The researchers would like to express their gratitude and appreciation to the following who in a way or another had contributed for the completion of this research: First and foremost to our Almighty God who never fails to shower us with His blessings and gave us the wisdom and talent to accomplish these; To our parents who gave their selfless love to us their support financially and morally for the past 20 years of our lives.
To Dr. Melchor Julianes our research advisers, who had shared his ideas and being an honest critic, and encouraged us to improve and make this research excellent; To Prof. Marivic O. Blancaflor, for patiently evaluating our works, and for the unending support and understanding during the progress of this criminological research; To Our classmates who had been very supportive and inspired us to complete this research. The researchers would also like to thank their classmates and friends; as well as the Dean, Dean Jeffrey B. Bajita, Faculty members and Staff of the College of Criminology; And lastly, to each and every member of this research team, for the dedication and unending sacrifices you exerted for the completion of this research.
The researchers would like to dedicate this thesis to their loving and supportive family for their efforts in making this study successful. To our classmates and friends who supported us in every single way to make this study possible; to our professors who shared their brilliant ideas, inspiring and guiding is to make this study an excellent research.
... use of IRB The given study satisfied all the ethical research considerations. The researchers obtained the participant’s informed ... of confidentiality owed by the researcher to the participants. Participation in the phenomenal research study was also voluntary upon ... research include: (1) the ease of data analysis using statistical tools; (2) the ease of statistical analysis of quantitative data makes ...
Lastly, to our Almighty God who never fails to give us the divine guidance, strength and determination in order to make this research very successful.
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Since time immemorial, everybody has been dreaming to have a peaceful, secure and stable community. Unfortunately, it has remained a dream in the Philippine society today because of lawlessness which hampers economic growth. Policing is essentially about communities and for communities. That is why we must always take account on public opinion in informing policy, setting policing priorities and devising appropriate response. The promotion of community safety involves not only effective policing but also positive citizenship and public policy. As regards a sense of reassurance, police and police visibility were frequently the first factors mentioned as important, with visibility being linked to greater police engagement which the public expected would impact on crime and fear of crime. Overall, it was considered that there were not enough police on the beat and the desire was expressed for a proactive rather than reactive presence.
As provided for by Section 2, Republic Act No. 6975, entitled “An Act Establishing the Philippine National Police under a Reorganized Department of The Interior and Local Government, and for Other Purposes,” it is hereby Declared to be the policy of state to promote peace and order, ensure public Safety, and further strengthen local government capability aimed towards the Effective delivery of the basic services to the citizenry through the establishment Of a highly efficient and competent police force that is national in scope and Civilian in character. Towards this end, the state shall bolster a system of Coordination and cooperation among the citizenry, local government executives, The integrated law enforcement agencies and other public safety agencies ( Republic Act No. 9165).
... and the Role of the Community/Public Health Nurse When considering the evolution of healthcare and the ... 3) Impact on Nursing Practice The role of the community or public health nurse in regards to hospice care is the position ... & Lancaster, 2012, p. 27). PUBLIC HEALTH AND ROLE OF THE COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSE 3 Historically, public health nurses have worked to improve ...
crime prevention strategies have both organizational and individual character. Police organizations either formally or informally undertakes the following crime prevention strategies, i.e., police visibility arrest of offenders, community counseling, and public education, if they are unaware of doing so. They often confronted with situations and problems for which they have not been prepared. In such situation, the police organization’s response tends to be the informal, derived primarily from both pre-employment experiences and what has been learned on the job arising out of policing activities. BACKGROUD OF THE STUDY
Ermita is a district of Manila and a major commercial, financial, and cultural center of the city. Many hotels, casinos and offices are located in this district. Ermita is also the home to famous landmarks, government offices, tourist attractions, museums, and universities. It is the civic center of Manila and the Manila metropolitan region, hosting the seat of city government and a large portion of the area’s employment, business, and entertainment activities.EAC police outpost, only simple crimes were committed such as simple theft (only small objects such as watches, phones, etc.) slight physical injuries, malicious mischief and the likes.
