Evaluate one theory of how emotion may affect one cognitive process • The interaction between emotion and the cognitive process of memory can be seen through research into flashbulb memory. • There is evidence to suggest that emotion plays a significant role in memory, and the amygdala appears to play an important role in emotional responses… thus having an impact on memory. • However, the debate still centers around whether flashbulb memories are a special kind or memory, or just as unreliable as other types of memory. THE THEORY (Brown & Kulick, 1977):
Flashbulb Memories – Where Were You Then? A flashbulb memory is a highly detailed, exceptionally vivid ‘snapshot’ of the moment and circumstances in which a piece of surprising and important (or emotionally arousing) news was heard. In 1977, the psychologists Roger Brown and James Kulick attempted to define people’s recollections of the John F. Kennedy assassination when they referred to them as “flashbulb memories. ” They defined them as: • Exceptionally vivid memories • Usually consequential events with emotional significance • Resistant to forgetting over time
They suggested that a novel and shocking event activates a special brain mechanism, which they referred to as “Now Print. ” Much like a camera’s flashbulb, Brown and Kulick hypothesized, the Now Print mechanism preserves or “freezes” whatever happens at the moment when we learn of the shocking event. Bown and Kulick propose that there an evolutionary and biological basis for the “Now Print: The mechanism is activated when a given event occurs unexpectedly and has biologically significant consequences for individual’s lives so that people are ready to recognize similar events in the future. ”
The study of flashbulb memories is a prime example of the problems faced in everyday memory investigations. These memories are not experienced everyday of our lives, but are without doubt a phenomenon that each of has experienced in our lifetime. As shall be discussed later, problems arise due to the fact that flashbulb memories are characterised by extreme emotional, personal and surprise ...
The debate centers on whether they are a special case, or the same as other memories Here is a description of a flashbulb memory of the JFK assassination: “I do not remember much of what happened just before or after the stunning announcement, but an image of the moment when I first learned the news has remained fixed in my mind for over thirty years. For many of us, the memory of that November afternoon in 1963 feels as though it has been frozen forever in photographic form, unaffected by the ravages of time that erode and degrade most other memories. ” THE RESEARCH SUPPORT (Brown & Kulick, 1977): EVALUATION OF THE FBM THEORY
Brown and Kulick did not query participants in their study about the JFK assassination until years after the event. To evaluate the accuracy of a flashbulb memory, we need some way to check the accuracy of a person’s recollection. Subsequent researchers have investigated memories for flashbulb events–the attempted assassination of Ronald Reagan in 1981, the explosion of the space shuttle Challenger in 1986, the Gulf War in 1991–by obtaining recollections from people within a few days or weeks after the event. What researchers have learned about these flashbulb memories are quite interesting and are summarized as follows: Some flashbulb memories are indeed accurate and persistent. • Yet even some highly consequential flashbulb events are not wholly unaffected by the passage of time that weakens other memories. • Some flashbulb memories are far from photographic preservations of the original scene. So, our latest research shows that though flashbulb memories remain some of the most lasting memories we hold, they are still subject to decay. In fact, it is doubtful whether such memories are preserved by the ‘Now Print’ mechanism that Brown and Kulick envisaged. The key to understanding how these type of memories are preserved over time is to nderstand the level of emotional arousal they produced, and the strengthening of the memory through repeated discussion of the event in sharing it with others. Thus, it is clear that the emotions elicited by a flashbulb event also increase its memorability. FBM AND THE BRAIN: The role of Amygdala – Our Brain’s Emotional Computer The release of stress-related hormones(ie – the stress response system), signaled by the brain’s emotional computer, the amygdala, probably accounts for some of the extraordinary power and persistence that characterize many highly emotional or traumatic experiences.
Efficient-markethypothesisMergers and acquisitions (M&A) are one of the most important events in corporate finance, both for the firms involved, as well as the economy. Empirical research on these events has revealed a great deal about their trends and characteristics over the last century. Many researchers have addressed the question of gains from acquisitions. Typically, target shareholders ...
However, just like our more mundane memories, recollections of emotional traumas are constructions, not literal recordings. The amygdala works cooperatively with many other brain structures in order to assemble emotional memories. Key Discussion Points: • What is Brown & Kulik’s concept of Now Print? • What are the details of Brown and Kulick’s interview study? • What are the strengths and limitations of their study? • What does this study tell us about the validity of FBM theory? • What is the importance of the role of the amygdala in emotional memory?
RECENT RESEARCH ON FBM THEORY (Phelps, 2004): 9/11 Study Reveals How Flashbulb Memories Form Brain scans give new insights into these vivid recollections, says Roger Highfield A study of New Yorkers who witnessed the horrors of September 11, 2001, has revealed a brain region that may be responsible for creating what psychologists call “flashbulb memories,” remarkable picture-like recollections. The new findings raise questions about whether a unique brain mechanism is involved in laying down these memories, a controversial idea among psychologists that was put forward three decades ago.
