them clarify their doubts and find answers to all the questions that occur to their minds.
The sports, which are a part of the physical education class, help in developing motor skills in children. The ability to hold a racket or a bat, the ability to catch a ball and the ability to swing a bat are some examples of the motor abilities that can develop with the help of sports. The physical activity that is involved in physical education helps the students in bringing discipline to body posture and body movements. Hitting a ball with a bat or a shuttle with a racket as also aiming a ball for a goal or catching it to get the opponent team out, are some of the commonly observed actions in sports and are extremely beneficial in improving hand-eye coordination.
The very important objective of physical education is to encourage the upcoming sportsmen and women of the crowd. Physical education gives the budding sports people a platform to exhibit their talents. Those with a flair for sports get an opportunity to display their talent. Their small step on the school playground can eventually turn into a huge leap in the field of sports.
Moreover, sports refresh the students’ minds. Physical education class becomes enjoyable for the kids while proving helpful for their overall growth and development. Physical education is indeed one of the most fruitful activities of a school schedule.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRIZES IN U.S & INDIA FOR GETTING A MEDALS
... . The Netaji Subhas National Institute of Sports, Patiala and Lakshmibai National College of Physical Education, Thiruvananthapuram act as the academic wings ... Indians have held important positions in the international sports bodies. Presently, India’s Jagmohan Dalmia is the president of the ... is not true of late. India has won 8 gold, 1 silver and 2 bronze medals in the hockey competition of ...
All U.S. athletes can also earn a “medal bonus” from the U.S. Olympic committee for each medal won. The U.S. pays American medal winners $25,000 for gold, $15,000 for silver, and $10,000 for bronze medals. Some countries, though not all, pay athletes similar medal bonuses. The highest I found is Russia. This year Russia raised Olympic medal awards to $100,000 for gold, $60,000 for silver, and $40,000 for bronze………..
Here’s a basic breakdown of what each US Olympic Athlete gets for the 2008 Beijing Olympics :
Competition & Camp Expenses (airline – United VIK, room/board &
OTC Resident Program
Elite Athlete Health Insurance (EAHI)
This is only what the country is giving athletes. Monthly stipends range from $250-2000 per month, so I’m sure a lot of athletes have jobs while they’re training. And there’s a lot more money to be made with endorsement deals and bonuses too. Speedo is awarding a $1 million bonus to Michael Phelps if he ties Mark Spitz’s 1972 gold medal record of seven gold medals in a single Olympics (from CNBC), and 21 year old Usain Bolt from Jamaica received a $1.8 million bonus from his sponsor Digicel for breaking the 100 meter race world record back in May. I know not everybody is getting rich, but just like any other sport, it’s interesting to see who is.
what? our athletes are not supposed to be paid, the prestige of being the best in that event is supposed to be enough!
k i just looked it up. some countries will offer cash as an incentive but it is not through the olympic committee and it’s not all countries…………..
no one gets paid for getting a medal… if you get a medal, it just opens job opportunities for you and depending on if you got the gold, you could get paid a lot of money to perform for something. getting a medal it just knowing you did a good job!
Scope of Education & Sports
In education sector – Management in all human and business organization movement is the act of getting people together to achieve desired targets and objectives. Management courses contain staffing, leading, planning, organizing or directing, and controlling an organization or effort for the purpose of accomplishing an aim. management education in India is well developed as last few years and quite a good number of management institute have come up for catering to the rising demands of different undergraduate and postgraduate management courses in India. The demand of management education has bigger in India also due to the healthy economic growth for over a decade. There are so many excellent and reputed MBA Colleges in India and Singhania University is one of them. If you want to get Management positions then MBA Degree is gate pass for you because MBA syllabus gives you knowledge that you need in order to a victorious Managers. MBA degree is primary choice of huge number of students after completing there graduation because it opens many doors for good career prospects and because of higher demands of MBA graduates in Corporate World.
... Other example could be the Olympic held in India. Athletes and all the sports players and sport lovers came from all around ... in European Tourism Management Bournemouth University (UK). Vimala Ko Sasi (2005), Sports Tourism In India, Journal of Sport Tourism, 10(2 ... Quality, Satisfaction, and Intent to Return in Event Sport Tourism, Journal of Sport Management, 22, pp. 587-602 Leonie Lockstone and ...