The ordinance of EAC police outpost was peaceful and in order, because the two of its primary objects were crime suppression, crime education and city ordinance. Crime Education is a technique acquired by the EAC outpost in suppressing crimes and is used as a method of teaching juveniles the results and consequences if they commit a violation or a crime according to our research, the community and establishment hotels around the EAC outpost by the ways they behave. The manner they communicate, the way theyprotect their area, and all other proper way of maintaining discipline in their area are a big part of separating a criminal mind to a disciplined one. San Marcelno St. Ermita Manila, one of the best known Area in Manila City for its minimum crime rate, has a well maintained peace and order, and cleanliness well observedSan Marcelino St. is located in Ermita Manila was a small sector located at U.N avenue , near the Paco Manila and Emilio Aguinaldo College. Among all the Area and roads In Ermita Manila, the San Marcelino St. has the lowest ratio in terms of crime commission.
... commit a major crime in Pakistan. The crime rate in Pakistan ... no reason. For most minor crimes you will be let go, but the police will take action if you ... months for drinking and driving. In Malaysia the police will stop every car on Friday and Saturday nights ... Comparison Essay Law and Order In the United States police are suppose to be honorable and fair. We ...
THEORETICAL OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK INCLUDING RESEARCH PARADIGM
Conceptual framework is a counting progress or cycle. First, it has all the inputs that are needed, information coming from the Ermita, Manila City. In addition for the information, we are also conducting a survey which we will provide questionnaires that can help and give information and gathering an idea to solve our main problem or concept. It also includes in our input the members of the community like Students and professionals like teachers, doctor, nurses, and police man. Second, after having all the inputs, we are now going to process, in this phase, we are going to determine the crime in their whole jurisdiction.
In this phase, we are also starting to gather some data, information and the survey that will make our thesis meaningful to the members. The group will analyze and evaluate all the information that is reliable and relevant to our problem or concept. Proactive policing is closely related to the practice of community policing. Community policing’s goal is “problem solving.” Community policing emphasizes proactive enforcement that proposes street crime can be reduced through greater community involvement and integration between citizens and police. Community policing departments and officers must commit time to develop a “partnership” with the community to: 1) Prevent and counter crime; 2) Maintain order; and 3) Reduce the fear of crime.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study attempts to find the responsiveness of crime prevention strategies in the Jurisdiction of EAC Outpost and its impact to public safety. Specifically, it sought to answer the following Problems: 1. What are the crime prevention programs implemented by the PNP-EAC Outpost. 2. What is the extent of responsiveness of crime prevention strategies of PNP-EAC Outpost in terms of: 2.1 Police Visibility
2.2 Community Relationship
3. Is the any significant relationship between the extent of responsiveness of crime prevention strategies of PNP-EAC Outpostin terms of Police visibility, number of arrested offenders and community relationship? HYPOTHESIS
... Crime Prevention and Community Safety" Chapter 6 in Crawford, A (1998) Crime Prevention and Community Safety; Politics and Practices, London and New York, Longman. Hope, T. "Community Crime Prevention ... to rely on police records. They can assess the public's quality of life, engage public support for interventions ... target group. It is this model which is referred to by Pawson and Tilley 1994 as the ' ...
The researcher hypothesized the following:
1. There is no significant relationship betweenthe extent of responsiveness of crime prevention strategies of PNP-EAC Outpostin terms of Police visibility, number of arrested offenders and community relationship
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is for the:
People: It will inform the people in the community to know the crimes in their areas and to have an idea who are the criminal offenders also to explain or answer their questions why crime happens. It will also show the way society treats its criminals, and the way a given community goes about maintaining law and order. Researchers: It will help for the future researchers to gain knowledge and ideas about the different crimes committed in different areas. This study will also be their guide in their study. Law Enforcement: It will help to be their basis to prevent crimes and the way how the police do their jobs, duties and responsibility as well. they can help reduce its negative impact, while helping law enforcement pursue policies which make society a better place for all. The General Public: The results of the study may benefit the general –public in terms of more responsive crime prevention strategies, vis-à-vis to an improved delivery of police service. The results of the study will also help eliminate the indifference of the public towards the police, it can be considered also as roadmap towards relationship between the police and the public it serve.
