Depression is the general term used for mood disorders. The different forms of depression are, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder (1 and 2), mood disorders due to general medical condition, and substance induce mood disorder; this is according to psychologist. Psychiatrist argues that there are two main types of mood disorder, which are major depressive mood disorder and bipolar 1. However, they still recognize that there are different elements or level of mood disorders (the recognition of bipolar 2).
Mood disorders are common among the general population. One study revealed that about 10% of the United States population has at least one of the forms of mood disorders.
It is more common in women than in men. About 66% of the patients with mood disorders are female. The reason for this is still not known, however, researchers hypothesis that this might be due to differences in hormones, differing psychosocial stressors, and learned helplessness. It has a lifetime prevalence of about 15%, and perhaps as high as about 25% for females.
The mean age for contracting a mood disorder is about 35 years old. Most people contract a mood disorder between the ages of 20 and 50 years old. However, research shows that incident of mood disorders are increasing among people below the age of 20 years old. Researchers suspect that this may be due to substance abuse. The prevalence of mood disorders does not differ from race to race, however, clinicians tend to under diagnose patients who are from a different race from their own. Depression usually affects people who are in no close interpersonal relationships or who are divorced or separated.
Unipolar depression and bipolar disorder are two common mood disorders. The emotions that make these two disorders classify as mood disorders are depression and mania. Depression is a mood that makes a ... , dizziness, general pain, indigestion, and constipation. All of these symptoms can also be exhibited by a person who has bipolar disorder when they ...
No direct correlation has been found between depression and socio economic status; however, researchers suspect that there is a higher rate of bipolar disorder among higher socioeconomic groups. The term depression covers a variety of negative moods and behavior change. The mood change may be long lasting or temporary, depending on the nature of the mood disorder. Some symptoms of depression are dissatisfaction and anxiety, changes in appetite (some people eat more, some eat less), changes in sleep pattern and psychomotor functioning. Psychomotor functioning includes; loss of interest and energy, feelings of guilt, thoughts of death, and diminished concentration. Clinicians have to be very careful when diagnosing a person as having a mood disorder, because many people report having theses symptoms and do not meet the criteria for having a mood disorder (DSM 1 V criteria).
As I stated earlier, depression comes in different forms and variety and affects individuals according to how they are classified. I will now give the classifications of the different forms of mood disorders starting with major depressive disorder. A major depressive episode is identified by depressed moods or loss of interest in activities. The episode should not be accounted for by another disorder. There must not be any period of a manic or hypomania episode, except for any that have been the result of a substance abuse, medication, or the direct physiological effect of a general medical condition. An episode may last a variable length of time.
Therefore, it may last a few weeks or months, or it might just get weaker with some symptoms persevering for long lengths of time. For a minority of the patients, the symptoms may continue to meet the criteria for as long as a year. At least half the amount of patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder will have a repeat episode in their lifetime. Research shows that about 15% of the people with major depressive disorder have psychotic symptoms, usually delusion, and in rarer cases hallucinations. The DSM 1 V list the criteria for a major depressive episode different from a mere state of depression according to the DSM 1 V, the disorder must cause social or occupational impairments or has caused marked distress to patients. Dysthymia disorder is defined by Irwin and Barbara Sarason as “a condition characterized by mild and chronic depressive symptoms.” Dysthymia is like major depressive disorder, however the episodes are generally extremely longer.
... is not unusual for patients to need more than one mood stabilizing medication for best results. Because bipolar disorders are generally recurrent, maintenance ... drugs can help control symptoms during this period. The depressive phase may not respond as well to lithium and ... especially true when there have been multiple episodes, a clear family history of bipolar disorder or symptom onset before age 18. ...
Periods of dysthymia usually last from 2 to 20 years, with an overall perseverance time of 5 years. Patients with dysthymia usually tell clinicians that they have been depressed for long periods, or as long as they can remember. About 3% of the general population can be considered dysthymia. Since the episodes are so long, some clinicians consider dysthymia to be a personality disorder. However, it is generally considered a mood disorder.
