Chapter 1 anomie Emile Durkheim’s designation for a condition in which social control becomes ineffective as a result of the loss of shared values and of a sense of purpose in society. conflict perspectives the sociological approach that views groups in society as engaged in a continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources. functionalist perspectives the sociological approach that views society as a stable, orderly system. high-income countries nations with highly industrialized economies; technologically advanced industrial, administrative, and service occupations; and relatively high levels of national and personal income. industrialization the process by which societies are transformed from dependence on agriculture and handmade products to an emphasis on manufacturing and related industries. latent functions unintended functions that are hidden and remain unacknowledged by participants.
low-income countries nations with little industrialization and low levels of national and personal income. macro level analysis an approach that examines whole societies, large-scale social structures and social systems. manifest functions functions that are intended and / or overtly recognized by the participants in a social unit. micro level analysis sociological theory and research that focus on small groups rather than on large-scale social structures. middle-income countries nations with industrializing economies and moderate levels of national and personal income. positivism a term describing Auguste Comte’s belief that the world can best be understood through scientific inquiry.
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is an increasingly important issue for all businesses around the world. CSR covers economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities of firms. Explain the factors that may motivate an MNE to adopt CSR in its international business strategy and operations. How might the country context influence the types of CSR initiatives undertaken? Support your ...
postmodern perspectives the sociological approach that attempts to explain social life in modern societies that are characterized by post industrialization, consumerism, and global communications. social Darwinism Herbert Spencer’s belief that those species of animals, including human beings, best adapted to their environment survive and prosper, whereas those poorly adapted die out. social facts Emile Durkheim’s term for patterned ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that exist outside any one individual but that exert social control over each person. society a large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
sociological imagination C. Wright Mills’s term for the ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society. sociology the systematic study of human society and social interaction. symbolic interaction ist perspectives the sociological approach that views society as the sum of the interactions of individuals and groups. theory a set of logically interrelated statements that attempts to describe, explain, and occasionally predict social events. urbanization the process by which an increasing proportion of a population lives in cities rather than in rural areas.
Chapter 2 content analysis the systematic examination of cultural artifacts or various forms of communication to extract thematic data and draw conclusions about social life. control group in an experiment, the group containing the subjects who are not exposed to the independent variable. correlation a relationship that exists when two variables are associated more frequently than could be expected by chance. dependent variable a variable that is assumed to depend on or be caused by one or more other (independent) variables. ethnography a detailed study of the life and activities of a group of people by researchers who may live with that group over a period of years. experiment a research method involving a carefully designed situation in which the researcher studies the impact of certain variables on subjects’ attitudes or behavior.
An Evaluation Of The Types Of Subject sAn Evaluation Of The Types Of Subjects Used In Social Psychological Research Over the past few years there has been a growing concern about the validity of psychological research, due to the fact that an overwhelming majority of studies have used university and college students as subjects who have been tested in academic laboratories on tasks which are quite ...
experimental group in an experiment, this group contains the subjects who are exposed to an independent variable (the experimental condition) to study its effect on them. field research the study of social life in its natural setting: observing and interviewing people where they live, work, and play. Hawthorne effect a phenomenon in which changes in a subject’s behavior are caused by the researcher’s presence or by the subject’s awareness of being studied. hypothesis in research studies, a tentative statement of the relationship between two or more concepts.
independent variable a variable that is presumed to cause or determine a dependent variable. interview a research method using a data collection encounter in which an interviewer asks the respondent questions and records the answers. participant observation a research method in which researchers collect data while being part of the activities of the group being studied. probability sampling choosing participants for a study on the basis of specific characteristics, possibly including such factors as age, sex, race / ethnicity , and educational attainment.
questionnaire a printed research instrument containing a series of items to which subjects respond. random sampling a study approach in which every member of an entire population being studied has the same chance of being selected. reliability in sociological research, the extent to which a study or research instrument yields consistent results when applied to different individuals at one time or to the same individuals over time. research methods specific strategies or techniques for systematically conducting research. respondents persons who provide data for analysis through interviews or questionnaires.
secondary analysis a research method in which researchers use existing material and analyze data that were originally collected by others. survey a poll in which the researcher gathers facts or attempts to determine the relationships between facts. unstructured interview an extended, open-ended interaction between an interviewer and an interviewee. validity in sociological research, the extent to which a study or research instrument accurately measures what it is supposed to measure. Chapter 3 counterculture group that strongly rejects dominant societal values and norms and seeks alternative lifestyles.