SCOPE AND ITS LIMITATION
As a group of five we conducted a research at San Marcelino St. Ermita
Manila City regarding its history and its current situation about its crime rate increase. The crime rate situation at Manila City rapidly increases due to a sudden population growth now with an approximate ratio of 5,740 individuals still increasing in numbers. With a crime commission of simple quarrel, theft, vagrancy in youth offenders, malicious mischief and other light offenses excluding grave and heinous crimes. The research includes population and crime situation establishments within the EAC Police Outpost.
Our research only includes population and crime situation within the San Marcelino St. Ermita Manila City. Due to a rapid increase of population, the capability of our research does not conquer the statistics of newer generations inside the vicinity. The capability of the Law Enforcement to conduct crime prevention does not record all the commotions which were settled down before being reported to the Authority. DEFINITION OF TERMS
... warming will be an increase in street crime during mild winters. Studies have suggested that warmer temperatures boost aggression ... have been identified by professional practitioners engaged in the study of criminality, among whom are psychologists, sociologists, ... known by police officers that cold winter nights keep criminals off the streets and crime levels down. Crime scientists speculate ...
Arrest of the offenders: This refers to the taking of person into custody in order that he or she may be duty bound to answer for the commission of an offense. Crime Prevention: As related to police work, this refers to the efforts undertaken by the police in order to prevent crime, maintain peace and order. And ensure public safety and security in given locality. Community-Counseling: This refers to the police attempt to resolve or alleviate problems involving the Community-at-large without making an actual physical arrest on the part of protagonist. Impact: This refers to the end result of the crime prevention strategies implemented in the research locale of the study with the aim purpose of maintaining peace and order and ensuring public safety.
Indifference of the public: This refers to the negative attitude and resentment shown by the general public to the police are doing more particularly in maintaining peace and order and ensuring public safety Inter-agency coordination: This refers to the linkagesand cooperation existed between the key room players in the crime prevention in control within community. Inter-relationship with society: This refers to the complicated relationship of the police to the people its serve in particular and the society in general. Organizational resources:This refers to the human and materials resources utilized by the concerned law enforcement agency in the implementation of its crime prevention strategies. Peace and Order:This refers to the tranquility in a given locality arising out of the absence of crimes and condition that tend to serve as normal decay of the society.
Police visibility: It is defined as the physical presence of uniformed police officers and marked vehicles in places where criminal offenses are usually occurring. Problems met:This refers to the concerned polices external problem encountered by the concerned police agencies relatively with the implementation of its crime prevention strategies. Public Education: It is defined as the process informing the general public about the things that the police and how to avoid being victimized. Public Safety: It is defined as the outcome of the effective implementation of crime prevention strategies in a given locality, wherein the general public are from any harm that may be brought about criminality and disorder. Responsiveness:This refers to the state of the competent and effective implementation if the crime prevention strategies in a given locality.
... - Defence - Criminal Trials - Sanctions and Punishments The Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP) decides whether to prosecute the offender in court ... Mens Rea: - Intention: clear, malicious intent to commit the crime. - Recklessness: Accused is aware that their actions could lead ... be proven that the person charged actually carried out the crime. - ? Causation - Causation: There is a causal link ...
Criminology Memory Aid 2014, (Bajita) (Bayag-o) (Gapit)
Police Organization with Police Planning (Bajita 2010)
Police Patrol Operation with Police Communications System (Bajita 2014)
Review of related literature and studies
In this chapter, as a group, we learned in the research we conducted in San Marcelino St. Ermita Manila City that crime is a social science; crime is considered part of social science because it’s a creation of men who are members of the society. Crime is dynamic because the body of knowledge about crimes & criminals changes as the social condition changes. It is neither fixed nor permanent instead does it vary from one place to another. The Criminal Justice System is trying its best to reduce criminality, maintain peace and order and ensure public safety and the internal security in the country in order to protect its constituents.
The concept of crime prevention goes back many years. Henry Fielding, Who started his adult life as a writer, became a justice of the peace in England in 1748, Fielding had two goals, stamp out existing crime, and prevent outbreaks of crime in the future. He created the first neighborhood watch. His work with the English justice system led him to be called the “Father of Crime Prevention.” The first police department was the metropolitan police of London. It was formed in 1829 by Sir Robert Peel who continued the work of Fielding. Peel felt that the efficiency of the police should be judged by the absence or presence of crime. He also felt that the distribution of crime information is essential to public safety.