Some of the criteria’s for dysthymia disorder according to the DSM 1 V are, depressed moods most days more times than not for at least 2 years, there has never been a period of mania or hypomania, and patients experience the following symptoms; poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or sleeping too much, low energy, low self esteem, low concentration or difficulty in making decision and feelings of hopeless. Bipolar 1 disorder is defined as a mood disorder in which the patients experience both depressive moods as well as episodes of mania. Mania is characterized by a flight of ideas, elevative moods, and elevative psychomotor activity. Some symptoms of mania are decrease need for sleep, inflated self esteem or grandiosity, and the patient becomes more talkative than usual.
One criterion for bipolar 1 is that the mood disturbance must be severe enough to cause impairments in occupational functioning or in usual social activities or relationships with others bipolar 1 is more prevalent or seems to be in highly creative people such as artist and poets than in the general population. Bipolar disorder is also associated with a high rate of suicide. Bip oal 2 is similar to bipolar 1 in that there is a vast shift in moods. However, in bipolar 2, the shift is from a depressive state to a hypo manic state.
... emotional changes and shifts in mood.Previously known as manic-depressive disorder, bipolar disorder causes alternate periods of mania and depression. To fully understand the effects ... activities (Pendulum Resources). The symptoms for both a depressive episode and a manic episode must cause a significant impairment in social, family, and ...
Hypomania is a lesser version of mania. It is characterized by a distinct period of elevated moods, expansive or irritable moods, or other form of hypo manic behaviors, but social or occupational functioning is not greatly impaired, and the persons do not have to be hospitalized in bipolar 1, person experiences high levels of delusion and bizarre thinking. For example, a person may associate themselves with a popular figure, either fiction or non-fiction and may try to play the role of that. Figure, no matter how impossible it may seem to others. With bipolar 2 patients, the hypo manic episodes are not so severe. It can be considered a reduced version of mania.
Some of the diagnostic criteria for bipolar 2 according to the DSM 1 V are the present history of one or more major depressive episodes, there has never been a manic episode or mixed episode, and the mood symptoms are not better accounted for by another disorder. Cyclothymia disorder is a chronic state of mood disturbance. In this mood disorder, both hypo manic behaviors and depressive behaviors occur and last over a at least a period of 2 years, but neither type of behavior meet the criteria for major depressive disorder or a manic episode. The criteria for cyclothmia are the presence of numerous periods of hypo manic symptoms and numerous periods of depressive symptoms for at least 2 years, and the symptoms must never meet the criteria for major depressive disorder. The symptoms of cyclothmia must not be absent for more than 2 months during the period of at least 2 years. Seasonal affective disorder.
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a pattern of depression related to changes in seasons and a lack of exposure to sunlight. It may cause headaches, irritability and a low energy level. Postpartum depression. It’s common for mothers to feel a mild form of distress that usually occurs a few days to weeks after giving birth.
During this time you may have feelings of sadness, anger, anxiety, irritability and incompetence. A more severe form of the baby blues, called postpartum depression, affects up to 25 percent of new mothers. Depression is also linked to substance abuse and other health factors or diseases. People with AIDS, cancer, cardio vascular diseases, skitosofrania, and other forms of diseases and mental disorders all become depressed at some point or the other. Depressive symptoms are not indigenous to mood disorders; it is found in other diseases as well. Clinicians must be very careful when diagnosing depression, because early assessment can lead to misdiagnosis.
... . She is a patient of major depression disorder. Symptoms clearly show she is struggling with major depression disorder. The five dominant ... is an effective treatment for various conditions like anxiety, mood, personality, eating, and substances abuse which Sylvia is ... Each different technique helps to deal with her major depression disorder. They each help individually, but when applied together ...
