Muhammad Ayub Khan :-(May 14, 1907 – April 19, 1974)
was a 5-star General and self-appointed Field Marshal in the Pakistan Army and the first military dictator, and Chief Martial Law Administrator of Pakistan. He served as the second President of Pakistan from 1958 to 1969.
He became the Pakistan Army’s first native Commander in Chief in 1951,and was the youngest full general of Pakistan
. Close to President Iskander Mirza, Khan supported the President’s decision to declare martial law in 1958 but very shortly he overthrew Mirza and declared himself President. . Under his Administration Pakistan became an Asian Tiger and one of the fastest growing economies in Asia but he faced criticism about suppression of Democracy and increasing economic inequality.
President of Pakistan (1958–1969)
As a result of his having control of the Pakistan Army, Ayub deposed Mirza on October 27 in a bloodless coup, sending Generals Wajid Burki, Azam, and Sheikh in the middle of the night to pack Mirza off to exile in England. This was actually welcomed in Pakistan, since the nation had experienced a very unstable political climate since independence.
In 1960, he held an indirect referendum of his term in power. Functioning as a kind of electoral college, close to 80,000 recently elected village councilmen were allowed to vote yes or no to the question.
Ayub moved to have a constitution created, and this was completed in 1961. A fairly secular person by nature, Ayub Khan’s constitution reflected his personal views of politicians and the use of religion in politics.
... Second Martial Law was imposed; President Ayub Khan abrogated the 1962 constitution and handed over power to the Army Commander-in-Chief, General Agha ... elections were scheduled for February 1959, but President Iskandar Mirza, fearing a rise in East Pakistan’s influence could undermine his hold on ...
In 1962, he pushed through a new constitution that while it did give due respect to Islam, it did not declare Islam the state religion of the country.
Ayub Khan introduced the Muslim Family Laws through an Ordinance on March 2, 1961 under which unmitigated polygamy was abolished, consent of the current wife was made mandatory for a second marriage, brakes were also placed on the practice of instant divorce where men would divorce women by saying “I divorce you” three times. The Arbitration Councils set up under the law in the urban and rural areas were to deal with cases of (a) grant of sanction to a person to contract a second marriage during the subsistence of a marriage; (b) reconciliation of a dispute between a husband and a wife; (c) grant maintenance to the wife and children.
Presidential election of 1965
In 1964, Ayub confident in his apparent popularity and seeing deep divisions within the political opposition, called for Presidential elections.
He was however taken by surprise when despite a brief disagreement between the five main opposition parties ( a preference for a former close associate of Ayub Khan, General Azam Khan as candidate was dropped), the joint opposition agreed on supporting the respected and popular Fatima Jinnah, the sister of the founder of Pakistan Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
Despite Jinnah’s considerable popularity and public disaffection with Ayub’s government, Ayub won with 64% of the vote in a bitterly contested election on January 2, 1965. The election did not conform to international standards and journalists. It is widely held, that the elections were rigged in favour of Ayub Khan using state patronage and intimidation to influence the indirectly elected electoral college. In the aftermath of the elections his son Gohar Ayub was involved in a major clash with opposition activists in their stronghold of Karachi.
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
The turning point in his rule was the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, and it ended in a settlement reached by Ayub at Tashkent, called the Tashkent Declaration. The settlement was perceived negatively by many Pakistanis and led Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto to resign his post and take up opposition to Khan.
... to Punish India PG). Pakistan's foreign minister, Gohar Ayub Khan, declared that they are all caught up in a rapid ... India.," ABCNEWS.com, (1998):May, PG. No URL available. Anonymous."Nuclear History In India, Pakistan.," Associated Press, (1998): June, PG. ... became the first nation in years to detonate nuclear weapons.Scientists exploded three nuclear devices 328 feet underground. The three devices ...
Refusal to expand nuclear programmes
In 1965, after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Pakistani scientists working at International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) became aware of Indian nuclear programme as they had visited Indian nuclear facilities as part of IAEA inspection teams. Pakistani IAEA scientists quickly notified of Indian development to Foreign Office of Pakistan. On December 11, 1965, Munir Ahmad Khan personally met with Foreign minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto at the Dorchester Hotel in London where Munir Ahmad Khan had Bhutto to came to acknowledged about Indian nuclear programme. Bhutto then quickly managed a meeting with President the same night. At Dorchester Hotel, Ayub Khan had a brief meeting with Munir Ahmad Khan. The two had met in private and alone sensing the sensitivity of this discussion, the doors were remained lock. In this meeting, Munir Ahmad Khan clearly told Ayub Khan that Pakistan must acquire the necessary facilities that would give the country a nuclear deterrent capability, which were available free of safeguards and at an affordable cost.] Munir Ahmad Khan also told President Ayub Khan that there were no restrictions on nuclear technology, that it was freely available, and that India and Israel were moving forward in deploying it.
When asked about the economics of such programme, Munir Ahmad Khan estimated the cost of nuclear technology at that time as not more than 150 million dollars. Ayub Khan listened to him very patiently, but at the end of the meeting remained unconvinced.Ayub Khan refused Munir Ahmad Khan’s offer and said that Pakistan was too poor to spend that much money. Moreover, if we ever need the bomb, we will buy it off the shelf.
In 1961 Abdus Salam succeeded in convincing Khan to lead the establishment of Pakistan’s National Space Agency, the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) on September 16, 1961. The military government of Ayub Khan had restricted the space activities in the country, and further denied the proposals of establishing space centers all over the country. Even the Flight Test Center was financed and built by the United States’ NASA when Khan had declined to set up the funding programme for SUPARCO.
... . Being a Nuclear Power, Pakistan has another option to produce electricity from Nuclear Plants. In Pakistan, Four Civil nuclear power plants are ... Wind*Sunlight.Non Renewable*Petroleum*Gas*Coal*Nuclear Energy-Energy Crisis in Pakistan.Electricity Short fall.Gas Load-shedding- ... If, Government installs more nuclear power plants, it will be supportive to faltering Economy. Pakistan has dry climate and ...
Final years in office
In 1969, he opened up negotiations with the opposition alliance, except for Maulana Bhashani and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. However under increasing pressure from Bhutto and Bhashani who were allegedly encouraged to continue the agitation by elements within the Army and in violation of his own constitution which required him to transfer power to the speaker of the assembly, on 25 March 1969, Ayub handed over control of Pakistan to Commander in Chief General Yahya Khan . He was the President’s most loyal lieutenant, and was promoted over seven more senior generals in 1966 to the army’s top post.
In 1971 when war broke out, Ayub Khan was in West Pakistan. He presented himself for fighting in war but government turned him down on account of his age and ill-health.He did not comment on the events of the war. He died in 1974