Since 1788, the primary basis of Australian culture has been Anglo-Celtic Western culture. Distinctive Australian cultural features have also arisen from the country’s natural environment and indigenous cultures. Since the middle of the 20th century, Australian culture has been strongly influenced by American popular culture, particularly through television and cinema. Other influences are from neighboring Asian countries, and through large-scale immigration from non-English speaking countries.
Australian Visual Arts
Australian visual arts are thought to have begun with the cave and bark paintings of its indigenous people. The traditions of indigenous Australians are largely transmitted orally and the telling of the stories of the Dreamtime. From the time of European settlement, a theme in Australian art has been the Australian landscape, seen for example in the works of Albert Namatjira, Arthur Streeton and others associated with the Heidelberg School, and Arthur Boyd. The country’s landscape remains sources of inspiration for Australian artists; it has been depicted in acclaimed works by artists such as Sidney Nolan, Grace Cossington Smith, Fred Williams, Sydney Long, and Clifton Pugh. Australian artists influenced by the modern American and European art include cubist Grace Crowley, surrealist James Gleeson, abstract expressionist Brett Whitely, and pop artist Martin Sharp. The National Gallery of Australia and the various state galleries maintain Australian and overseas collections, from early in the 20th century until the present.
... because a value has been placed on the art. Since the Australian Aboriginal culture is depicted in all traditional paintings they are ... population of Papunya intensified the interaction, but under the influence of artists like Uta Uta, the painting group was able to ... the mythical Tingari ancestors traveling across vast stretches of country as they create sites and institute rituals. Yumari is ...
There is a symphony orchestra in each of the states’ capital cities, and a national opera company, Opera Australia, which became prominent through the singer Joan Sutherland. Nellie Melba was her famous predecessor. Ballet and dance are represented by The National Ballet and various state dance companies. Each state has a publicly funded theatre company.
Australian Cinema Industry
The Australian cinema industry began with the 1906 release of The Story of the Kelly Gang, which is regarded as being the world’s first feature-length film. The New Wave of Australian cinema in the 1970s brought provocative and successful films, some exploring the nation’s colonial past, such as Picnic at Hanging Rock and Breaker Morant. Later hits included Mad Max and Gallipoli. More recent successes included Shine, Rabbit-Proof Fence, and Happy Feet. Australia’s diverse landscapes and cities have served as primary location s for many other films such as The Matrix, Peter Pan, Superman Returns and Finding Nemo. Recent well-known Australian actors include Judith Anderson, Errol Flynn, Nicole Kidman, Hugh Jackman, Heath Ledger, Geoffrey Rush, Toni Collette, Naomi Watts, and current joint director of the Sydney Theatre Company-Cate Blanchett.
Australian literature has also been influenced by the landscape; the works of writers such as Banjo Paterson, Henry Lawson and Dorothea Mackellar captured the experience of the Australian bush. The character of colonial Australia, as represented in early literature, is popular with modern Australians. In 1973, Patrick white was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature, the only Australian to have achieved this. Colleen McCullough, Thomas Keneally, David Williamson and David Malouf are also renowned writers.
Australian Food Traditions
Australian food traditions have been shaped by those who have settled in Australia. Throughout the majority of Australian history, Australian cuisine was based on traditional British food, brought to the country by the first British settlers. Later in the 19th and especially 20th century, food began to reflect the influences of Mediterranean and Asian cultures, introduced by many immigrants who arrived in Australia during this period. There are a few foods which can be considered uniquely such as Macadamia nuts and kangaroo meat. Local beers and wines are popular and internationally renowned. Desserts well known for their Australian origins include Pavlova, lamingtons and Tim Tams.
The English language functioning as a system of racism and colonization in a “Post”-Colonial America. James Baldwin’s If Black English Isn’t Language, Then Tell Me, What Is asserts the English language as a contemporary system of racism and marginalization. The construction of Western language reflects the same alienating principles which validate the Western ideology of race, executing the ...