Instead, the new study suggests that flashbulb memories arise simply when a person witnesses events first hand, not from any special neural process. Those close to the destruction of the World Trade Centre have, on average, more vivid memories of the terrorist attacks than do those who were in other parts of New York City on that day, according to the research by Prof Elizabeth Phelps at New York University. The results, reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, indicate personal involvement may be important in engaging the amygdala when recalling 9/11 events.
Neuropsychology studies the relation between brain function and behavior or human behavior as based on the function of human brain. Although the term itself is relatively new (it dates from the 20th century), the major ideas of the field covered by it have a rather long history. Its current profile is determined mostly by the brain hypothesis (the brain is the source of behavior) and neuron ...
The amygdala is a small, almond-shaped brain structure known to mediate emotion’s influence on memory. “Although all of the study’s participants were in Manhattan on 9/11, the recollections of those who were in lower Manhattan, closer to the World Trade Centre, were described as more vivid, detailed, and confident than those who were further away,” said Prof Phelps. “The downtown participants also reported seeing, hearing, and smelling what had happened.
Participants who were, on average, around midtown Manhattan reported experiencing the events second hand, such as on television or the Internet. It is clear from these recollections that proximity to the World Trade Centre changed the nature of the experience of these events, such that those participants who were downtown on 9/11 had greater personal involvement with the consequences of the terrorist attacks. “Although this is the first study to identify a brain circuitry related to flashbulb memories, I was not surprised that the amygdala was involved,” she told The Daily Telegraph. What was completely unexpected for me was that only those participants closer to the World Trade Centre showed enhanced amygdala activation (and reported more vivid memories) when retrieving events from 9/11 compared to events the summer of 2001 (like a summer vacation, or a move to New York).
The traditional view of flashbulb memories suggests that these memories have special qualities for a much broader range of individuals. Aside from the amygdala, there were also differences in other memory regions, such as the hippocampus, she said. Our findings on 9/11 memories indicate that personal involvement may be critical in producing memories with the characteristic qualities of flashbulb memories,” she said “We think this is because the amygdala, which is known to play a role in enhancing the feeling of remembering for emotional material, is more engaged when these events are experienced first hand. ” The study, conducted three years after the 9/11 terrorist attacks in Manhattan, included 24 participants who were in New York City on that day.
The Essay on Assess the strengths and limitations for using participant observation to study truancy
Assess the strengths and limitations for using participant observation to study truancy There are many strengths and limitations for using participant observation to study truancy. Truancy is defined as an unauthorised absence from school. Sociologists may want to investigate why truancy occurs, what anti-school subcultures are more likely to truant and what effect truancy has on pupils’ future ...
Participants’ brain activity was observed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they recalled autobiographical memories from 9/11, along with other distinct, autobiographical events from the summer of 2001. The latter served as baseline memories for evaluating the nature of 9/11 memories. After the brain scanning session, participants were asked to rate their memories for vividness, detail, confidence in accuracy, arousal, and valence (how emotional the memories were).
Only half of the participants reported greater vividness, confidence, and detail when recollecting events from 9/11. An examination of the experience of these participants on 9/11 revealed that they were closer to the World Trade Centre on that day. Participants closer to the World Trade Centre also included more specific details in their written memories, and were more likely to report first-hand experience with the terrorist attacks. Key Discussion Points: • What are the exact details of the aims procedures, findings, and conclusions of this study? • What role is the amygdala playing? What is the role of personal involvement in FBM according to Phelps? • What are the strengths and limitations of her study? • What does this research tell us about the validity of FBM theory? RESEARCH THAT REFUTES THE FBM THEORY: Critics argue that FBMs are no different to other types of memory, and they are RECONSTRUCTIVE and just as likely to be influenced by SCHEMA PROCESSING as other memory. There is some evidence which supports this view: Neisser (1982) proposed that the enduring nature of FBM is a result of rehearsal and reworking after the event.
He proposed the following: – We use the conventions of storytelling recounting important events – FBMs are just as susceptible to distortion as other memories. – Its difficult to check the accuracy of flashbulb memories so the research is flawed. – There nothing different about FBMs e. g. Neisser himself was sure he was listening to the baseball when pearl harbour was bombed in WWII – but it couldn’t have been possible because it wasn’t in the baseball season Talarico and Rubin (2003) Found that Emotional Intensity leads to confidence, not accuracy. Key Discussion Points: What are the details of McCloskey’s (1988) interview study? -What does it tell us about the nature of FBMs? -What are the strengths and limitations of this study? -What other research is their refuting FBM theory? SOME OVERALL CONCLUSIONS • Relatively little evidence for FBMs as a distinct memory process • They ‘feel’ accurate (we are confident in recall) but are just as prone to forgetting & change as other episodic memories • Evidence is still mixed – but recent evidence about the role of the amygdala is compelling. ———————– [pic] [pic] 80 participants
Memory is the capability to learn, retain, store and remember information from previous experiences. Memories are accumulated from prior experiences and recollected, which can influence change of behavior or thought. This ability can assist with learning and adapting to new experiences. Memory is essential to our lives. Without a memory of the past we cannot operate in the present or think about ...