For example, the people who usually try to take the life of well known or important figures are often a patient with bipolar 1, who is experiencing a manic episode. These patients are often diagnosed as being skitsofranics. The symptoms of a patient during a manic episode can be very similar to a patient with skitsofrania, that is, bizarre thoughts, illusions, and sometime hallucinations. The consequences of depression stem from mildly affective to severely affective and can and does lead to suicide in some cases. Depression is a difficult and unbearable period of stress for many and causes gross discomfort for patients. This is an exert from ‘abnormal psychology’ by Sarason and Sarason, of a well known psychologist who illustrates the difficulty of coping with severe depression.
“It is difficult to put into words how I felt that time. I guess my major reaction was one of despair… a despair of never being human again. I honestly felt sub-human, lower than the lowest vermin. Furthermore, I was self deprecatory and could not understand why anyone would want to associate with me.
I became mistrustful of others and I am sure they were checking up on me to prove I was incompetent myself. I had become increasingly concerned about finances. On one hand, I thought I was receiving extra money that I didn’t deserve, and on the other hand, I was certain that we were going bankrupt. In any case, I was positive that I was going to wind up in jail.
When I received my July salary statement, it appeared to me that the total was larger than it should be. That frightened me, and I told my wife that we should call the university immediately and return money before I got into trouble. Gently, my wife told me that she thought the money was correct and there was nothing to worry about. Of course, she was right. I not only pondered my current situation, but my career as well. I was positive that I was a fraud and a phony and that I didn’t deserve my PHD.
I didn’t deserve to have a tenure; I didn’t deserve to be a full professor… I didn’t deserve the research grants I have been awarded. I couldn’t understand how I have written the books and journal articles that I had, and how they have been accepted for publication. I must have conned a lot of people” (End ler, 1990, pg 41-42).
... the Social Democrats governed. All went reasonably well until the depression struck. Then the coalition partners disagreed sharply on economic policy ... . The National Government took three decisive steps to attack the depression. First, to balance the budget, it raised taxes, cut insurance ... The Great Depression of the 1930s was a result of World War I. ...
This exert illustrated how drastically depression may alter mood, perception, and individuals behavior pattern.
Depression is on a continuum and goes be from one extreme to the next. This exert is an example of the other extreme of depression, which is mania or a manic episode. This exert is also taken from ‘abnormal psychology’ by Sarason and Sarason. “When I am high, I couldn’t worry about money if I tried. So I don’t. The money will come from somewhere, I am entitled, god will provide…
So I bought 12 snake bite kits, with a sense of urgency and importance. I bought precious stones, elegant and unnecessary furniture, and three watches within an hour of one another (Rolex watches), and totally inappropriate serin like clothes. On one spree I spent hundreds of dollars on books having titles or covers that somehow caught my fancy… Once I shopped lift a blouse because I couldn’t wait a bit longer for the woman with the molasses feet in front of me in the line. I imagined I must have spent far more than $30, 000 during my two manic episodes, and god only knows how much more during my frequent hypomania. I haven’t any idea where most of the money went (Goodwin and Jamison, 1990, pg 29).
This is just one dimension of what bipolar disorder can do to you. Some patients react more serious to symptoms, reactions that can inflict pain on themselves and others. Bear in mind that the patients carry out these behaviors with little or no care in regards to the consequences. There are no factual causes for depression. Clinicians and psychologist alike have many methods and theories in which they try to explain the causes of depression.
According to Harold Kaplan and Benjamin Sadock, ‘the causative factors can be divided into biological factors, genetic factors, and psychosocial factors. The division is artificial because the three realms may interact with one another. For example, psychosocial and genetic factors can influence biological factors (ex… concentration of certain neurotransmitters) .” Biologist, and researchers who focus their attention on explaining the course of depression from a biological point of view, highlights many biological factors that may cause depression, some of which I will explore. Researchers claim that depression reflects and abnormal regulation in the circadian rhythm, and depression can therefore be improved by correcting this problem.
