The government shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels (Philippine Constitution, 1987) and has a responsibility to guarantee the people’s right to education (UDHR, 1948).
Michail (2012) further described education as a basic human right that enable an individual to live his full potential as a human being. It is perceived by the masses as a stepping stone out of poverty. More importantly, education is of great importance for nation-building because it can mold the consciousness of the youth toward particular purposes.
Philippines in particular is trying to cope the demand of globalization gearing up to quality education as manifested in its active membership in international organization such as Asia-Pacific Economic Corporation (APEC), United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural organization (UNESCO) and United Nations (UN) to improve its educational system as its aim to join the “tiger” economies in Asia (Malaya, 1993).
According to Villar (1999), we have to make our graduates globally competitive so that we will not be left behind.
The Education for All program stresses that attention to certain areas leads to substantial increase in school effectiveness. One of these is the adequacy of learning materials such as textbook, learning aids and teachers’ guides (UNESCO).
Ema & Ajayi (2004) viewed instructional materials as an “acts of giving help normally by teachers to provide help and encouragement in students or pupils learning activities. They further described instructional materials as a tool, which can easily be used by a teacher to correct wrong impressions and to illustrate things that learners cannot forget”.
The Essay on Theories of Learning & Teacher Student Realtionship in the Classroom or Clinical Setting
Learning theorists: Koffka, Kohler, Lewin, Piaget, Ausubel,Bruner, Gagne View of the learning process: Internal mental process (including insight, information processing, memory, perception Locus of learning: Internal cognitive structuring Purpose in education: Develop capacity and skills to learn better Educator’s role: Structures content of learning activity Manifestations in adult learning: ...
It is well known among educators that the educational experiences involving the learner actively participating in concrete examples are retained longer than abstract experiences. Instructional materials add elements of reality by providing concrete examples to learning. Maruff A. Oladejo ,Ph. D, et al (2011) found out in their study that the utilization of improvised instructional materials promote and enhance effective teaching-learning process.
It is also supported in the study conducted by Mamokhele Julia Maduna (2002) that teaching aids have a positive effect on teaching mathematics, even in less than optimal circumstances, that is, under-resourced, rural, second language classrooms. The study demonstrated that teachers incorporate in their mathematics lessons any concrete material that will help learners to relate mathematics to real world and provide with hands-on activities that will de-emphasized routine and memorising facts, algorithms, formulas, and theorems.
Moreover, Carino (1992) suggests that instructional strategies and materials to support the development of a truly Filipino education will be further enriched to achieve the objective of strengthening logical thinking and character formation. Teaching material should be seen as a dynamic part of the teaching process (Nash, 1999).
For any education programme – be it formal or informal – UNICEF explains that learning material is devised in linking up with the circular objective.
Unfortunately, in third world countries like Philippines, where books are scarce and teachers are often untrained, textbooks assume wider importance than they do in more developed countries, (UNESCO).
The availability of textbook has long been recognized as an important factor in educational attainment if not the only means of teaching. With this, alternative forms of instructional materials may be both more important and more effective. Gil (1995) emphasized that the most cost-effective teaching aid may be teacher’s workbook based on the curriculum on learning that one is helping teachers teach and students learn more.
... Mori, A.A. (1986). Teaching Secondary Students with Mild Learning and Behaviour Problems: Methods, Materials, Strategies. USA: Aspen Publishers, Inc ... expression, basic reading skills, reading comprehension, mathematics calculation and mathematics reasoning. 3. need special education services. ... self-instructional strategy and reading the passage out loud.Second, the teacher and the student together ...
On the basis of research finding conducted by Fayyaz Ahmad Faize, et al, (2011), it was concluded the academic performance of students is affected by the availability and the use of instructional materials if there is less availability, misallocation, and deficiency in the use of instructional material. The use of instructional materials does not only encourage teachers and students to work collaboratively but also results in more cooperative learning activities among the students. Ikerionwu (2000) refers to instructional materials as objects or devices which help the teacher to make learning meaningful to the learners.
The purpose of instructional materials is to promote efficiency of education by improving the quality of teaching and learning. According from the office of the university registrar (DLSU-M, 2012), Contemporary Mathematics offers the students opportunity to learn what and how mathematics can be used in meaningful real-life situation. Consequently, this course will help students expand their content knowledge in mathematics. It is perceived as essential means of developing ones self-potential in mathematics and channels toward country’s educational development.