Australians are passionate about sport and it forms a major part of the country’s culture, particularly in terms of spectating, but also in terms of participation. Cricket is popular in the summer and football codes are popular in the winter. Approximately 24% Australians over the age of 15 regularly participate in organized sporting activities in Australia. Australia has strong international teams in cricket, soccer / football, field hockey, netball, rugby league, rugby union, and performs well in cycling, rowing, and swimming. Some of Australia’s most successful sportspersons are swimmers Dawn Fraser, Murray Rose, and Ian Thorpe, sprinter Betty Cuthbert, tennis players Rod Laver and Margaret Court, and cricketer Donald Bradman. Nationally, other popular sports include Australian Rules football, horse racing, surfing, football (soccer), and motor racing. Australia has participated in every summer Olympic Games of the modern era, and every Commonwealth Games. Australia hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne and the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, and has ranked among the top six medal-takers since 2000. Australia has also hosted the 1938, 1962, 1982, and 2006 Commonwealth Games. Other major international events held in Australia include the Grand Slam Australian Open tennis tournament, international cricket matches, and the Formula One Australian Grand Prix. The highest-rating television programs include sports coverage such as the summer Olympic Games, State of Origin, and the grand finals of the National Rugby League and Australian Football League.
English is the national language. Australian English is a major variety of the language. It has a unique accent and a small number of peculiar terms, some of which have found their way into other varieties of English. Australian English has less internal dialectal variation than British or American English. Grammar and spelling are largely based on those of British English. According to the 2001 census, English is the only language spoken in the home for around 80% of the population. The next most common languages spoken at home are Chinese (2.1%), Italian (1.9%), and Greek (1.4%).
English is an international language spoken all over the world that was originally borrowed from the world. If English is used as a global language, there might be some advantages related to communication and business. However, there are also several disadvantages in terms of losing mother tongue and taking time and money. The advantages outweigh the disadvantages, so English should be made the ...
A considerable proportion of first- and second-generation migrants are bilingual. It is believed that there were between 200 and 300 Indigenous Australian languages at the time of first European contact. Only about 70 of these languages have survived, and many are only spoken by older people; only 18 Indigenous languages are still spoken by all age groups. An indigenous language remains the main language for about 50,000 (0.25%) people. Australia has a sign language known as Auslan, which is the main language of about 6,500 deaf people.
Australia has no state religion. In the 2006 census, 64% of Australians listed themselves as Christian, including 26% as Roman Catholic and 19% as Anglican. “No religion” (which includes humanism, atheism, agnosticism, and rationalism) accounted for 19%. The second largest religion in Australia is Buddhism (2.1%), followed by Islam (1.7%), Hinduism (0.8%) and Judaism (0.5%).
Overall less than 6% of Australians identify with non-Christian religions. Weekly attendance at church services in 2004 was about 1.5 million: about 7.5% of the population and religion does not play a central role in the lives of a large portion of the population.
“Mateship”, or loyal fraternity, has been a central tenet of survival in the harsh landscape. Mateship can be defined as the code of conduct, particularly between men, although more recently also between men and women, stressing equality and friendship. Mateship is seen as an important element of the qualities that the Australian Defence Force values in its troops. The glorification of Australia’s early soldiers in the Boer War and World War I reinforces these values.
International education is of major significance to Australia. The number of oversees students enrolled in Australian higher education institutions rose from 24,998 to 210,397 between 1990 and 2003. Most of the students come from countries where English is learnt as a foreign language. It is noted that in Australia, education is the third largest export service after tourism and transport, ...
Australians and New Zealanders have a rivalry, especially in certain sports such as rugby union. The rivalry is often compared to brothers in the same family competing against each other. During the First World War the Australian and New Zealand soldiers joined forces to become the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZACs).
The biggest sporting rivalry exists between Australia and England. Australians often perceive New Zealanders as “little brothers” because of their smaller population and economy. The sporting paddock has always been a place where Australians could shine even against far bigger countries, often with great success.
A “fair go”:
The belief in a “fair go” is a key part of Australian culture and Australian society. This can be seen in the existence of strong public health and education systems in Australia and equal opportunity legislation to ensure people are not shut out of good jobs or positions based on race or gender. It is an idea which involves everyone having an equal chance to achieve their goals.
New Year-1st Jan
Australia Day-26th Jan
Easter- “The day after Good Friday (Easter Saturday)”.
Anzac Day-25th April
Boxing Day-26th Dec
Australian Housing Style:
Victorian 1840 – 1890
Federation 1891 – 1913
War 1914 – 1945
Contemporary 1960 – present. There are 2 types, “project style” – meaning a house was built from a common plan and “custom built” – meaning a house was built using a unique design.