... common of which is bipolar type I disorder. In this disorder, patients experience episodes of both depression and full-blown mania, normally in a ... a suicide attempt, much like the old tricyclic and MAO inhibitor antidepressants. In addition to these mood stabilizing drugs, some patients benefit from ...
Some experiments with animals shows that through anti depressants, scientist can effect change in the biological clock (circadian rhythm).
Growth hormones are also attributed to depression. Researchers found that there is a statistical difference between depressed patients and normal persons in the regulation of growth hormones. Depressed patients receive a vastly larger amount of sleep-induced growth hormones than normal people. They also claim that the two neurotransmitters mostly involved in depression are norepinephrine and serotonin.
Dopamines, though to a lesser extent than the previous two, are also suggested to play its role in depression. According to biologist, dopamine activities may reduce in depression and increase in mania. This is not quite conclusive, as researchers are not sure which is the cause and which is the effect. The second cause of depression according to Sadock and Kaplan is genetics.
According to them, genetic data strongly indicate that a significant factor in the development of depression is genetics. They explain this through family studies, adoption studies, and twin studies. Sarason and Sarason found that persons with relatives who have bipolar disorder have a 15% chance of contracting or developing a mood disorder (1% for the rest of the population, including females).
Family studies show that the likely hood of contracting a mood disorder lessons as the degree of the relationship widens. For example, a cousin of a patient with depression will be less likely to develop the disease than a brother or sister of the patient.
If both parents of a child have bipolar disorder, there is a 50% to 75% chance that the child will develop a mood disorder. Adoption studies also supports the argument of a genetic basis of depression. Adoption studies show that children with parents of mood disorders are still at risk even if they are living outside the environment of their biological families. According to Sarason and Sarason, monozygotic twins with parents with mood disorders have a 55% chance of both developing the disease.
Dizygotic twins have an 18% chance of both developing the disease. Other studies have shown that for monozygotic twins, the chances of them both developing the disease ranges from 33-90% depending on the study. For dizygotic twins, the rate of development was 5-25% for bipolar disorder and 10 – 25% for major depressive disorder. The third and final cause of depression or mood disorders according to Kaplan and Sadock is psychosocial factors. Psychosocial factors include the environment and life stress, learned helplessness and other factors. Researchers found a positive relationship between stressful events and the first episode of mood disorders.
Psychologist claim that the stress leads to long lasting changes in the functional states of various neurotransmitters and intra neural signaling systems, which may lead to future episodes of depression. Various researches suggest that the life event, which is mostly associated to depression, is the loss of parents before age 11. Behavioral psychologist argues that depression is a behavior that is learnt; a state that they call learned helplessness. In an experiment with animals, the animals were repeatedly shocked and could not escape.
After a while, the animals did not attempt to escape any more. In depressed patients this state of learned helplessness is evident. Behaviorist proposes that they can treat depression through techniques of rewards and positive reinforcement. Cognitive theorist proposes that depression is as a result of negative distortions, negative self-evaluation and pessimism. These learned negative views then develop into depression. The causes of mood disorders can be considered the beginning, however, there can be various endings.
One of the most extreme endings of mood disorder is suicide. As I highlighted earlier, mood disorder may be chronic, very stressful, and very difficult to cope with. Some mood disorder patients often have taken the extreme measure of committing suicide. Suicide is defined by Edwin Shnedmanas “a conscious act of self induce annihilation, best understood as a multi dimensional malaise in a needful individual who defines an issue for which suicide is perceived as the best solution.
In other words, suicide is a conscious act of killing one’s self, usually because of feelings of despair, which usually results from the loss of something; including loss of help, hope, or a loved one. Risk factors for suicide include age (highest rate of suicide is among middle aged men), and sex (men commit suicide more than women).
Suicide also results from a feeling of hopelessness, which is a characteristic of depression. Research shows that 15% of severely depressed patients kill themselves. Patients with bipolar disorder are more likely to commit suicide than patients with any other form of mood disorder. These patients will also commit suicide during a manic or hypo manic episode.