The celebrity culture in the modern society has taken a very central position in the lives of people. Celebrities’ lives have become the talk of the day amongst Entertainment magazines, TV shows and internet blogs. They are loaded with information about celebrities. Celebs have been held with esteem in the society as if they are gods. People are keen on following up on every move made by the ...
cultural imperialism the extensive infusion of one nation’s culture into other nations. cultural lag William Ogburn’s term for a gap between the technical development of a society (material culture) and its moral and legal institutions (nonmaterial culture).
cultural relativism the belief that the behaviors and customs of any culture must be viewed and analyzed by the culture’s own standards. cultural universals customs and practices that occur across all societies. culture the knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society. culture shock the disorientation that people feel when they encounter cultures radically different from their own and believe they cannot depend on their own taken-for-granted assumptions about life.
diffusion the transmission of cultural items or social practices from one group or society to another. discovery the process of learning about something previously unknown or unrecognized. ethnocentrism the assumption that one’s own culture and way of life are superior to all others. folkways informal norms or everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture.
invention the process of reshaping existing cultural items into a new form. language a set of symbols that expresses ideas and enables people to think and communicate with one another. laws formal, standardized norms that have been enacted by legislatures and are enforced by formal sanctions. material culture a component of culture that consists of the physical or tangible creations (such as clothing, shelter, and art) that members of a society make, use, and share. mores strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences in a particular culture. nonmaterial culture a component of culture that consists of the abstract or intangible human creations of society (such as attitudes, beliefs, and values) that influence people’s behavior.
... of a collectivist society. From all these results we can conclude that culture influences social conformity to groups in that people in cultures characterized by community ... characteristic among subjects surveyed, second only to being a good person. However, even higher than the United States’ percent of subjects ...
norms established rules of behavior or standards of conduct. popular culture the component of culture that consists of activities, products, and services that are assumed to appeal primarily to members of the middle and working classes. sanctions rewards for appropriate behavior or penalties for inappropriate behavior. Sapir-Who rf hypothesis the proposition that language shapes the view of reality of its speakers. subculture a group of people who share a distinctive set of cultural beliefs and behaviors that differs in some significant way from that of the larger society. symbol anything that meaningfully represents something else.
taboos mores so strong that their violation is considered to be extremely offensive and even unmentionable. technology the knowledge, techniques, and tools that allow people to transform resources into a usable form and the knowledge and skills required to use what is developed. values collective ideas about what is right or wrong, good or bad, and desirable or undesirable in a particular culture. Chapter 4 agents of socialization the persons, groups, or institutions that teach us what we need to know in order to participate in society. anticipatory socialization the process by which knowledge and skills are learned for future roles. ego according to Sigmund Freud, the rational, reality-oriented component of personality that imposes restrictions on the innate pleasure-seeking drives of the id.
gender socialization the aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of being female or male in a specific group or society. generalized other George Herbert Mead’s term for the child’s awareness of the demands and expectations of the society as a whole or of the child’s subculture. id Sigmund Freud’s term for the component of personality that includes all of the individual’s basic biological drives and needs that demand immediate gratification. looking-glass self Charles Horton Cooley’s term for the way in which a person’s sense of self is derived from the perceptions of others. peer group a group of people who are linked by common interests, equal social position, and (usually) similar age. racial socialization the aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of one’s racial or ethnic status.
Aggression is a behavioral characteristic that refers to forceful actions or procedures (such a deliberate attack) with intentions to dominate or master. It tends to be hostile, injurious, or destructive, and is often motivated by frustration (The Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 1995). For an individual, aggressive behavior is considered understandable and normal under appropriate circumstances, but ...
resocialization the process of learning a new and different set of attitudes, values, and behaviors from those in one’s background and experience. role-taking the process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person in order to understand the world from that person’s point of view. self-concept the totality of our beliefs and feelings about ourselves. significant other those persons whose care, affection, and approval are especially desired and who are most important in the development of the self. social devaluation a situation in which a person or group is considered to have less social value than other individuals or groups.
socialization the lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society. sociobiology the systematic study of how biology affects social behavior. superego Sigmund Freud’s term for the conscience, consisting of the moral and ethical aspects of personality. total institution Erving Goffman’s term for a place where people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period of time and come under the control of the officials who run the institution. Chapter 5 achieved status a social position that a person assumes voluntarily as a result of personal choice, merit, or direct effort.
agrarian societies societies that use the technology of large-scale farming, including animal-drawn or energy-powered plows and equipment, to produce their food supply. ascribed status a social position conferred at birth or received involuntarily later in life based on attributes over which the individual has little or no control, such as race / ethnicity , age, and gender. dramaturgical analysis the study of social interaction that compares everyday life to a theatrical presentation. ethno methodology the study of the commonsense knowledge that people use to understand the situations in which they find themselves. formal organization a highly structured group formed for the purpose of completing certain tasks or achieving specific goals.