In teaching contemporary mathematics at Davao del Norte State College, there are available textbooks to be used but it cannot cater the number of students taking the course. Subsequently, those available textbooks do not contain some of the competencies covered which drive the students have to rely on various mathematics textbooks in studying the subject. Meanwhile, there is no workbook in Contemporary Mathematics that supports students in their studies. According to the data gathered from the registrar, it is revealed that the 80% of the students got a grade of below 2. 25 in Contemporary Mathematics for the last two years.
This cited problem indicates to low performance of the students in the subject. Thus, the researchers find it relevant to develop a workbook in Contemporary Mathematics and investigate its effectiveness as teaching-learning material that will enhance the mathematical achievement of the sophomore students of DNSC. Finally, the study conducted by Yasar Demirel (2004) presented a new strategy called the “workbook strategy”. Such strategy may reduce the mismatches between learning and teaching styles, and hence improves active learning, critical thinking, and problem solving skills.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY This study aims to know the reason why students are having a hard time learning the subject Mathematics, and to hopefully give some ways on how they can improve their mathematical skills. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This study aims to know the causes of poor performance of the students in learning Mathemetics . Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions: 1. What ...
Most of the students who are exposed to the workbook strategy have found it very effective in their learning. Since the workbook in Contemporary Mathematics is not yet used in Contemporary Mathematics Subject in DNSC to investigate its effectiveness as a teaching-learning material, the researchers deemed it wise to conduct the study. Statement of the Problem The study has the overall purpose of investigating the effect of using Workbook in Contemporary Mathematics as a teaching-learning material for the Teacher Education sophomore students in DNSC.
Specifically, the study is designed with the following objectives: 1. To determine the level of performance of students who will be taught using the workbook in contemporary mathematics. 2. To determine the level of performance of students who will be taught without using the workbook in contemporary mathematics. 3. To determine the significant difference between the level of performance of the students who will use the contemporary mathematics workbook and the students who will not use the contemporary mathematics workbook. Hypothesis
There is no significant difference between the mean-gain scores of the experimental group and the control group. Significance of the Study The result of this study would respond on the effectiveness of workbook with its primary aim of enhancing students’ academic performance. At the same time, it would lead to better teaching and learning outcome aim at easing students’ difficulty in understanding a very tough subject like contemporary mathematics. The researchers also desire that the product of this study poses a potential benefit to the following: Teacher.
It assists the teacher to manage teaching time and to monitor the tasks that students do in workbook. The teacher can utilize workbook as learning material to promote active learning to the students. Student. The student will be able to appreciate the merit of workbook as effective for the enhancement of his/her academic performance. Parents. Parents will support their sons/daughters to employ with the workbook in taking the course to improve their academic performance. Administration. This study addresses the insufficiency of learning materials particularly textbook used in contemporary mathematics.
STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES More often than not, students without learning disabilities often think differently and have different interests from those of their age mates. They usually enter school having already developed may of the basic skills, sometimes to high levels. They have areas of interest that have developed into advanced areas of content. Almost from the day they start school ...
Scope and Delimitation This study will be conducted at Davao del Norte State College, New Visayas, Panabo City. The second year BSE students of the same college, A. Y. 2013-2014, will be the respondents. The experimentation will be done for at least twenty-seven (27) contact hours instead of fifty-four (54) contact hours which is roughly equivalent to one semester due to time constraints. The researchers deemed it wise to conduct the experiments using three different groups, the treatment group who will use the workbook, and textbook to the control group and the third group will utilize both textbook and workbook.
However, the researcher utilize only the two groups which are the control and experimental group since there are only two sets of class enrolled in Contemporary Mathematics subject. Theoretical Perspective Theories are useful in helping researchers guide their observations (Stott & Bowman, 1996).
Thus, this study is anchored on the theory propounded by Thorndike’s Connectionism Learning Theory on the law of readiness, law of exercise and law of effect. He stressed that learning becomes more holistic when the neural pathways are firmly established and the synopsis are connected through constant use.
