Critically examine the image of a destination of your choice. How has the image been determined? What are its advantages and disadvantages? Abstract The tourism industry can only prosper if the destination marketing organizations (DMOs) have a thorough understanding of the influences behind the consumers choice of tourist destinations. The research done for this paper focuses on image perception and projection of tourism destination in Malaysia. It will explore and analyze the image projected by the Tourism Authority in Malaysia; how they determined and came up with the countrys image as well as the advantage and disadvantage of this same image to the tourism industry. There will also be an attempt to look at the relationship between destination branding and destination image. The discussion of this paper will also touch on how Malaysia has been perceived as a destination.
– – – – – – – – – – – – — INTRODUCTION The trend of using consumer oriented approach to marketing assumes that consumer satisfaction must be the key to meeting the organization’s goals. To have an effective marketing technique, an organization must aim at identifying the needs and wants of their target consumers. And not only that, they should also strive to satisfy them. From a strategic marketing management perspective, any tourism organization who wants to improve and climb its way into the ladder of success must look, discover ,and find every opportunity and chance to design new and innovative strategies that optimize opportunities by making an accurate assessment of its clienteles environment and satisfaction (Chon and Olsen,1990).
... likely to be interested in space tourism. b.ObjectivesThe objectives of this marketing communications plan are to deliver the ... -The program might be opposed by environmentalists or environmental organization because it will increase carbon release. -Delay in the ... -Attractive and professional offices and showrooms-Attractive website including images and videos of our business, test flights, Spaceship ...
As early as 1970, there were already discussions of destination images (Gallarza, Saura, & Garcia, 2002) yet three decades later, researchers had not really succeeded “in operationalising destination image” (Pike, 2002, p. 541).
There are different insights and assessments linked and related to destination image but most studies have associated it with mental constructs, ideas, or conceptions of a particular place. Image is a valuable concept for understanding consumers choices, but tourism is experiential; it will be difficult for tourists to form a clear destination image without actual experience of the destination (Govers & Go, 2003).
This is where information comes in and helps stimulate and form images that shape tourists destination perceptions and choices. Information can be gathered and sourced from newspapers, brochures, celebrities, television, referrals, and the Internet (Gartner, 1989; Standing & Vasudavan, 1999).
Personal experience and word-of-mouth communication (Govers & Go, 2005, p. 4) have become powerful information sources for tourists and help form a strong and clear destination image; these the most important factors influencing a tourist’s decision (Govers & Go, 2003).
The mental and emotional perceptions of people about a certain place are usually products of both actual experiences and other influences such as these three: tourism motivations, socio-demographics, and destination information (Baloglu & McCleary, 1999; Beerli & Martin, 2004; Echtner & Ritchie, 1993).
The image exposed and portrayed by a particular place, whether positive or negative, pictographic or narrative, almost always influences a visitors selection of tourism destinations. Lew (1988: 553) noted that “image is the most important aspect of a tourist attraction”. The role of destination image in tourism has a greater significance in marketing when viewed through the framework of the traveller’s buying behaviour. Creating and managing an appropriate destination image is critical to an effective positioning and marketing strategy (Echtner and Ritchie, 1991, p. 3).
The Dissertation on Tourists’ Evaluations of Destination Image and Future Behavioural Intention: The Case of Malaysia
... greater challenges within the tourism industry worldwide entail a better understanding of destination image and destination loyalty(future behavioural intention) to achieve Malaysia’s apiration to ... , H. (2008). Examining the structural relationships of destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: An integrated approach. Tourist Management, 29(4), 624-636. //dx ...
Evidences gathered in many parts of the world demonstrate that safety, tranquillity and peace are the three top consumers requirements that destination marketing organization (DMO) needs to assure tourists; these are necessary for the prosperity of the tourism industry (Pizam and Mansfeld, 1996, p. 1).
Unfavourable and damaging impressions can impede tourism by wielding a significant blow to the fragile nature of a destination’s safe image. The ramifications can be long-term and extremely difficult and expensive to recover from. Once a perception becomes attached to a city, to a tourist destination, it is almost impossible to shake it off, as the citizens of “beautiful Beirut” or “intriguing Belfast” can testify (Griffith-Jones, 1984, p. 138).