... and ideas). POSITIVE IMPACTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA On SOCIETY Besides having opportunity to know a lot of people in a fast and easy ... if knowing that other persons would see them coming and get out of the way. Even a group of girlfriends who have ... our relationships? Are people getting addicted to their gadgets due to social media? In an average Asian family, every member of the family ...
Gemeinschaft a traditional society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship and kinship and on inter generational stability. Gesellschaft a large, urban society in which social bonds are based on impersonal and specialized relationships, with little long-term commitment to the group or consensus on values. horticultural societies societies based on technology that supports the cultivation of plants to provide food. hunting and gathering societies societies that use simple technology for hunting animals and gathering vegetation. impression management (presentation of self) Erving Goffman’s term for people’s efforts to present themselves to others in ways that are most favorable to their own interests or image.
industrial societies societies based on technology that mechanizes production. master status the most important status that a person occupies. mechanical solidarity Emile Durkheim’s term for the social cohesion in preindustrial societies, in which there is minimal division of labor and people feel united by shared values and common social bonds. nonverbal communication the transfer of information between persons without the use of speech. organic solidarity Emile Durkheim’s term for the social cohesion found in industrial societies, in which people perform very specialized tasks and feel united by their mutual dependence. pastoral societies societies based on technology that supports the domestication of large animals to provide food, typically emerging in mountainous regions and areas with low amounts of annual rainfall.
personal space the immediate area surrounding a person that the person claims as private. postindustrial societies societies in which technology supports a service- and information-based economy. primary group Charles Horton Cooley’s term for a small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time. role a set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status. role conflict a situation in which incompatible role demands are placed on a person by two or more statuses held at the same time.
role exit a situation in which people disengage from social roles that have been central to their self-identity. role expectation a group’s or society’s definition of the way that a specific role ought to be played. role performance how a person actually plays a role. role strain a condition that occurs when incompatible demands are built into a single status that a person occupies. secondary group a larger, more specialized group in which members engage in more-impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a limited period of time. self-fulfilling prophecy the situation in which a false belief or prediction produces behavior that makes the originally false belief come true.
social construction of reality the process by which our perception of reality is shaped largely by the subjective meaning that we give to an experience. Chapter 6 aggregate a collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but share little else in common. authoritarian leaders people who make all major group decisions and assign tasks to members. bureaucracy an organizational model characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules and procedures, and impersonality in personnel matters. bureaucratic personality a psychological construct that describes those workers who are more concerned with following correct procedures than they are with getting the job done correctly. category a number of people who may never have met one another but share a similar characteristic, such as education level, age, race, or gender.
conformity the process of maintaining or changing behavior to comply with the norms established by a society, subculture, or other group. democratic leaders leaders who encourage group discussion and decision making through consensus building. dyad a group composed of two members. expressive leadership an approach to leadership that provides emotional support for members. goal displacement process that occurs in organizations when the rules become an end in themselves rather than a means to an end, and organizational survival becomes more important than achievement of goals. groupthink the process by which members of a cohesive group arrive at a decision that many individual members privately believe is unwise.
ideal type an abstract model that describes the recurring characteristics of some phenomenon (such as bureaucracy).
informal structure those aspects of participants’ day-to-day activities and interactions that ignore, bypass, or do not correspond with the official rules and procedures of the bureaucracy. ingroup a group to which a person belongs and with which the person feels a sense of identity. instrumental leadership goal- or task-oriented leadership. iron law of oligarchy according to Robert Michels, the tendency of bureaucracies to be ruled by a few people. laissez-faire leaders leaders who are only minimally involved in decision making and who encourage group members to make their own decisions.
network a web of social relationships that links one person with other people and, through them, with other people they know. out group a group to which a person does not belong and toward which the person may feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility. rationality the process by which traditional methods of social organization, characterized by informality and spontaneity, are gradually replaced by efficiently administered formal rules and procedures. reference group a group that strongly influences a person’s behavior and social attitudes, regardless of whether that individual is an actual member. small group a collectivity small enough for all members to be acquainted with one another and to interact simultaneously. triad a group composed of three members.
