Causes of the Civil War
-economic and social differences between the north and south.
-states versus federal rights.
-the fight between slave and non-slave proponents.
-was critcized for freeing only the slaves over which Union had no power.
-brought freedom to thousands of slaves the day it went into effect in parts of 9 of the 10 states to which it applied (except Texas).
-declared the freedom of all slaves in any state of the Confederate States of America that did not return to Union control by January 1, 1863.
Effects of the Civil War
-some confederate and union soldiers robbed and attacked settlers and farmers throughout the south.
-the conditions of war had been so bad that more men died of disease and sickness than on the battlefield.
-four million slaves were freed.
Reconstruction Plans (Lincoln, Johnson, Wade Davis Bill)
-Union forces had successfully enforced a blockade on Confederate States via land and sea.
-federal troops had either occupied or destroyed all of the major industrial areas, which caused starvation and riots against the Confederate government.
-the Southern government resorted to arming the slaves in a last ditch effort to equalize the manpower disadvantage.
Scalawags and Carpetbaggers
-both the scalawags and the carpetbaggers were resented by many Southerners and became the targets of the Ku Klux Klan.
... not apply to the border slave states, which had never seceded from the Union. The order also committed the ... . Many slaves were impressed into war service by Confederate officials, thus severing master-slave relationships. Slaves running away to Union lines became ... The Confederacy now contained eleven of the fifteen slave states.In the border slave states of Kentucky, Delaware, Maryland, and Missouri, ...
-both supported black rights, were disliked by many white former-slave owners, and they were victims of attacks from the Ku Klux Klan.
-a scalawag is a white Southerner who works for or supports the fedaral government during reconstruction; and a carpetbagger is a Northerner who wnt South after the Civil War for political or financial reason.
-they drove up the price of gold but Grant found out and quickly had the Treasury add gold to the economy which in turn resulted in the lowering of gold prices on Friday, September 24, 1869 which adversely affected all those who had bought gold.
-many government employees were pocketing whiskey taxes.
-Grant called for swift punishment but caused further scandal when he moved to protect his personal secretray who had been implicated in the affair.
-erosion of the South’s largely one-party apparatus, as blacks began regaining voting rights.
-the divided South provided Smith with nearly three-fourths of his electoral votes.
-the national Democratic Party’s support of the civil rights movement significantly reduced Southern support for the Democratic Party and allowed the Republican Party to make gains in the South by way of its “Southern strategy”.
Compromise of 1877
-the compromise essentially stated that Southern Democrats would acknowledge Hayes as President, but only if the Republicans acceded to various demands.
-the removal of all Federal troops from the former Confederate States.
-the appointment of at least one Southern Democrat to Hayes’ cabinet.
Black Codes – Jim Crow Laws
-restricted the civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans.
-treatment and accommodations that were usually inferior to those provided for white Americans, systematizing a number of economic, educational and social disadvantages.
-state-sponsored school segregation was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States.
Ku Klux Klan
-far right hate group organizations in the United States whose avowed purpose was to protect the rights of and further the interests of white Americans by violence and intimidation.
... the races. Social racism was used to promote white superiority by stating that the black race has evolved more slowly, that their ... 431. v McPherson, James. "Abolitionists and the Civil Rights Act of 1875." Journal of American History.Vol. 52, No. 3 (December 1965 ... powerless to create such legislation against slavery, but allowed Southern states to go ahead and create laws that enforced slavery and ...
-the KKK has a record of using terrorism, violence, and lynching to murder and oppress African Americans, Jews and other minorities and to intimidate and oppose Roman Catholics and labor unions.
-The Klan’s purpose was to restore white supremacy in the aftermath of the American Civil War.
-provided food, shelter, clothing, work, and education for African Americans in the Southern states.
-opened 4000 free schools and educated 250,000 black people. By 1870, 21% of black people could read.
-the bureau’s main focus is to provide food, medical care, help freedmen resettle, make sure justice is present, manage abandoned or confiscated property, regulate labor, and to establish schools.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
-on June 7, 1892, Homer Plessy boarded a car of the East Louisiana Railroad that was designated for use by white patrons only.
-under a Louisiana law enacted in 1890, he was classified as Black, and thus required to sit in the “colored” car, he refused and was arrested.
-the majority of the Court rejected the view that the Louisiana law implied any inferiority of blacks, in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. Instead, it contended that the law separated the two races as a matter of public policy.
Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. DuBois and Marcus Garvey
-Washington believed that African-Americans would gain respect from the white community if they had trade skills. He also believed that trade skills were key to economic security.
-Du Bois believed that academic education was more important that trade education.
-Du Bois feared that Garvey’s activities would undermine his efforts toward black rights.
-since the cropper pays in shares of his harvest, owners and croppers share the risk of harvests being large or small and prices being high or low.
-encourages the cropper to remain on the land throughout the harvest season to work the land, solving the harvest rush problem.
-workers work on the land and earn a fixed wage from the land owner but keep some of the crop.