The power of the media in forming images of an area must never be underestimated (Lewis, 1986, p. 102).
The image which individuals have of a specific destination plays a crucial role in such a destination’s marketing success. This is because the decision-maker acts upon his/her image, beliefs and perceptions of the destination rather than the objective reality of it (Hunt, 1975, p. 1).
THE MALAYSIAN TOURISM INDUSTRY The tourist destination which this paper will discuss is Malaysia. This particular destination was selected because it is a relatively well known multi-faceted tourist destination with a government that places utmost importance in the development of the tourism industry in the country. The most important criterion in selecting the sample destination was the availability of different resources where information can easily be accessed and studies about the country and how the manage to stay on top of the list of favourite tourist destination. The tourism industry is Malaysia’s top foreign exchange earning sector after manufacturing (Office of the Prime Minister of Malaysia, 2001-2005), it has helped the Malaysian economy grow from big to bigger; strong to stronger.
... more remote destinations, a wider range of sex tourists serve to create the growing demand in the sex tourism industry. Thus, ... Negative Impacts Travel industry The development of a sex industry can lead to adverse images created for a destination, such as ... ‘Amazing Thailand’ branding image with the sex capital image together. This will endanger both the destination and tourism image in the long run ...
Under the Tourism Ministry, the industry has continued to perform favourably as reflected in the growth of tourists arrivals and receipts. Malaysia rank number three among the 53 Commonwealth countries in terms of the number of tourist arrivals (Malaysia among Top Three in Tourist Arrival, 2005).
Just north of the equator in Southeast Asia is Malaysia with around 26 million inhabitants. It is slightly larger than Poland or New Mexico in the USA (Department of Statistics Malaysia, 2006).
It is basically composed of two major islands with the South China Sea separating its western peninsular region connected to Thailand and Singapore from its eastern region on the island of Borneo. Tourism Images The decision to travel (or not to travel) to a particular destination is linked to the persons preconceived notions and perception of that particular destination.
The destination images which were probably gathered through various means — from a persons experiences both actual or otherwise, the media and word-of-mouth (comments and observations heard from other people, especially friends and family).
Thus, an examination of that perception process may help understand the reasons behind it and somehow change the individuals perception of a destination in order to increase the likelihood of that persons visiting a certain destination (Mill and Morrison, 1985).
Malaysia currently positions itself as a clean, value-for-money destination (Dass, 2005) with diverse lifestyles, ethnic groups, and religions living together peacefully (Musa, 2000) in a community where tourism facilities abound thus, the Governments preparatory programme known as Malaysia Welcomes the World to introduce the latest Malaysian image: Malaysia: Truly Asia. The Malaysians Tourism endorsement and information dissemination to promote tourism in the country started in the 70s which earned an appellation for the country as A Tropical Paradise which was later changed into Clean Destination which seems to be Malaysias answer to help manage the then rapidly escalating number of sexually transmitted diseases victims brought about by several infamous sex tours in the region in the late 1980s. The early 1990s saw the growing global awareness and preservation of both nature and culture. Because of this emerging global concern, Malaysia introduced yet another tourism image created by utilizing the countrys vast natural heritage destinations; people started noticing Malaysia and has commenced flocking into the destination which is multicultural with many beaches”.
... the Turkish Mediterranean coast, it ranks among the sought after tourist destinations, the largest resort in Turkey. Located in the foothills of ... availability have made Antalya’s coast a major center for tourism throughout the year. The number of visitors coming to Antalya ... cruise. In addition, we have domestic tourist this means any person who visiting other place than where is his domiciled inside ...