For some students have difficulty in making meaningful connections within and across mathematical experience, Thorndike’s law of readiness strengthens the goal-directed behavior of the students. In same way, this study intends to adapt helpful state of mentality among learners in their readiness to handle the mathematical concepts and principles posing at enhancing ones performance in mathematics. Knowles (1980) introduced that people become ready to learn something when they experience a need to learn it in order to cope more satisfyingly with real-life tasks and problems.
The Research paper on engaging primary school students in learning science by using Active Worlds – Study
A case study of engaging primary school students in learning science by using Active Worlds Kim Hock Ang Loyang Primary School Singapore Qiyun Wang Learning Sciences and Technologies Academic Group National Institute of Education Nanyang Technological University Singapore Underachiever students often have difficulties in focusing attention on learning and easily lose their interest. The purpose of ...
The educator has a responsibility to create conditions and provide tools and procedures for helping learners discover their “needs to know” and sequenced according to the learners’ readiness to learn. Artzt (1990) emphasized that the teachers must know how to use strategies and must know the learning styles of their students so that their students will be encouraged and motivated. What is needed in subjects such as algebra, geometry and trigonometry is clear and imaginative presentation for easy comprehension and application (Gonzales, 1995).
According to Skinner (1968:1-6), we learn by doing.
It is also emphasized by Gilmer (1971:11) that learning is a change of behavior that takes place through practice or experience. As active learning proposes that letting children learn by themselves will led to an affective behavior of the students that the law of effect governed by consequences. In a situation where some elements are new, students responses to a situation that are followed by satisfaction will strengthened them while discomfort will result to weakened responses. That’s why, researchers are encouraged providing students appropriate learning activities and give them positive feedbacks as possible to toughen their responses.
Sherman (1985) said that mathematics can be taught effectively in a practical way where students are involved effectively using concrete manipulative materials. This is further supported by Terc (1984) who concluded that manipulated materials, like the Workbook in Contemporary Mathematics, will make students participate actively in mathematics class. The researchers believed that in using the workbook, the Thorndike’s Connectionism Learning Theory was applied. Though many students have a good understanding of mathematical concepts, still there are inconsistent at computing.
They make errors and difficulty in connecting conceptual aspects of math into reality. To this, workbook intervention will help them to interact in mathematical problems that enhancing their skills in computation. The law of exercise concerns the role of practice in learning. It states that the strength with which a response will be connected with a situation depends upon the number of times the response has occurred in that situation. Any repeated response gathers some strength. Hence, this study is purposeful for students to keep on trying to solve each problem in the workbook until they arrived at a correct solution.
Case Study for Student Analysis This first thing, which Carl should do, is to contact Monica and tell her about the problems he is having at the moment. He should explain everything in detail, so the best way to do would be to send her email. At the end of the letter he should reassure her that despite all of these difficulties, he will do his best to change the situation, and have everything on ...
Knowing the correct solutions in the workbook exercises, they solved further the more difficult problems. In the light of the popular theories that man learns by doing according to John Dewey, it is the objective of the study to supplement students with an instructional material that promotes better and faster learning process in the classroom. Conceptual Framework This study involves two variables; these are the independent and dependent variables. The independent variable is the use of workbook in contemporary mathematics and the dependent variable is the students’ academic performance.
Based on the figure shown in the schematic diagram of Hypothetical Relationship of Independent and Dependent Variables. using and without using workbook affects students’ academic performance. Thus, this study intends to investigate the effectiveness of workbook as teaching-learning material on students’ academic performance in contemporary mathematics. Figure 1. Schematic Diagram of Hypothetical Relationship of Independent and Dependent Variables. Independent variable Definition of Terms Enhancing. An activity of increasing or adding of ideas to a subject. Academic Performance. It refers to the gain scores of the students.
This is the difference of the pre-test and posttest results. Contemporary Mathematics. A 3-unit subject and the second basic mathematics course taken by sophomore students enrolled in Education program of DNSC. Workbook. It refers to the teaching-learning material which was developed by the researchers used in this study. Effectiveness. This refers to the evidence of achievements as manifested by the learning gains in the posttest. Cooperative Learning. It refers to teaching strategy which involves grouping students to work together. This strategy is applied to both the control and experimental groups.