Chapter 7 conventional (street) crime all violent crime, certain property crimes, and certain morals crimes. corporate crime illegal acts committed by corporate employees on behalf of the corporation and with its support. crime behavior that violates criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail terms, and other sanctions. criminology the systematic study of crime and the criminal justice system, including the police, courts, and prisons. deviance any behavior, belief, or condition that violates cultural norms. differential association theory the proposition that individuals have a greater tendency to deviate from societal norms when they frequently associate with persons who are more favorable toward deviance than conformity.
illegitimate opportunity structures circumstances that provide an opportunity for people to acquire through illegitimate activities what they cannot achieve through legitimate channels. juvenile delinquency a violation of law or the commission of a status offense by young people. labeling theory the proposition that deviants are those people who have been successfully labeled as such by others. occupational (white-collar) crime illegal activities committed by people in the course of their employment or financial affairs.
organized crime a business operation that supplies illegal goods and services for profit. political crime illegal or unethical acts involving the usurpation of power by government officials, or illegal / unethical acts perpetrated against the government by outsiders seeking to make a political statement, undermine the government, or overthrow it. primary deviance the initial act of rule-breaking. punishment any action designed to deprive a person of things of value (including liberty) because of some offense the person is thought to have committed. Rational choice theory of deviance the belief that deviant behavior occurs when a person weighs the costs and benefits of nonconventional or criminal behavior and determines that the benefits will outweigh the risks involved in such actions. secondary deviance the process that occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant accepts that new identity and continues the deviant behavior.
social bond theory the proposition that the probability of deviant behavior increases when a person’s ties to society are weakened or broken. social control systematic practices developed by social groups to encourage conformity and to discourage deviance. strain theory the proposition that people feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving those goals. tertiary deviance deviance that occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant seeks to normalize the behavior by relabeling it as non deviant. Chapter 8 caste system system of social inequality in which people’s status is permanently determined at birth based on their parents’ ascribed characteristics.
class system a type of stratification based on the ownership and control of resources and on the type of work that people do. core nations according to world systems theory, dominant capitalist centers characterized by high levels of industrialization and urbanization. dependency theory the belief that global poverty can at least partially be attributed to the fact that the low-income countries have been exploited by the high-income countries. inter generational mobility the social movement (upward or downward) experienced by family members from one generation to the next. intra generational mobility the social movement (upward or downward) of individuals within their own lifetime. life chances Max Weber’s term for the extent to which individuals have access to important societal resources such as food, clothing, shelter, education, and health care.
modernization theory a perspective that links global inequality to different levels of economic development and suggests that low-income economies can move to middle- and high-income economies by achieving self-sustained economic growth. peripheral nations according to world systems theory, nations that are dependent on core nations for capital, have little or no industrialization (other than what may be brought in by core nations), and have uneven patterns of urbanization. semi peripheral nations according to world systems theory, nations that are more developed than peripheral nations but less developed than core nations. slavery an extreme form of stratification in which some people are owned by others. social exclusion Manuel Castells’s term for the process by which certain individuals and groups are systematically barred from access to positions that would enable them to have an autonomous livelihood in keeping with the social standards and values of a given social context. social mobility the movement of individuals or groups from one level in a stratification system to another.
social stratification the hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on their control over basic resources. Chapter 9 absolute poverty a level of economic deprivation that exists when people do not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life. alienation a feeling of powerlessness and estrangement from other people and from oneself. capitalist class (bourgeoisie) Karl Marx’s term for the class that consists of those who own and control the means of production. class conflict Karl Marx’s term for the struggle between the capitalist class and the working class. classism the belief that persons in the upper or privileged class are superior to those in the lower or working class, particularly in regard to values, behavior, and lifestyles.
feminization of poverty the trend in which women are disproportionately represented among individuals living in poverty. income the economic gain derived from wages, salaries, income transfers (governmental aid), and ownership of property. job deskilling a reduction in the proficiency needed to perform a specific job that leads to a corresponding reduction in the wages for that job. meritocracy a hierarchy in which all positions are rewarded based on people’s ability and credentials. pink-collar occupations relatively low-paying, non manual, semiskilled positions primarily held by women, such as day-care workers, checkout clerks, cashiers, and waitpersons. power according to Max Weber, the ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others.
prestige the respect or regard with which a person or status position is regarded by others. relative poverty a condition that exists when people may be able to afford basic necessities but are still unable to maintain an average standard of living. socioeconomic status (SES) a combined measure that, in order to determine class location, attempts to classify individuals, families, or households in terms of factors such as income, occupation, and education. wealth the value of all of a person’s or family’s economic assets, ‘including income, personal property, and income-producing property. working class (proletariat) those who must sell their labor to the owners in order to earn enough money to survive. Chapter 10 assimilation a process by which members of subordinate racial and ethnic groups become absorbed into the dominant culture.