In mid-90s the countrys tourism introduced a program dubbed Malaysia: My Second Home programme, a preliminary plan which will give way to the current promotional battle cry —Malaysia: Truly Asia. Malaysia’s current promotional campaign showcases its vibrant Asian communities, culture and tradition which they shared with the rest of their neighbouring places in Southeast Asia. These similarities with other ASEAN nations in term of natural resources, tourism destination and infrastructure, culture, traditions and hospitality, although can be seen as an advantage, are actually serving more as a handicap to Malaysia. This likeness with their neighbours has served as a drawback in the development of tourism in Malaysia. Prospective tourists will rather choose to go somewhere else that also offers the same things as Malaysia but has a better image and security as conceived by tourists from the West. So although Malaysians are well-known for their warmth, friendliness and caring attitude, which may as well, become a very important factor to attract tourists to return to Malaysia, it has not served that particular purpose.
In consequence, Malaysia has this tendency to constantly alter its tourism image(s) in its efforts be different from and stand out among its neighbours. The regular changing of Malaysias destination image has actually provided the industry the chance to grow and diversify its tourism base. Malaysia has discovered that they can offer everything to everyone all at the same time. This strategy seems to be working and is envisaged to develop and introduce Malaysia as a shopping, sports, recreational site, convention centre, and a special interest destination, therefore catering to a wide range of tourist interests (Bernama News Daily, Oct 19, 1991).
... acquired regards to a particular destination. In tourism studies, the term destination image generally refers to tourist based image. Crompton (1979) defined destination images as the summation of ... , P. , Haider, D. H. , Rein, I. (1993). Marketing Places: Attracting Investment, Industry, and Tourism to Cities, States, and Nations. New York: Free ...
Just recently, the Tourism Malaysia (the countrys promotion arm) launched a promotional blitz on international television repackaging Malaysia as a country for nature and culture exploration, under the theme Truly Asia. It will still project Malaysia as a destination of everything, everyone, anytime— value-for-money destination, nature, adventure and agro-tourism destination, a friendly, and a moderate Islamic nation capable of drawing together different people from all walks of life.
Part of the current image that Malaysia is projecting is the shift from the usual tourism in the rural settings which focuses on culture, tradition and exotic places to new urban-based tourism concepts like Health Tourism, MICE Tourism and Sports Tourism where A1 facilities is of utmost importance. How Were These Images Determined The number of images that Malaysia seems to wander in and out of is actually a composite parts of what Malaysia really is. Each one of that particular image projected and painted by the Tourism Malaysia through time more or less answers and caters to the needs of the tourism industry at that particular time; they might be different but they are all Malaysia through and through. In the past it was quite easy to market Asian destinations, in general and Malaysian places of interests, in particular on nothing but attributes of exotic cultures and value for money but the last couple of years these features and other tourism highlights are not enough. Most tourists needs have far exceeded the basic requirement of beautiful places with nothing but rudiment and sometimes even primal facilities. With the growing affordability of air travel, people can now choose what place to visit from among the different places of interest in any part of the world. At present the industry as a whole is characterized by a varied list of significant trends, which used to be threats but have become opportunities and options that have become challenges instead.
Malaysias changing images started with the A Tropical Paradise appellation which in the 70s seems to be the most appropriate move — Europeans and Americans are scouring the Pacific for exotic places to spend their leisure. Then there was the Clean Destination promotion during the time of the rapid spread of sexually transmitted disease to discourage tourists from going to high-risks places and instead go to Malaysia where it is safe and above all clean. The most successful tourism promotional campaign of the Tourism Malaysia was selling nature and natural environment of Malaysia. From this endeavour sprung out several numbers of new tourism products that has endear Malaysia in the hearts of the travelling visitors. This also opened the door to the launching of Malaysia: Truly Asia which combined everything good about Malaysia specifically focusing on those different and various festivities, culture and traditions that places Malaysia in the heart of Asia. The various campaigns pursued and embarked on by the Malaysian tourism industry, together with the assistance and support of its government and all agencies, were all geared to showcase the tourism potentials of the country as well as encourage, attract and entice people to come for a visit and even to stay. How do the ….
... destination due to adequate marketing practices. This paper aims to show the internationalization process, expenditure of tourism, places of tourism ... positive image of our country and for introducing our prime tourist attractions as well as our vibrant culture. But ... , for example – Maldives, Malaysia, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos PDR - have developed their tourism industry much faster than this country ...