Chapter II METHODOLOGY Research Design This study employs a type of evaluation which aims to determine whether an intervention has the intended effect on a study’s participants called a quasi-experimental design. It utilizes a means to compare groups. However, one very important aspect of the experiment that this design falls short is the randomization. Specifically, this design is a Non-equivalent (Pre-test and Posttest) Control Group Design. According to Campbell (1970), the design is one of the most widespread designs used in educational research which involves experimental group and a control group.
It includes an existing group of participants who receive a treatment and another existing group of participants to serve as a control group (Price and Oswald, 2008).
Both groups will take a pre-test and posttest but only the experimental group will receive the treatment. This design measures the potential effect of an intervention by examining the difference in both tests. Correspondingly, it helps the researchers to appraise the relative effectiveness of the intervention, the Contemporary Mathematics Workbook, as to be revealed on the mean gain scores from the two groups. In symbols, the design is
Furthermore, the researchers decided to use the quantitative research design. This method enabled the researcher to gather reliable, valid data and information about the relative merits of modified workbook and students’ academic performance. Locale of the Study This study will be conducted at Davao del Norte State College. A public college in the Philippines mandated to provide higher professional, technical, and special instructions for special purposes and promote research and extension services, advanced studies and progressive leadership in education, arts, sciences, fisheries, and other fields.
The College is located at Brgy. New Visayas, Panabo City, approximately 1. 6 km away from the National Highway of Panabo. It serves four accredited baccalaureate programs namely: Bachelor of Science in Fisheries, Bachelor of Science in Marine Biology, Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, and Bachelor in Secondary Education (English, Math, Biological Science, and TLE).
The College is currently headed by Dr. Jonathan A. Bayogan who was appointed as the third College President on December 14, 2010. The map shows the location of the Davao del Norte State College
Respondents of the study and sampling procedure 1. Subject of the Study. The subject of this study will include the all incoming second year Bachelor of Secondary Education of Davao del Norte State College in A. Y. 2013-2014 who will take Contemporary Mathematics (Math 2) subject in the course. 2. Sampling Procedure. A total enumeration will be used to select the key participants based on encoding class schedules. There will be two sets that will contribute the population. The first set will be the experimental group which will receive the treatment using the workbook.
The second set will be the control group and will use standard references. The two groups will be taught using cooperative learning strategy. Research Instrument The main instruments used for this study were workbook, course syllabus and table of specification, pre-test and post-test, and achievement test. 1. Workbook in Contemporary Mathematics. This workbook was developed in accordance to the subject undertaken by the researchers, Instrumentation in Mathematics, adopting the appropriate procedure in developing instructional materials evident on the competencies of the said subject.
This also based on assessment of the researchers upon the needs of the second year students of DNSC taking up BSE. The syllabus in Contemporary Mathematics is used as a guide in determining the topics for the workbook. 2. Course Syllabus and Table of Specification (TOS).
The course syllabus is used to determine learning competencies as well as the number of hours spent in each competency. The test is made using the table of specification comprising the three domains of learning namely cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. 3. Pre-test and Posttest. Pre-test and post-test are the same test but administered in different manner.
Pre-test is administered to both experimental and control group to measure their existing knowledge content level on the subject before receiving instruction while post-test is also given to the two groups but administered after instruction. The results of the two tests will be used to determine the significant difference of instruction using workbook and instruction through traditional methods. 4. Achievement test. Achievement test is given to the other set of external participants such those higher years who took the same subject under the same instructor, but without the use of workbook.
This is incorporated during the pilot testing to measure the reliability and validity of the instrument. Data Gathering Procedures In this proposed study of undergraduate research, the following steps are to be undertaken: 1. Securing Permission to conduct the study. A letter asking permission to conduct the study to the president of the DNSC and Dean of Institute of Education of the same school. 2. Preparing pre-test to both groups. The prepared pre-test is to be administered to both the experimental group and the control group to determine their baseline competencies. 3.