This is because that it is during this period that the patients acquire the energy to carry out their suicidal thoughts. Depression also leads to what is known as parasuicide. Parasuicide is the term used for suicidal behaviors that do not result in death. This is mostly found in females depressive patients. A study by How ton etal in 1995 revealed that less than half the parasuicide cases studied were men, and about 10 times the amount of parasuicide as suicides were reported during the period of 1995. Remember, about 10 to 15 percent of depressive patients commit suicide and two thirds of them have suicidal ideation.
In this section, I will now analyze some research done on depression and depressed patients, and the implication it had on behavior change. The first study is about depression and thoughts of suicide among individuals living with HIV. The study was conducted in 1998/99. The first objective of the study was to examine the prevalence and characteristics of suicidal ideation among middle age and older persons living with HIV or AIDS. During the research, the researchers found a correlation between patients contemplating suicide and depression. Since correlation does not mean causation, the researchers explore the issue by controlling for depression in the experiment.
They found that after they control for depression, patients who contemplated suicide and the patients who remain stable were the same in their behaviors, with the exception of coping strategies and physical functioning. Here are some facts about the research. There were a total of 113 participants, of which 85 were men and 28 were women who were recruited from community-based organizations in Milwaukee. The average ages were 53 and 66% of them were between the ages of 45 and 54 years. Of the sample, 48 were white, 48 were black, 9 were Hispanic and 8 were other ethnicities. Their average years of education were 14 years.
Twenty-six were currently married or had a partner, and 55 had children. The Beck depression inventory was used to assess suicidal ideation and link it to depression. Researchers found that the BDI provides a valid assessment of depressive symptoms in people with HIV/AIDS. The patients who had suicidal thoughts reported greater symptoms of anxiety, somatization, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity and depression (all the above symptoms can fall under depression).
The researchers concluded that the thoughts of suicide were a result of depression that was developed from contracting the HIV/AIDS virus. In this other research experiment, psychologists wanted to find out the effectiveness of conducting psychotherapy on depression in a non-clinical form of setting.
Basically, what the researchers wanted to find out was that if it was not for the stigma associated with a mental health clinic more people suffering from depression would attend therapy. The target setting was the administrative conference room of a local supermarket. Facts about the research: there were a total of 12 participants. They were selected from an original amount of 73 people. All 12 participants were female, 11 of the twelve were Caucasian, and their average ages was 36. Most of the participants had completed at least high school and only 1 was living with a spouse.
They all had to fill out Beck Depression Inventories. Of the 12 women, 6 of them completed the therapy (through week 16).
The women who completed the study were very satisfied with their treatment in the supermarket. Most of the people who completed the study had received mental health treatment in the past and was able to compare the venue of the supermarket, with a clinical venue. The 2 primary advantages the women pointed out were the reduced stigma associated with a mental health clinic and the convenience of doing therapy while being able to do other things (example, shopping).
Of the participants who dropped out of the research, only 2 reported dropping out because of a problem receiving therapy in a supermarket setting.
For those who completed, the researchers detected a reduction in depression symptoms and an overall increase in health. The researchers concluded that the change in setting was very effective in treating depression since as many as 50% of the participants were satisfied. This research was research was testing the effects of a relatively new drug on bipolar 2 disorder. The drug is called oxcarbazepine. This research was done by administering the drug to 4 Caucasian patients who experienced depression. The drug was found to be very successful when treating depression and all 4 patients showed dramatic improvements.
Here are the illustrations of the exerts as it was in the research. Mr. A was a 52 year old, married man who was referred by a therapist in his employment assistance program for hostile behavior, which affected his relationships with family members and coworkers. He had been treated unsuccessfully with di valproate and psychotherapy. He began oxcarbazepine monotherapy up to 1200 mg per day. He experienced better work productivity, and absence of physical violence to his wife and coworkers, and fewer depressive days.