authoritarian personality a personality type characterized by excessive conformity, submissiveness to authority, intolerance, insecurity, a high level of superstition, and rigid, stereotypic thinking. discrimination actions or practices of dominant-group members (or their representatives) that have a harmful effect on members of a subordinate group. dominant group one that is advantaged and has superior resources and rights in a society. ethnic group a collection of peopl e distinguished, by others or by themselves, primarily on the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics.
ethnic pluralism the coexistence of a variety of distinct racial and ethnic groups within one society. genocide the deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation. individual discrimination behavior consisting of one-on-one acts by members of the dominant group that harm members of the subordinate group or their property. institutional discrimination the day-to-day practices of organizations and institutions that have a harmful impact on members of subordinate groups. internal colonialism according to conflict theorists, a practice that occurs when members of a racial or ethnic group are conquered or colonized and forcibly placed under the economic and political control of the dominant group. prejudice a negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about members of selected racial and ethnic groups.
race a category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, and eye shape. racism a set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices that is used to justify the superior treatment of one racial or ethnic group and the inferior treatment of another racial or ethnic group. scapegoat a person or group that is incapable of offering resistance to the hostility or aggression of others. segregation the spatial and social separation of categories of people by race, ethnicity, class, gender, and / or religion. social distance the extent to which people are willing to interact and establish relationships with members of racial and ethnic groups other than their own. split labor market a term used to describe the division of the economy into two areas of employment, a primary sector or upper tier, composed of higher-paid (usually dominant-group) workers in more-secure jobs, and a secondary sector or lower tier, composed of lower-paid (often subordinate-group) workers in jobs with little security and hazardous working conditions.
stereotypes overgeneralization’s about the appearance, behavior, or other characteristics of particular groups. subordinate group one whose members, because of physical or cultural characteristics, are disadvantaged and subjected to unequal treatment by the dominant group and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination. Chapter 11 body consciousness a term that describes how a person perceives and feels about his or her body. comparable worth the belief that wages ought to reflect the worth of a job, not the gender or race of the worker. feminism the belief that all people-both women and men-are equal and that they should be valued equally and have equal rights.
gender the culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males found in the meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with ‘femininity’ and ‘masculinity.’ gender bias behavior that shows favoritism toward one gender over the other. gender identity a person’s perception of the self as female or male. gender role the attitudes, behavior, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned through the socialization process. hermaphrodite a person in whom sexual differentiation is ambiguous or incomplete. homophobia extreme prejudice directed at gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and others who are perceived as not being heterosexual.
matriarchy a hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by women. patriarchy a hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by men. primary sex characteristics the genitalia used in the reproductive process. secondary sex characteristics the physical traits (other than reproductive organs) that identify an individual’s sex. sex the biological and anatomical differences between females and males. sexism the subordination of one sex, usually female, based on the assumed superiority of the other sex.
sexual harassment unwanted sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature-their concerns are sometimes overlooked or downplayed by teachers and school administrators. sexual orientation a person’s preference for emotional-sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex (heterosexuality), the same sex (homosexuality), or both (bisexuality).
transsexual a person who believes that he or she was born with the body of the wrong sex. transvestite a male who lives as a woman or a female who lives as a man but does not alter the genitalia. wage gap the disparity between women’s and men’s earnings. Chapter 12 activity theory the proposition that people tend to shift gears in late middle age and find substitutes for previous statuses, roles, and activities.
age stratification the inequalities, differences, segregation, or conflict between age groups. ageism prejudice and discrimination against people on the basis of age, particularly against older people. aging the physical, psychological, and social processes associated with growing older. chronological age a person’s age based on date of birth. cohort a group of people born within a specified period in time. disengagement theory the proposition that older persons make a normal and healthy adjustment to aging when they detach themselves from their social roles and prepare for their eventual death.
elder abuse a term used to describe physical abuse, psychological abuse, financial exploitation, and medical abuse or neglect of people aged sixty-five or older. entitlements certain benefit payments made by the government (Social Security, for example).
functional age term used to describe observable individual attributes such as physical appearance, mobility, strength, coordination, and mental capacity that are used to assign people to age categories. gerontology the study of aging and older people. hospice an organization that provides a homelike facility or home-based care (or both) for people who are terminally ill. life expectancy an estimate of the average lifetime of people born in a specific year.