Many of top university in India offers the bba and mba degree courses. It is matter of great stimulation to get MBA degree from top MBA College because by going top MBA College you can get a edge over others by joining these Top MBA Colleges in India.. With the rapid growth of popularity of MBA in India as one of the best business qualification, there are countless of MBA Colleges available in India for students. In the field of MBA Pune city is recognized as the oxford of the east. There are the most excellent colleges for top graded courses like medical, foreign languages, engineering, travel and tourism, M.B.A. colleges etc. Every year many scholars rush to the city to acquire their desired career. At present time career in management education is a highest demand because it is business oriented and there is huge scope for these professionals.
BBA is another career oriented degree. If you’re searching for a challenging and excitement career, a bachelor’s degree in Business Administration may be a grand way to get started. A BBA syllabus covers different areas of study which apply to the corporate world. Corporations and other organizations are always preferred for individuals who can apply successful decision making skills, analyze data, and hold executives in achieving business success. A bachelor’s of business administration degree helps trained students in these areas and more by teaching accounting, human resources, economics, business law, information systems, business ethics and other subjects. You can expect to typically work in groups and teams.
Singhania university rajasthan presents several disciplines in which professional courses are offered such as Computer Science, Academic Courses, Law Courses, Business Management, MBA, Teaching, Medical & Pharmacy, Accounts & Finance, Event Management Courses, Engineering, Technical, Media & Entertainment Language Courses, PhD and Research, Travel & Tourism Management etc. Singhania University offer you latest management program with excellent exposure in exchange ideas with overseas students and faculties. The basic aim of this Rajasthan top university is offer latest and diverse management degree courses that make student a ideal to compete with business world.
Scope In Sports – If cricket players gets lots money because its one of the top most game of India but if we look at other games like Athletes & commonwealth games, people doesn’t get so much of opportunities or they do not get good amount of money compare to cricket players. Here we will see that what type of jobs our athletes get after winning medals.
Historically, the government offered little help, and corporations were reluctant to sponsor those who competed in obscure sports. This reality led many athletes to a surprising destination: jobs with the Indian railway.
“The railway, police and military are the big three groups that provide some sort of support system and security for an athlete,” said Hakimuddin S. Habibulla, a co-founder of GoSports, a sports management and consultancy company based in Bangalore. “If you are part of one of these public-sector companies, there is the opportunity of getting promotions and getting a basic bonus. But if you’re not part of any of these institutions, it’s much more difficult.”
Life is easier on the inside because the railway and other departments of India’s sprawling bureaucracy compete for national championships in dozens of sports. Much like American college teams, they recruit to find the best athletes to fill jobs set aside for athletes.
Shiva Keshavan, a three-time Olympian who will compete in luge at the Vancouver Games beginning Friday, was never able to pursue his sport full time. After the 2006 Turin Games, where he finished 25th, he ran out of money and did not compete for nearly two years.
“I applied to public companies for this kind of honorary job, but winter sports are still far behind,” Keshavan said. “Sometimes they say they don’t even recognize winter sports.”
At the railway, athletes often become ticket collectors because they can work day or night, affording them time to train. It also allows them to travel for free around the country. They receive light workloads, shorter hours and perks like coaching and training facilities. But athletic performance is closely monitored; if someone does not measure up, a part-time desk job can quickly become full time.
The work can be unglamorous. Suma Shirur, an Olympic shooter from Mumbai who was recruited for the railway’s team, was given a basic data-entry position.
“It wasn’t easy to go to the office and stay there for two hours because it was so mundane,” said Shirur, who graduated from college with a degree in chemistry. “But I always thought, O.K., this is for my shooting. And I had my goals, so I always had it in mind that I’m only here for my paycheck.”
The salary was helpful for Shirur, who had a supportive family to fall back on, but for others it is essential.
“Most athletes come from lower, middle-class families,” said G. S. Mander, a vice president of the Indian Olympic Association. “A job is very important, and the railway is the largest employer of athletes.”
A steady paycheck is not their only incentive. Successful Indian athletes rarely return home to endorsement deals. Instead, for medals won and records broken at international competitions, they are rewarded with bonuses and promotions.