The other patient Miss B was a 27 years old single woman who was in treatment for childhood sexual abuse, self -mutilation, several suicide attempts and episodic violent behavior. She went through numerous inpatient and outpatient treatment and several different types of antidepressants, none of which were effective. Oxcarbozepine was added to the other antidepressants and over the next year she showed vast improvements. She even dropped 5 of the other depressants and she had no hospitalization and temper outbursts or depressive episodes. Mr. C was a 40-year-old man who was being treated for agitation and conflict with his wife.
Oxcarbozepine was added to his other medication and his irritability decreased, his depression lifted, his relationship with his wife improved and he maintained full employment. Mr. D was referred for treatment of domestic violence. He was introduced to oxcarbozepine.
Since then he felt happier, improved his home life and reduced his alcohol consumption. His friends even noticed the progress. Depression in the elderly A study of elderly persons living in institutional, rural and urban settings was conducted in Jamaica to determine the prevalence of depression among the elderly and to determine the factors which may act as protective mechanisms against depression. Elderly males and females were chosen from three senior citizens clubs and the Golden Age Home in Kingston and St Andrew. The study revealed that the highest prevalence of depression was in the institutional setting followed by urban and then rural areas.
Elderly persons less than 69 years old, those with no income, and those with financial troubles in the previous year were more likely to have depressive symptoms. The elderly who had close contact with children and who possessed enough privacy were likely not to have depressive symptoms. These findings disclosed that there is a significant level of depression among the elderly, and that programmes need to be developed to cope with their emotional and economic needs. In Jamaica studies have been done on marijuana and if it can be used to treat depression Researchers found that one third of the island’s residents smoke ganja on a regular basis, and that ganja use, is practiced by people from all strata of society.
The commissioners found medical evidence and expert testimony supported the idea that cannabis is useful in decreasing severity of the following medical problems: nausea, vomiting, insomnia, chronic pain, appetite loss, glaucoma, muscle spasticity from spinal cord injuries and multiple sclerosis, migraine headaches, depression, and seizures. Ethnicity and depression Another study that included interviews with 5, 196 Caribbeans and Asians, plus 2, 867 whites, followed by detailed clinical examinations. in the Caribbean shows that nationals were 60 per cent more likely to suffer depression than whites and Caribbean men were twice as likely to be depressed as white men. However, single people and lone parents experienced lower rates of depression than those who were married or co-ha biting; Mood disorders are dynamic in nature and as a result, differs in symptoms (different levels or added symptoms) from disorder to disorder. This dynamics results in a complexity in treating mood disorders. It also created the emergence of various types of treatments.
There are many theories of mood disorders, all consisting of their own methods and treatment. Some of these treatments are biologically based treatment, psychodynamic treatment, interpersonal psychotherapy, the humanistic existential approach, the behavioral approach, cognitive therapy, and cognitive behavior therapy. Biologically based treatment involves two main approaches; these are anti depressant medication and electro convulsive therapy. Anti depressant drugs can sometimes treat major depressive disorder, however, many people do not recover completely with the use of these drugs. 29 – 46% of depressed patients respond fully to anti depressant drugs in which they receive the right dose over the right period of time. Another 15% recover somewhat and the remainder does not respond to treatment at all.
In chronic depressions there is a lower response rate to depressants than for milder depression. Also, only 33% of patients with psychotic depression respond to anti depressant drugs. There are different types of anti depressants; some of these are tricycles; imipramine, doxepin, nortriptyline; second-generation agents; amoxopine, trazodone, maprotiline; monoamine oxidase inhibitors; phenazine and trany clypromine. It is important to note that anti depressants do not work equally well among all patients. Clinicians have to be very careful when prescribing medications of this nature, they have to examine past medical history as well as other factors.