Chapter 13 capitalism an economic system characterized by private ownership of the means of production, from which personal profits can be derived through market competition and without government intervention. conglomerates a combination of businesses in different commercial areas, all of which are owned by one holding company. contingent work part-time work, temporary work, or subcontracted work that offers advantages to employers but that can be detrimental to the welfare of workers. corporations large-scale organizations that have legal powers, such as the ability to enter into contracts and buy and sell property, separate from their individual owners. democratic socialism an economic and political system that combines private ownership of some of the means of production, governmental distribution of some essential goods and services, and free elections.
economy the social institution that ensures the maintenance of society through the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. interlocking corporate directorates members of the board of directors of one corporation who also sit on the board (s) of other corporations. labor union a group of employees who join together to bargain with an employer or a group of employers over wages, benefits, and working conditions. marginal jobs jobs that differ from the employment norms of the society in which they are located.
mixed economy an economic system that combines elements of a market economy (capitalism) with elements of a command economy (socialism).
occupations categories of jobs that involve similar activities at different work sites. oligopoly a condition existing when several companies overwhelmingly control an entire industry. primary labor market the sector of the labor market that consists of high-paying jobs with good benefits that have some degree of security and the possibility of future advancement. primary sector production the sector of the economy that extracts raw materials and natural resources from the environment.
professions high-status, knowledge-based occupations. secondary labor market the sector of the labor market that consists of low-paying jobs with few benefits and very little job security or possibility for future advancement. secondary sector production the sector of the economy that processes raw materials (from the primary sector) into finished goods. shared monopoly a condition that exists when four or fewer companies supply 50 percent or more of a particular market. socialism an economic system characterized by public ownership of the means of production, the pursuit of collective goals, and centralized decision making.
subcontracting an agreement in which a corporation contracts with other (usually smaller) firms to provide specialized components, products, or services to the larger corporation. tertiary sector production the sector of the economy that is involved in the provision of services rather than goods. transnational corporations large corporations that are headquartered in one country but sell and produce goods and services in many countries. unemployment rate the percentage of unemployed persons in the labor force actively seeking jobs. Chapter 14 authoritarianism a political system controlled by rulers who deny popular participation in government. authority power that people accept as legitimate rather than coercive.
charismatic authority power legitimized on the basis of a leader’s exceptional personal qualities. democracy a political system in which the people hold the ruling power either directly or through elected representatives. elite model a view of society that sees power in political systems as being concentrated in the hands of a small group of elites whereas the masses are relatively powerless. government the formal organization that has the legal and political authority to regulate the relationships among members of a society and between the society and those outside its borders. militarism a term used to describe a societal focus on military ideals and an aggressive preparedness for war. military-industrial complex the mutual interdependence of the military establishment and private military contractors.
monarchy a political system in which power resides in one person or family and is passed from generation to generation through lines of inheritance. pluralist model an analysis of political systems that views power as widely dispersed throughout many competing interest groups. political action committee (PACs) organizations of special interest groups that solicit contributions from donors and fund campaigns to help elect (or defeat) candidates based on their stances on specific issues. political party an organization whose purpose is to gain and hold legitimate control of government.
political socialization the process by which people learn political attitudes, values, and behavior. political sociology the area of sociology that examines the nature and consequences of power within or between societies as well as the social and political conflicts that lead to changes in the allocation of power. politics the social institution through which power is acquired and exercised by some people and groups. power according to Max Weber, the ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others. power elite C. Wright Mills’s term for the group made up of leaders at the top of business, the executive branch of the federal government, and the military.
rational-legal authority power legitimized by law or written rules and procedures. Also referred to as bureaucratic authority. of charisma the process by which charismatic authority is succeeded by a bureaucracy controlled by a rationally established authority or by a combination of traditional and bureaucratic authority. special interest group political coalitions composed of individuals or groups that share a specific interest that they wish to protect or advance with the help of the political system. state the political entity that possesses a legitimate monopoly over the use of force within its territory to achieve its goals. terrorism the calculated unlawful use of physical force or threats of violence against persons or property in order to intimidate or coerce a government, organization, or individual for the purpose of gaining some political, religious, economic, or social objective.
totalitarianism a political system in which the state seeks to regulate all aspects of people’s public and private lives. traditional authority power that is legitimized on the basis of long-standing custom. war organized, armed conflict between nations or distinct political factions Chapter 15 bilateral descent a system of tracing descent through both the mother’s and father’s sides of the family. cohabitation a situation in which two people live together, and think of themselves as a couple, without being legally married.