The officers of the metro police were called “Peelers” and “Bobbies”, after their founder. In the United States, the first crime prevention division was formed in Berkley, California on July 15, 1925. It was the first of its kind in police history. It was originally formed as a crime prevention/juvenile unit. It was staffed with women that had social work backgrounds. The goal was to become involved at the beginning of behavior deviation to thwart anti-social behavior. The police became involved with behavior modification, Things have changed over the years and the police and crime prevention now involves working with the community to try and lower the incidence of crime. Local Literature
The Philippines, just like many other countries in the world, is actively pursuing its commitment in the international community as set forth in the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for Noncustodial Measures (The Tokyo Rules) regarding the treatment of its criminal offenders. It has long been accepted that the search for alternatives to incarceration of offenders should take priority in the sentencing arena if we are to really address the issues of prison effectiveness, overcrowding and the consequential psychological harm resulting from prolonged or unnecessary incarceration.
The Philippines has offered many alternatives to incarceration of its criminal offenders and these alternatives can generally be grouped as interventions in the pre-sentencing or post-sentencing stage of the criminal justice process. In practice however, it is the probation and parole system that is widely used and can be considered as the best alternative for a community-based rehabilitation program. For these reasons, a more detailed discussion of these systems is presented, including the operational procedure and mandated programs of the agency, the Parole and Probation Administration, which is tasked by law to administer them. Foreign Studies
The researcher aims to develop his study in order to establish the credibility of his chosen topic and to gather all the necessary information and evidences that will help him to prove his study, and the researchers will exert his effort and support this topic in finding all related studies from the collections of the undergraduate thesis.
Few studies of great philosophers described their belief that one of the most persistent problems bothering every community is crime prevention according to social change and crime rate trends a routine activity approach. This ecological analysis of direct contact predatory violations is intended to be more than metaphorical.
According to our research, crime rate increases in a matter of instance at an urban area due to a sudden increase in the population of individuals. Poverty is one of the many reasons why crimes are committed due to a lack of financial supports for their families. Crime is one of the many faces of the social dynamics of communities. Social disorganization theorist explains community variation in crimes in terms of variation in their ability to provide for social control. Synthesis of the reviewed literature and studies
In our analysis, criminal activities mostly occur at urban places with a large population due to an increased opportunity for the criminals to perform their acts. There are plenty of opportunities at urban than rural places.
This chapter presents the operational framework of the study which includes the research design to be used in the study, population and sample, description of the respondents, procedures in the gathering data and the statistical treatment to be utilized, tools and data gathering well be utilized, procedures in the gathering of data and statistical treatment to be employed.
Descriptive method was used in this study. This was done so in order to determine the common problems encountered by the law enforcement. This process involves information gathering or fact finding, recording or charting of gathered data and then the corresponding assessment and analysis of the same. Population and Sample
The respondents of the study include the employees wherein the proponents prepare a set of carefully prepared and logically ordered questions. This respondent focuses on the company’s employees for they are very important in a sense that this study is all about them.
Position/Status No. of RespondentsPercentage (%)
Procedures in Data Gathering
To support all the data that will be gathered, laws, internet, comments and suggestions from exports will be used survey will be conducted through the presentation of questions and will be made on random basis, questionnaires will be considered the samples opinion, awareness, references, attitudes, perception, practices, and motives without much emphasis on their age, income and gender. Choices will be provided for convenience.
Tools in Data Gathering
The instrument to be use in gathering data is the questionnaire, appropriately allocated to San Marcelino St. Ermita Manila City. Forth (100) prepared questionnaires will be distributed at the Area near EAC Manila & Police Precinct. The questionnaire which was prepared in simple English language, the camera to record data. Statistical Treatment of Data
Sampling may be defined as a measuring a small portion of something and then making a general statement about the whole thing. It enables the large, heterogeneous population more economic wise, meaning not too costly, and more realistic and possible to make. The Population to be researched upon is quite small: hence scientific sampling is implied to each member of the population since the number of population is attainable sampling. The proponents decided to use the unstructured random sampling technique since the population is well in the reach of statistical evaluation. To justify the point, the use of Sloven’s Formula was utilized in the formula of:
N = N / 1 + N (e)2
n = sample size
N = Total sample
e = level of confidence (.01 to 0.05)