Selection of subjects in the experimental and control groups. In the implementation of the study, both groups are please to attend the scheduled classes as arranged by the college encoding system covering a period of at least 27 contact hours in the 1st semester of A. Y. 2013-2014, 4. Administering the pre-test. Pre-test will be administered to both experimental and control groups. 5. Conduct of the Experiment. 6. Administering the posttest. The posttest will administer to both experimental and control groups to determine their gain scores at the end of the experimentation. . Analysis and interpretation of the data gathered from the study. This is where data being gathered are analyzed and interpreted. Data Analysis Three phases of analysis are proposed for this study. First, in order to provide a description of the sample from which data will be collected, descriptive information on results of pretests and posttests and the achievement test. The calculated observations and measures at the pre-test or posttest stage of experimental design is seen vital in manipulating descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviation, and ranges.
Second, to determine any differences in the result of the two scores in quizzes and exam including performance based assessment must also be determined. Lastly, inferential statistical tests used in to examine the hypothesis in the test. Graphical presentations are valuable in this phase to support the data to be gathered. The specific hypothesis to be tested is shown below in null form: 1. There is no significant difference between the use of workbook and the traditional teaching of Contemporary Mathematics to the second year BSE students in DNSC.
This hypothesis will be tested at a minimum of the . 05 level of significance. Data Gathering Strategies • Researchers want to monitor the effect of integrating a new learning material towards students’ achievement through the workbook. • Experiments/trials. • Observing and recording well-defined events (e. g. , quiz of the same topic, time allotted for one topic).
• Obtaining relevant data from the professor’s class record. • The use of documentation provides an ongoing record of activities. This can be records of informal feedback and reflections through journals, diaries or progress reports.
The challenge of documentation is that it requires an ongoing commitment to regularly document thoughts and activities throughout the evaluation process • For many experimental designs, pretest-posttest designs are the preferred method to compare participant groups and measure the degree of change occurring as a result of treatments or interventions. Reliability and Validity A panel of experts will evaluate and certify the test to be comprehensive and valid instrument for measuring the achievement of the students who will be the subjects of the study. The face validity of the nstrument describes the transparency of an entire test, (Bornstein, Rossner, Hill, & Stepanian, 1994).
It will be ascertained by presenting the pretest and posttest and the achievement test to a group of referees in the areas of educational technology and curriculum, mathematics, and instruction. The reliability coefficient of the instrument will be determined after the data has gathered, and then the researchers will compute using the cronbach alpha coefficient. It will be calculated using Statistic Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) to measure the internal consistency of the test.
Cautiously, the researchers cannot guarantee that participants in both groups communicate each other since they used to it. Thus, impacting the scores on the outcome poses an internal threat to validity. However, to address this threat, the researchers can keep the two groups as separate as possible and orient them what will be the restrictions during the experiment. The workbook will be kept by the instructor and the researchers as well to ensure that there will be no leakage. Ethical Considerations In this study, the researchers set some considerations for any ethical issues that may arise during the study.
The following safeguards will be employed to protect the research informants: 1) test results of the informants in both pre-test and post-test are the most important data that will be gathered in this quantitative study thus, researchers must consider confidentiality to protect the informants’ records. 2) this study will have group A as the Control group and group B as the Experimental group hence confidentiality of how the informants were selected as well as the level and type of informant involvement must be taken into consideration.
This is to avoid probable issues regarding informant’s profile or background. 3) in data collection procedures, informed consent must be employed. This form recognizes that informants’ records will be protected during data collection. 4) the anonymity of research informant, roles and incidents in the study are subjected to provide protection and an accurate account of the information is the ultimate allegiance of the study. 5) in writing and disseminating the research, it is essential to discharge the details of the research with the study design so that readers can determine for themselves he sincerity of the study (Neumann, 2000).
Preliminary Studies or Pilot Testing This study will conduct a pilot testing to determine the reliability of the test. Reliability is an important factor in testing because it paves the way for accuracy. It refers to a test producing consistent results, not necessarily valid results. Participants will be obtained from the incoming third year BSE students of the college, A. Y. 2013-2014. A total of 20 participants, 5 students in each major, are to be selected using a systematic sampling technique who will take the test.
The researchers use the test-retest reliability which is estimated by performing the same test with the same respondents at different moments of time. The closer the results, the greater the test-retest reliability of the test instrument. In this study, the second test will be conducted two weeks after the first test. According to Kendra Cherry, it is important to note that test-retest reliability only refers to the consistency of a test, not necessarily the validity of the results. A letter of permission to the dean of the Institute of Education will also administer to allow us conduct the pilot testing.