domestic partnerships household partnerships in which an unmarried couple lives together in a committed, sexually intimate relationship and is granted the same rights and benefits as those accorded to married heterosexual couples. dual-earner marriages marriages in which both spouses are in the labor force. egalitarian family a family structure in which both partners share power and authority equally. endogamy cultural norms prescribing that people marry within their social group or category. exogamy cultural norms prescribing that people marry outside their social group or category.
extended family a family unit composed of relatives in addition to parents and children who live in the same household. family relationships in which people live together with commitment, form an economic unit and care for any young, and consider their identity to be significantly attached to the group. family of orientation the family into which a person is born and in which early socialization usually takes place. family of procreation the family that a person forms by having or adopting children.
homogamy the pattern of individuals marrying those who have similar characteristics, such as race / ethnicity , religious background, age, education, or social class. kinship a social network of people based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption. marriage a legally recognized and / or socially approved arrangement between two or more individuals that carries certain rights and obligations and usually involves sexual activity. matriarchal family a family structure in which authority is held by the eldest female (usually the mother).
matrilineal descent a system of tracing descent through the mother’s side of the family. matrilocal residence the custom of a married couple living in the same household (or community) as the wife’s parents.
monogamy a marriage between two partners, usually a woman and a man. neo local residence the custom of a married couple living in their own residence apart from both the husband’s and the wife’s parents. nuclear family a family composed of one or two parents and their dependent children, all of whom live apart from other relatives. patriarchal family a family structure in which authority is held by the eldest male (usually the father).
patrilineal descent a system of tracing descent through the father’s side of the family. patrilocal residence the custom of a married couple living in the same household (or community) as the husband’s family.
polyandry the concurrent marriage of one woman with two or more men. polygamy the concurrent marriage of a person of one sex with two or more members of the opposite sex. polygyny the concurrent marriage of one man with two or more women. second shift Allie Hochschild’s term for the domestic work that employed women perform at home after they complete their workday on the job. sociology of family the subdiscipline of sociology that attempts to describe and explain patterns of family life and variations in family structure.
Chapter 16 credential ism a process of social selection in which class advantage and social status are linked to the possession of academic qualifications. cultural capital Pierre Bourdieu’s term for people’s social assets, including values, beliefs, attitudes, and competencies in language and culture. cultural transmission the process by which children and recent immigrants become acquainted with the dominant cultural beliefs, values, norms, and accumulated knowledge of a society. education the social institution responsible for the systematic transmission of knowledge, skills, and cultural values within a formally organized structure. formal education learning that takes place within an academic setting such as a school, which has a planned instructional process and teachers who convey specific knowledge, skills, and thinking processes to students. functional illiteracy the inability to read and / or write at the skill level necessary for carrying out everyday tasks.
hidden curriculum the transmission of cultural values and attitudes, such as conformity and obedience to authority, through implied demands found in rules, routines, and regulations of schools. informal education learning that occurs in a spontaneous, unplanned way. mass education the practice of providing free, public schooling for wide segments of a nation’s population. tracking the assignment of students to specific courses and educational programs based on their test scores, previous grades, or both. Chapter 17 animism the belief that plants, animals, or other elements of the natural world are endowed with spirits or life forces having an effect on events in society. church a large, bureaucratically organized religious organization that tends to seek accommodation with the larger society in order to maintain some degree of control over it.
civil religion the set of beliefs, rituals, and symbols that makes sacred the values of the society and places the nation in the context of the ultimate system of meaning. cult a religious group with practices and teachings outside the dominant cultural and religious traditions of a society. denomination a large organized religion characterized by accommodation to society but frequently lacking in ability or intention to dominate society. ecclesia a religious organization that is so integrated into the dominant culture that it claims as its membership all members of a society. faith an unquestioning belief that does not require proof or scientific evidence. fundamentalism a traditional religious doctrine that is conservative, is typically opposed to modernity, and rejects ‘worldly pleasures’ in favor of otherworldly spirituality.
liberation theology the Christian movement that advocates freedom from political subjugation within a traditional perspective and the need for social transformation to benefit the poor and downtrodden. monotheism belief in a single, supreme being or god who is responsible for significant events such as the creation of the world. non theism a religion based on a belief in divine spiritual forces such as sacred principles of thought and conduct, rather than a god or gods. polytheism a belief in more than one god. profane the everyday, secular, or ‘worldly’ aspects of life. religion a system of beliefs, symbols, and rituals, based on some sacred or supernatural realm, that guides human behavior, gives meaning to life, and unites believers into a community.
