Appropriate Technology and Criteria for its Assignment
• The term Appropriate Technology does not pertain solely to developing countries.
• National and local governments as well as private and community groups of developed and developing countries continuously strive to introduce forms of technology that are efficient and fit within fiscal limitations.
• The depth of need and the importance of choosing the most appropriate technology are magnified, however, in developing countries where the margin of error is narrow due to very limited resources.
• Appropriate technology can be determined by examining the impacts of technology on basic social institution like family, politics, economics, education and religion.
Family and modern technologies
• Industrialization and the technology of contraception appear to threaten the continued existence of family.
• Industrialization breaks down the family by separating work from residence and by encouraging economic diversification within the family.
• Separation of work from the residence creates number of complication for traditional families.
• The acquisition of new skill for new employment often requires readjustment of fathers identity as a worker and a provider.
• These create the breakdown of traditional families.
• The contraceptives increase the number of divorces in society.
• Despite the technology strengthen the relationship between the family members.
The Essay on Suggest reasons for trends in the use of technology in the developing world such as those shown
From looking at figure 5 a varity of trends can be shown. When focusing on internet users a very slow rate of growth can be shown, this may be due to the small amount of countries that are able to get access to the World Wide Web due to connections. Over a 10 year period from 1998 to 2008 there can be seen a major rise in the use of the internet. As the internet is a relatively new device it is ...
Political order and technological changes
• Politics is the means by which human develop social organization.
• Technology directly or indirectly related to political activity.
• Technology aids in periodic reorganization of political forces
• Technology occasionally becomes political asset.
• Technology influences directly or indirectly to politics.
• Development of technologies in the society brings sustainable leadership.
• Technology helps to organize different states.
• Computers have been used for consolidation of power, information and data rather than for redistribution of it.
• They are not used for decision making for longer period.
• Technology helps to see news programs, bulletins which show the jobs done by politicians.
• But it is rather becoming the place of publicity for leaders.
Education for a technological society
• Technologies increases in the part of education from classical curriculum to religious curriculum to modern managerial model.
• But this education rises a question concerning whether the education should focus on carrier or mankind.
• Book, pen, printing machines, papers, compass, etc. developed with the increasing of technology.
• Visual and audio class room and virtual classroom are also developed in the field of education due to technologies.
• Advanced education are replacing the traditional teachers and schools.
Modern technology and economic system
• Economic changes were fostered by technology.
• Productive power increase due to technology.
• Technology changes the nature the society consumes.
• Use of high speed computers and improved telecommunication system helps banks and corporation.
• Taxation and planning on economic sectors were helped by technology.
• Technology also increases use of Roberts and machine in industry.
Consequently, the need to develop technologies that are appropriate is of exponential importance for citizens of different countries. The following criteria have been developed by specialists in the field of appropriate technology to judge or attempt to judge beforehand whether a particular technology has a potential of being successful in a different country.
Analyse the effects of education on the developing countries Development is one of the themes of modern society and there are a variety of elements influencing the development. Many countries experience declares that education gradually play a more and more vital role in development. Education policies which depend on the specific national conditions can lead to a different result. Overall, ...
Criteria to Judge the Appropriateness of Technology
Systems-Independence relates to the ability of the technological device to stand alone, to do the job with few or no other supporting facilities or devices to aid in its function (Jequier, 1979; Date, 1984; Ellis & Hanson, 1989).
The stand-alone criterion refers mainly to the cost of the technology in question. The cost of any new technology is always a barrier at some point; but if this cost is compounded because of the need for supporting devices, then the technology, no matter how desirable may be unattainable for the people who need it the most. An example of the failure to meet the stand-alone criterion can be seen in the methane gas plant experiment. In order for a gas plant to operate, the user must have at least 2-3 cows to provide the raw material, an easy supply of water, sufficient pasture to graze the cows, and an area to dispose of the fermented dung (Jequier, 1979).
All of these supporting elements are major barriers for the majority of poor people living in developing countries. Hence an evaluation of the technology must include not merely the technological device in question but supporting materials and equipment necessary for its full operation. According to the criterion, technological advances should be selected only if the supporting facilities and devices are already in place, or if only moderate changes and improvements of existing systems are required for implementation.
2. Image of Modernity
When the appropriate technology is designed for a developing country, there is a special criteria that must be recognized: an Image of Modernity. The citizens of many developing countries just as citizens of many industrialized countries want to perceive themselves as modern and progressive, at least within their context. There is an innate desire within most of humankind to feel important and be perceived as worthwhile. It follows, therefore, that an image of being modern is important to the success of any technology. People must believe that a technological device brings with it a degree of sophistication which can elevate the user’s social status as well as meet a basic human need. An example of this phenomenon is the development of an inexpensive high protein instant food to be sold throughout Latin America. In several countries this new cereal met with success, but in one country it was a complete failure. After a careful investigation concerning the cause of the failure it was found that it was perceived as a poor peoples food. It was not an image that the people wanted to be connected with, even though they could benefit from this food (Jequier, 1979).
The major achievements of technology have left man spell-bound and every part of the world today is enjoying the comforts provided by technology. Thanks to technology, all the countries are interlinked and we are now living in a global village. Modern technology has greatly improved people's lives through different fields such as medicine, work, education, industry as well as warfare. However, we ...
All people have dignity and must believe that their dignity will remain intact even if they are poor or living in an underdeveloped area. Therefore, the designers of appropriate technology must incorporate an image of modernity into whatever device they develop if it is going to meet with acceptance by the people who can benefit from it the most.