Shirur has maneuvered her way up the hierarchy from clerk to chief office superintendent. And when Sushil Kumar returned from the 2008 Beijing Games with a bronze medal in wrestling, he received a $50,000 bonus from the railway.
But the Winter Olympic sports remain a tougher sell even to the absorptive Indian bureaucracy.
After becoming the youngest luge participant ever as a 16-year-old at the 1998 Nagano Games in Japan, Keshavan returned home to the Himalayas and went to work waiting tables. When his sled broke down, he repaired it. If he was injured in a competition, opposing teams would let him consult their trainers.
But in 2008, after pitching himself to companies home and abroad, Swiss Air offered to cover Keshavan’s travel expenses. Limca, a soft drink company, also chipped in.
Keshavan was able to train and compete for a full season, and it paid off in a bronze medal at the Asian Championships. Last year, the Ministry of Sport provided $20,000 to finance his training and hired a full-time coach.
But Keshavan still works in the off-season, he said, because he cannot make a living competing in luge. He would like to continue after the Vancouver Games and take another shot as a full-time athlete to see if he can bring home an Olympic medal.
India’s appetite for Olympic success — summer and winter — is growing, as is the country’s commitment. When the steel magnate Lakshmi Mittal took his family to the 2004 Summer Games in Athens, they sought Indian athletes to cheer. Distressed by the small number, he donated $10 million to establish the Mittal Champions Trust to kick-start Olympic progress by providing top-notch facilities and coaching.
“Initially, many years ago, India lacked the funds and we couldn’t get the exposure that we needed,” said Manisha Malhotra, who runs the trust’s day-to-day operations. “But over the years that has changed.”
In 2008, Abhinav Bindra captured India’s first individual Olympic gold medal, in the 10-meter air rifle event. The victory stoked a sense of national pride, raised expectations and got the government’s attention.
“Government support improved because in Beijing, we won medals,” Mander said. “There’s been much done in terms of training and hiring support staff in the last two or three years.”
Financial incentives are also on the rise. Bindra received an estimated $500,000 from a dozen different state and national government bodies, and a free lifetime railway pass.
Although India has begun rewarding champions, fame and fortune have not trickled down to the world-class athletes who end up as Olympic also-rans, like Shirur.
She was proud of her performance in the women’s air rifle event at the Athens Games.
“I finished eighth, and I was happy just to be in the finals, but in India it didn’t make a difference,” said Shirur, who spent $10,000 to compete. “Unfortunately in India, only a medal matters — nothing else.”
Despite India’s recent Olympic improvement, corporate sponsors still look to cricket for athlete endorsements.
“India in many ways is just coming out of the dark ages when it comes to sports,” Habibulla of GoSports said. “It’s only now that India’s economy has begun looking at sports as an investment.”
That means institutions like the railway will continue to be a significant contributor to the development of athletes, Mander said.
“If you get medals, the government gives you an award, but the most important thing is the job,” he said. “It gives security, it gives flexibility. You’re looked after by the government and the organization.”
Increased levels of physical activity are associated with improved health. However, the determinants of an active lifestyle are unknown. Participation in school sports and physical education during childhood and adolescence are frequently mentioned as factors likely to promote more active lifestyles in adulthood. If this is true, public policy should more vigorously promote broad participation in school sports and physical education. However, review of the available literature reveals only six papers that address this issue directly, and all six have important methodological limitations. The study that provides the strongest support provides information only on sports participation during college, an age at which behavior patterns may already be firmly established. Therefore, more research in this area is needed. Future studies must consider definitions, confounding variables, recall bias, selection bias, content, and quality of school sports and physical education programs.
CORRUPTION IN ATHLETES
Agree to almost 100%. Being a sports fan regardless of which game, I am very concerned about the prevailing sports administration in our country. The so called mentors and well wishers from politics to sports administration is the curse to Indian sports world.
A country second to China in population has nothing to be proud on the field of sports other than the cricket where only 9 official countries are playing. We dropped to 132 in FIFA football ranking from 96 within last 14 years. What a growth! In our national game hockey, we are now at 8th rank when there are about 15 strong countries out of total ranked 32! In 108 years of Olympic history we have 9 medals out of that 8 goes for men’s hockey and the latest one for Individual medal to Abhinav Bindra! Bow our heads!!!