It is necessary state that individuals can be treated as either inpatients or out patients. That is, patients can be hospitalized or not. In a study done by the Madison institute of medicine, WI, from December 10 – 14, 2000, they found that two anti depressants, citolaprom and paroxetine was very effective in treating depression. The drugs controlled comin tant anxiety in the depressed patients in the study. One criticism of anti depressant drugs is that the time of inducement of the medication to the time of effect is too long. To address this problem, physicians resort to electro convulsive therapy.
This involves passing a current between 70 and 130 volts through the patient head. The patient is first given anesthetic and muscle relaxation drugs. The current is administered through 2 electrodes placed on the side of the head. Only about half the percentage of patients who have not responded to anti depressant, drugs respond to electro convulsive therapy.
The aim of both these therapies are to alleviate the pain directly. In psycho anal ethic therapy, the goal is to create a change in personality structure or character, not simply to alleviate pain. They aim to improve the capacity to grieve, the capacity to trust, coping mechanism, and other developments this lead to interpersonal therapy. This is based on the importance of social support and on the protective role of social support when in life stress.
The humanistic existential therapist tries to bridge the gap between the person’s ideal self and his or her perception of their actual self. They argue that this gap is the cause of depression, and if significantly or effectively reduced, can treat depression successfully. Behavioral therapy operates on the premise that depression is a behavior learnt and as a result, can be unlearn t, and new and more appropriate behavior learnt. An effective behavioral approach to treating depression is social skills training, which focuses on both appropriate behaviors and improve skills in understanding the cues other people give in social interaction. Cognitive therapy was developed by beck this therapeutic method focuses on changing cognitive distortions and the patient’s negative perception of the world and the environment. The main goal of cognitive therapy is to alleviate depressive episodes and reduce their reoccurrence by helping patients to recognize and to test negative conditions.
Some studies suggest that it is better than pharmocotherapy and produces fewer side effects. Family therapy is also effective on treating depression. It creates an environment of support and understanding by family members and depressed patients. It examines the role of the mood disorder patient in the family, and the overall psychological well being of the family. This can be used as an important indicator to treatment. Psychologist and physicians hypothesis that the mixture of pharmocotherapy and psychosocailtherapoy makes both forms of therapy more effective than either alone.
However, not all physicians agree with this hypothesis. Some of them believe that a mixture of both the therapies can only result in unnecessary side effects and an increase in the cost of medication. Light therapy This therapy is mainly used to treat seasonal affective disorder (SAD).
Scientists believe fewer hours of sunlight may increase levels of melatonin, a brain hormone thought to induce sleep and depress mood.
Treatment with a specialized type of bright light, which suppresses production of melatonin, may help someone with this disorder Alternative Medicine St. John’s wort St. John’s wort is an herbal preparation from the Hypericum perforatum plant. It has long been used in folk medicine, and today it’s widely prescribed in Europe to treat anxiety, depression and sleep disorders. In the United States it’s sold in health food stores and pharmacies in the form of tablets or tea. European studies suggest that St.
John’s wort may work as well as antidepressants and with fewer side effects. Adverse reactions include dry mouth, dizziness, digestive problems, fatigue, confusion and sensitivity to sunlight. In most cases though, the symptoms are mild. Of concern is that St. John’s wort can interfere with the effectiveness of prescription medications, including antidepressants, drugs to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and AIDS, and drugs to prevent organ rejection in people who have had transplants.
There’s also a risk of serotonin syndrome if St. John’s wort is used with an SSRI or another serotonin-active antidepressant. SAM-e Pronounced “Sammy,” short for S-adenosyl-methionine, this chemical substance is available in Europe as a prescription drug to treat depression. In the United States it’s sold as an over-the-counter dietary supplement.
SAM-e is a chemical substance found in all human cells and plays a role in many body functions. It’s thought to increase levels of serotonin and dopamine, but this hasn’t been proved. Studies in Europe suggest it works as well as standard antidepressants but with milder side effects. The pills are expensive, especially considering their effectiveness is unproven.