3. Individual Technology vs. Collective Technology
This criteria is related to the societal/cultural standards in which the technology will be operating. Some cultures advocate a strong commitment to the group process where the good of the whole is held in higher esteem than individual accomplishments. Other cultures place a high priority on individual responsibility and accomplishment. These factors should be considered in detail when designing appropriate technology because they will contribute to the success or failure of any given device or strategy. If a given cultural group has a strong allegiance to the community or region then the technology may be more system dependent, where the overall group could take a greater responsibility for the operation of a larger system. Because of the group approach, the technological device(s) could be more sophisticated which in turn could provide a greater advance in development for a larger group of people. In another culture there may not be a collective commitment to the overall development of the society. In a society that is geared around the individual or single family unit the technological developments will need to be more system independent where devices are designed so that an individual can operate and afford the technology. A prime example of this approach is the use of the photoelectric solar panel to provide domestic electricity. Use of the photoelectric cell would appeal to a patriarchal or family oriented society. Therefore, based on this criteria, the appropriate technology design must take into consideration the culture in which the technology will be used in order to provide the best type of technology for that society.
The United Nations Asian and Pacific Centre for Agricultural Engineering and Machinery (APCAEM) aims at promoting sustainable agriculture development for the eradication of poverty by guaranteeing environmental sustainability. Such agro-based environment-friendly technology is termed as Green Technology (GT). Literatures show GT encompasses a continuously evolving group of methods or materials, ...
4. Cost of Technology
The cost of appropriate technology is an extremely important factor to the people who need it the most. Ghosh (1984) indicates that the majority of appropriate technologies, although developed with cost as a central consideration, are still too expensive for most people in developing countries. In order for the appropriate technology to be helpful in meeting basic needs, the cost of the device must be reduced significantly for the people in the developing regions to afford the expense. Cost is a major obstacle to overcome in the design and construction of appropriate technologies for developing countries. One of the major difficulties in reducing the cost of appropriate technology is that many devices are developed for a one-of-a-kind use within a specific location under specific social/cultural limitations (Jequier, 1979).
The advantages of mass producing a product in order to lower the cost are severely restricted because of these limitations. Nevertheless, the reduction of costs must be considered a high priority when designing technological devices for developing countries.
5. Risk Factor
The development of any new product carries with it a given degree of success and failure. Because of the nature of the device and the location in which it will be implemented the risk factor for the success of appropriate technologies in developing countries is of major concern and should be considered an important criteria for development. There are two types of risk to be considered: (1) internal and (2) external (Jequier, 1979).
The cost of health care in the United States has increased almost exponentially during the last few years. What is fueling these cost increases? There are many factors driving up the cost of health care in the United States. However, experts in health care and health policy point to the development and diffusion of medical technology as the main cause for this increase. But before entering a ...
Internal risks relate to the way in which the technology will fit the local production system (e.g., will it work under local conditions, is it adaptive).
External risks relate to the needed supportive system(s) that may be required to keep the technology functioning properly (e.g., to what degree is the technology system dependent and system independent).
These risks must be considered fully before and during the development of the technological device in order to contribute to its success. Although the risk factor must be taken into consideration when developing appropriate technology it would be economically and politically unhealthy to try to remove all risks. Some risks are healthy to the growth and development of locally implemented appropriate technology. The challenge to the local economic and production system is essential for the technology to take root and gain ownership at local level. Therefore, the risk to the success of appropriate technology must be considered in detail but not necessarily be totally removed.
6. Evolutionary Capacity of Technology
The ability of the appropriate technology to continue to develop and expand beyond its originally intended function is an important criteria and one that should be incorporated into the development of the device as much as possible. If the appropriate device is static (i.e., performs one function and cannot be altered) then although it may provide for a basic need at the present time it will be a relatively short lived solution to a much larger problem. Wherever and whenever possible it is preferred that the appropriate technology allow for (i.e., have design characteristics) a continuation of development. That is, to have the capability to expand and be reconfigured to accomplish a higher volume of work and/or more sophisticated production processes. This may allow the device to begin to compete at the regional, national, and international levels which must be the ultimate goal of any developing country. Without this capability the technological device has simply elevated the owners/users to a new level of poverty.
Customer Identification and Risk Management System Banking- a word which means to bank upon something for welfare and to progress in life. In banking if customers depend upon a bank to fulfill their financial needs, a bank has also to bank upon them for deploying its funds properly for growth. It means it is two way traffic. A bank is taken as big support to everyone doing a financial activity, ...
7. Single-Purpose and Multi-Purpose Technology
Can the technology be used in more than one application? Because of the levels of poverty of many people in developing countries it is often thought advisable to develop appropriate technology that provides for a variety of applications (e.g., the tiller that tills the earth, powers a water pump and rice dryer, and can be used as a transportation source).
This is different from a technology that can potentially expand (i.e., Criteria #6).
This technological device has specific multiple purposes that may be very beneficial to the individual of a developing country who could not afford to purchase individual pieces of equipment. In addition, the economical advantages of this approach also decreases the technical knowledge and skills that are needed to keep the device functioning. Therefore, whenever possible, appropriate technology should be developed to accomplish a variety of applications.
The ideal device for appropriate technology probably does not exist in reality. However, they do speak to the major aspects of appropriate technology as it applies to developing countries. The best approach to designing appropriate technology is balancing the criteria with the specific human needs.