I was born and raised in Phoenix, Arizona. I received my B.S. in Biochemistry from the University of California in 1950. I then decided to get my master’s in biochemistry and I received my M.S. from the University of Washington. After receiving my Master’s degree I went back to California where I served as a research associate at Stanford University and as a scientist for the Research institute of Advanced Studies at Stanford. About 12 years later I moved to the Goddard Space Flight Center as a remote sensing scientist. The research I conducted led to my invention of a method for the detection of adenosine triphosphate ATP).
The technique used an enzyme and a chemical from a firefly; hence, my technique was sometimes referred to as a “firefly bioluminescent assay.” The combination of the above mentioned chemical and enzyme, with ATP and magnesium, I was able to generate a light intensity that is proportional to the amount of ATP present. The advantage of my invention is under dark conditions, it can detect the emission of a single photon. It also makes it possible to monitor for very low concentrations of ATP. My patented invention outlines how this fluorescence can be used for the detection of bacteria, particularly in a urine sample, thereby speeding the diagnosis of a bacterial infection (UTI).
After this invention, I was involved in the use of laser-induced fluorescence as a method for determining the health of forest vegetation. For my work, I have won numerous awards including NASA’s Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal.
Action research is defined as the flexible spiral method that allows action and research to be attained concurrently. Action research is educative, lays special emphasis on individuals, focuses on problems, and is future –oriented and context specific. In the Information Communication Technology (ICT) in education context, this means that the researcher takes up an active role in planning and ...
Question: (Must answer all 3 questions for credit)
1. Who am I?
You are Emmett W. Chappelle.
2. How have my contributions in microbiology influenced medicine today? (ex: what was used before this new test was developed and how has the new test improved the diagnosis)?
Your “firefly bioluminescent assay” research with Grace Picciolo provided a technique for the detection of life by detecting, at even very low concentrations, ATP. In doing so, this allowed for the detection of microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus, which can cause urinary tract infections. This rapid and sensitive technique is still in use today to detect bacterial presence and concentrations.
3. Name two organisms that commonly cause urinary tract infections and how they appear on gram strain.
Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are two organisms that commonly cause urinary tract infections. Escherichia coli is a gram negative rod-shaped bacterium. and Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a gram positive cocci.