Last 14 years we have one politician stuck to the office of the Indian Olympic committee chairman! If he can’t bring improvements, naturally why does he get elected without opposition? The same great Mr.Kalmadi has a track record of insulting the 2008 Olympic medal winners for not getting a chair near to the Vice president during felicitation ceremony! He is an MP too. He is a member of two very important parliament committees for defense! He has duties as Presidents of Asian Athletics Federation and Indian Athletic Federation too!!! Shame on us Indians that we can’t find someone who can better find more time for each of these roles and contribute better. Do this 66 year old veteran politician is the only person on India to perform all the duties? Now we know why we have a big team always flying to the Olympics and return with one or two Bronze medals in some Individual items. Look at his biography, never he had been to any of the sports event in his life, am not sure if he had some sort of street fight when he was a school boy so that he can be a president of Indian wrestling federation also.
Same is the case of all state sports administration bodies. Only the wholly corrupted Lalit Modi could work behind construction and modification of some stadiums in the country but they go for cricket only. We do not have quality stadiums or training facilities. Whatever we have for tennis, badminton and shooting are founded and funded by individuals or some corporate business firms, not by any sports association or government! Just have a look at the current artificial grass courts of Kolkata where the national football event Santhosh Trophy is held. Pity on our footballers.
The sports administration should be done by sports men or by those who had a past in sports. They better know what exactly the field needed. Why don’t these politicians becoming coaches? Similarly they don’t do the administration also. They never got some training to rule but they themselves assumes they are the best for that.
Politicians made the hockey players to strike for a salary hike and athletes to come to media with concerns over their trip expenses and training facilities. Things will change only if the ministry of sports takes a bold move towards bringing some special bills restricting the politicians to a certain extent and forming a non-political third party dedicated body to undertake overall administration of all sports associations in India and all the states as well.
I firmly believe that presence of politicians is a very big curse for Indian sports. It is a shame that a country of 120 crore people cannot produce even a handful of world class sports person. The deep rooted corruption in politics has led to this situation in Indian Sports arena.
Sample this, Government of India gives 1000 crores to Sports Ministry for upliftment of sports facilities in the country. The ministry will ask for the feedback from different sports federation about the condition of the infrastructure in that particular sport, the people sitting and leading any sports federation are politicians, they will hold meetings in five star hotels, spend lakhs and see their interest before giving their feedback. The amount will keep lying with the ministry for months and then they will distribute it to the federations. The amount will depend on how powerful the administartor is there in that federation and obviously he is a politician.
Then starts the real game of spending the money received from the Government. The contracts are given to the people close to these politicians with a huge cut. Instead of spending the remaining amount on sports persons or on building the infrastructure large chunk is spent by the officilas in the name of meetings, abroad visits etc. The situation of the sport and the sports person remains the same. No one is interested in the country or the country’s sports. Every one is filling his or her bank accounts.
I doubt even ten percent of the amount is being spent on sports. The country though has a very good system of organizing sports activities right from the school level to nationals. However the treatment that these sports person receives at the hand of these handful people is very severe. They stay in five stars and the sports persons are allowed to stay in dormatories or some school or college buildings during any sports event.
Last year the Indian International female Hockey players were seen struggling in the stinking dormitories and were asked to stay in a single room while preparing for a major International event. This is a situation in the International level. Just imagine about the players who play national events. In another incident P T Usha was also asked to stay in a room in a stadium. This is the respect we give to people who have brought some laurels to the country on their own.
Right from top to bottom there is no one who can take some stern steps and improve the sports facilities in the country. The politicians has taken over the sports to such an extent that it looks impossible to break this wall as of now.
Abhinav Bindra, the only sports person who won Gold in an Olympic event categorically told that he did not get any support from the government. Since he is a son of a Millionare he could manage to get his equipments and training on his own.
India has a huge bench of talented people. We only need to nurture them and provide them with the facilities and social security, nothing more and we can see India topping the charts in all the events. The only hinderance is the involvement of politicians. They strictly need to be kept out of any sports if we really want India to do something in sports.
Goverment need to frame a new policy wherein only sports person of a repute can be allowed to lead any federation and look after the sports. The money should be only spent for providing quality coaching to the sports persons. The people in sports be given some kind of social security so that they can concentrate hard and not worry about making both ends meet.
Always remember one thing,
“Where there is a will , there is a way”