energy conservation & EFFICIENCY – The Need of the Hour
THE NEED FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION
Pakistan is facing a huge and growing energy crisis, a daily reminder of which are the multiple instances of load-shedding each day all over Pakistan. The crisis, of course, needs long-term energy generation solutions. But it also needs immediate energy conservation.
The 20th century was marked by rapid growth and an increase in prosperity throughout the world. But the past pales in comparison to the pace at which the 21st century is advancing. Populations are increasing, economies are developing, and the world is consuming energy faster than ever before. By 2020, some experts predict the world’s energy consumption will be 40% higher than it is today.
The challenge is to provide the clean, affordable energy necessary for rapid economic growth and rising living standards in emerging economies, while also fulfilling demand in the world’s more developed economies. This will require a combination of increasing conservation, expanding and diversifying our energy supply, and improving energy efficiency.
energy efficiency and conservation will continue to play an important role in slowing the growth in our energy demand. It is in the interests of all stakeholders-energy producers, industrial users, governments and consumers-to make the energy sources; we have to go as far as they can go.
... the Planning Commission identified energy conservation and efficiency as thrust areas ... Energy conservation means going with what is available, while in developed countries 1% increase ... Energy Conservation Energy Conservation offers a practical means of achieving development goals. It enhances the international competitiveness of industry in world ... energy demand for the basic needs of the economy will ...
One of the most critical environmental challenges facing the world today is reducing long-term growth in carbon emissions. The use of fossil fuels to meet the world’s energy needs has contributed to an increase in carbon emissions-mainly carbon dioxide and methane-in the earth’s atmosphere.
In Karachi, our consumption of energy has grown dramatically over the years. While our growth and development is something we can all be proud of, we should also be aware that this massive growth – in population, infrastructure and construction – has consequences. In our extremely hot climate, we need a lot of energy to power our air conditioning units, refrigerators, light bulbs, tvs, washing machines, computers, not ignoring the ever expanding industrial energy demands, being the hub of industrial activity of Pakistan.
At the same time, our consumption of energy adds to the worldwide problem of global warming. As most of our energy comes from burning fossil fuels, the more we consume and convert into energy, the more carbon dioxide (CO2) we emit. Rising CO2 levels lead to more heat being trapped in our atmosphere and thus contribute directly to rising temperatures. The temperature has already risen far enough to have a number of drastic impacts. And it can only get worse if it is left unchanged.
Considering the indispensability of energy – since 1947, per capita electricity dependence in Pakistan has grown 82-fold – the current state of affairs can be regarded as a ‘national crisis’. The quickest and
Most pragmatic solution – multi-gigawatt capacity addition based on local coal and hydropower – will require at least 2-3 years (5-7 years for hydropower) provided that bold and concerted steps are taken on a war footing.
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Assuming optimistically that this will happen, we still have to devise ways in the interim to meet the electricity deficit in the city which has soared triple folded. The challenge is how to stop the crisis from getting worse. The solution lies in a collective national effort.
PRACTICAL WAYS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION
Globally energy efficiency has become one of the biggest social causes towards a sustainable future. The Clinton Climate change program, Earth Hour and the UAE sustainability program are some of the examples as to how the world is coming together to raise awareness towards the need to take action on climate change. Earth Hour 2009 is a global call to action to every individual, every business and every community, started in 2007 in Sydney, by WWF, asking households and businesses to turn off their non-essential lights and electrical appliances for one hour to raise awareness towards the need to take action on climate change.
Energy Saver Bulbs and lighting
Their massive use will supposedly combat the electricity shortage problem by using 75-80 % less electricity; lowering the individual bills and could also contribute to improved environment through reduced greenhouse gas emissions. However, few people realize that they need to be disposed properly, failing which they can cause harm because of the mercury contained in them.
According to an estimate China is producing 70% of the world’s supply of these CFLs. There are many brands sold in Pakistan, prominently Phillips and Osaka etc.
Streamlining Industrial Sector consumption
Considering the scenario of the Pakistan Industrial Sector and its energy utilization efficiency, there is an urgent need to review manufacturing technologies and the present energy management approach. Owing to old and obsolete industrial technologies and machinery the extent of energy wastage is very high. Energy conservation potential in the industrial sector of our nation has been projected between 30% to 40%. Energy conservation measures range from simple good house-keeping practices to plant modernization.
To know what extent of energy is being wasted it is very essential to know what amount of energy is being consumed. Monitoring industrial energy utilization on continuous basis and relating it to the production is the first step of any energy conservation program.
... environment and for the greater good. TCCC joined different water conservation projects and donated a great deal of money to the World ... a major setback for the company. Coca-Cola’s Water Conservation Project and the Influence of Stakeholder Engagement In the case of ... to allow bottling facilities to communicate best practice for water conservation. Goals were created and vows made to do better for ...
Creating Awareness and altering lifestyles
Most importantly we all as citizens should realize that our individual contributions in saving energy, how small they may be, could go a long way. It is high time that we stop wasting electricity, fuel and other forms of energy and start using our resources in a balanced manner. The best part about this is that we are going to benefit ourselves only. If we want get a solution to the problem, we will have to play a part looking for it.
The media has been playing a commendable role and a number of campaigns for this cause have been observed but still more can be done.
THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY MARKET AS SOURCE OF INVESTMENT
The Energy Efficiency market size is estimated at 1.2 billion U.S$ in various technologies. Cogeneration, process controls and power factor improvement have the highest opportunities. Considering the number of potential implementations, power factor improvement and lighting are the highest. The industrial sector accounts for 95% of the total market opportunities, while the commercial sector accounts for only 5%.
Although many efforts have been made for improving awareness, further efforts are still needed especially at the decision making level.
Regarding the energy prices, they have been increasing drastically, oil and gas respectively increased by 30% evaluated according to the exchange rate of the Pak rupees against the US$.
Regarding the economical barriers, the Pak rupees has been subjected to a period of instability over the past many years and in further as well is expected, which may affect for the attractiveness of energy conservation projects which rely sizably on imported items. Although the aforementioned increases in prices improve the attractiveness of the Energy Efficiency projects, especially for thermal process application, as our natural resource for hydel power generation is diminishing. The distortion between electricity and fuel prices has been increased. This has a negative effect on the financial attractiveness of the cogeneration projects.
All these factors limit the amount of investment coming into the sector.
* Lack of operating, calibrated energy measuring instruments
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* Absence of forms and records for energy consumption.
* Absence of national codes and standards for energy consumption as well as energy bench marking for energy utilization efficiency in industrial processes.
* Lack of incentive or rebate policy for energy conservation projects.
* The cost of finance is high.
* The average interest rate range between 12 to 15%
* Limited resources are available for medium and long-term finance.
* The legal system suffers from complex and slow process for resolving legal disputes.
* The legal structure need to be established to face and risk free for asset-backing lending.
* Financial institutions are lacking knowledge and experience regarding efficiency projects.