Too much of the product could be harmful, boosting serotonin to dangerously high levels. 5-HTP One of the raw materials that your body needs to make serotonin is a chemical called 5-HTP, which is short for 5-hydroxy tryptophan. 5-HTP is prescribed in Europe to treat depression and other conditions, including obesity and insomnia. In the United States it’s available as an over-the-counter supplement. In theory, if you boost your body’s level of 5-HTP, you should also elevate your levels of serotonin. One small study compared 5-HTP with the SSRI fluvoxamine.
People taking three daily doses of 100 milligrams of 5-HTP reported slightly more relief and fewer side effects than did those taking fluvoxamine. But there’s not enough evidence to determine if 5-HTP is effective and safe. Omega-3 fatty acids Omega-3 fatty acids are found in fish oil and certain plants. They ” re being studied as a possible mood stabilizer for people with bipolar depression and other psychiatric disorders. Some studies suggest that people with depression have decreased amounts of an active ingredient found in omega-3 fatty acids. A recent small study also suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may prevent relapse among people with bipolar illness.
Fish oil capsules containing omega-3 fatty acids are sold in stores. The capsules are high in fat and calories and may produce gastrointestinal problems. Another way to get more omega-3 fatty acids is simply to eat more fish. Using functional brain imaging, Helen Mayberg, M. D.
, and colleagues found increased activity in the cortex accompanied by decreases in limbic regions in patients who responded to either the popular antidepressant fluoxetine or to a placebo. They propose that this pattern of changes may be necessary for therapeutic response. However, patients who responded to fluoxetine also experienced unique changes in lower areas – brainstem, striatum and hippocampus – thought to confer additional advantage in sustaining the response long term and preventing relapse. “Our findings do not support the notion that antidepressants work merely via a placebo effect,” cautioned Mayberg. “Patients on active medication who failed to improve did not sustain the brainstem, striatal and hippocampus changes unique to antidepressant responders.” – (Positron Emission Tomography (PET scan) study May 2002 American Journal of Psychiatry) o Adjustment disorders. If a loved one dies, you lose your job or you receive a diagnosis of cancer, a person normally would feel, sad, or angry, but most people come to terms with the lasting consequences of life stresses, but some don’t.
This is what’s known as an adjustment disorder – when your response to a stressful event or situation causes signs and symptoms of depression. Some people develop an adjustment disorder in response to a single event. In others, it stems from a combination of stressors. Adjustment disorders can be acute – lasting less than 6 months – or chronic – lasting longer. Question: 3 a: Depression This research uncovered some of the mysteries of mood disorders. We explored issues such as causes of depression, risk factors for depression, consequences of depression, and myths about the frame work of depression.
We also explored some research which were dynamic in nature and varied in material and subject alike. There have been many new experiments for treatment, and scientists have uncovered many new anti depressants. Depression is more clearly understood in recent years than in the past. Psychologists have begin to see the important of educating the population about the severe disorder. They feel that mood disorders will be more effectively treated if the general population understood better what the depression was all about. Our research also found that depression is common in all cultures and the prevalence is the same or almost the same in most races.
In other words, no society is protected from depression, it was found all over the world. Depression places severe stress on individuals, and in extreme cases may lead to suicide. Because of this, extensive research and studies have been done and continues to be done in order to best treat or even prevent the occurrence of depression. Bibliography 1.
Frank. E et al. -Pilot study of community mental health care for depression in a supermarket setting 2. Franks C. New Developments in Behavior Therapy: From Research to clinical application-Howarth Press 28 East 22 nd street N. Y, N, Y.
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-Double Blind comparison of citalopram and paroxetine in the treatment of patients with depression and anxiety 5. Kaplan H & Sadock B. -Concise textbook of clinical Psychiatry 6. Letter to The Editor Oxcarbazepine for mood disorders-American Psychiatry association. 7. Mayberg, H, M.
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