rituals regularly repeated and carefully prescribed forms of behaviors that symbolize a cherished value or belief. sacred those aspects of life that are extraordinary or supernatural. sect a relatively small religious group that has broken away from another religious organization to renew what it views as the original version of the faith. secularization the process by which religious beliefs, practices, and institutions lose their significance in sectors of society and culture. simple supernaturalism the belief that supernatural forces affect people’s lives either positively or negatively.
theism a belief in a god or gods. Chapter 18 acute diseases illnesses that strike suddenly and cause dramatic incapacitation and sometimes death. chronic diseases illnesses that are long term or lifelong and that develop gradually or are present from birth. deinstitutionalization the practice of rapidly discharging patients from mental hospitals into the community. the process whereby a problem ceases to be defined as an illness or a disorder. disability a physical or health condition that stigmatizes or causes discrimination.
drug any substance-other than food and water-that, when taken into the body, alters its functioning in some way. health a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. health care any activity intended to improve health. health maintenance organization (HMO) companies that provide, for a set monthly fee, total care with an emphasis on prevention to avoid costly treatment later.
holistic medicine an approach to health care that focuses on prevention of illness and disease and is aimed at treating the whole person-body and mind-rather than just the part or parts in which symptoms occur. infant mortality rate the number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age per 1, 000 live births in a given year. life expectancy an estimate of the average lifetime of people born in a specific year. managed care any system of cost containment that closely monitors and controls health care providers’ decisions about medical procedures, diagnostic tests, and other services that should be provided to patients. medical-industrial complex local physicians, local hospitals, and global health-related industries such as insurance companies and pharmaceutical and medical supply companies that deliver health care today. the process whereby nonmedical problems become defined and treated as illnesses or disorders.
medicine an institutionalized system for the scientific diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of illness. sick role the set of patterned expectations that defines the norms and values appropriate for individuals who are sick and for those who interact with them. social epidemiology the study of the causes and distribution of health, disease, and impairment throughout a population. socialized medicine a health care system in which the government owns the medical care facilities and employs the physicians. universal health care a health care system in which all citizens receive medical services paid for by tax revenues. Chapter 19 crude birth rate the number of live births per 1, 000 people in a population in a given year.
crude death rate the number of deaths per 1, 000 people in a population in a given year. demographic transition the process by which some societies have moved from high birth rates and death rates to relatively low birth rates and death rates as a result of technological development. demography a subfield of sociology that examines population size, composition, and distribution. fertility the actual level of childbearing for an individual or a population. gentrification the process by which members of the middle and upper-middle classes, especially whites, move into a central-city area and renovate existing properties.
invasion the process by which a new category of people or type of land use arrives in an area previously occupied by another group or land use. migration the movement of people from one geographic area to another for the purpose of changing residency. mortality the incidence of death in a population. population composition the biological and social characteristics of a population, including age, sex, race, marital status, education, occupation, income, and size of household. population pyramid a graphic representation of the distribution of a population by sex and age. sex ratio a term used by demographers to denote the number of males for every hundred females in a given population.
succession the process by which a new category of people or type of land use gradually predominates in an area formerly dominated by another group or activity. zero population growth the point at which no population increase occurs from year to year. Chapter 20 civil disobedience nonviolent action that seeks to change a policy or law by refusing to comply with it. collective behavior voluntary, often spontaneous activity that is engaged in by a large number of people and typically violates dominant-group norms and values. crowd a relatively large number of people who are in one another’s immediate vicinity. environmental racism the belief that a disproportionate number of hazardous facilities (including industries such as waste disposal / treatment and chemical plants) are placed in low-income areas populated primarily by people of color.
gossip rumors about the personal lives of individuals. mass a number of people who share an interest in a specific idea or issue but who are not in one another’s immediate vicinity. mass behavior collective behavior that takes place when people (who often are geographically separated from one another) respond to the same event in much the same way. mob a highly emotional crowd whose members engage in, or are ready to engage in, violence against a specific target-a person, a category of people, or physical property. panic a form of crowd behavior that occurs when a large number of people react to a real or perceived threat with strong emotions and self-destructive behavior. propaganda information provided by individuals or groups that have a vested interest in furthering their own cause or damaging an opposing one.
public opinion the attitudes and beliefs communicated by ordinary citizens to decision makers. riot violent crowd behavior that is fueled by deep-seated emotions but is not directed at one specific target. rumors an unsubstantiated report on an issue or subject. social change the alteration, modification, or transformation of public policy, culture, or social institutions over time. social movement an organized group that acts consciously to promote or resist change through collective action.