DNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
Purpose: to create a new polypeptide chain ( mRNA stand / protein )
Location in cell: cytoplasm, ribosome
Molecules involved: tRNA, mRNA, ribosome, amino acids
DNA – TAC GGA AGA CTA GAA ATC
mRNA – AUG CCU UCU GAU CUU UAG
Shape of DNA
– Double helix, ladder / rod shaped
– Hydrogen bonds hold DNA together
4 bases found in DNAAdenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Thymine
– Sugar bonds and phosphate make up DNA backbone.
Complimentary Base Pairing
– Adenine will only pair with Thymine- Guanine will only pair with Cytosine
– DNA replication is semi conservative, when DNA is formed one strand in new, while the other is old. This old one was conserved so it could be used as a template.
Differences between DNA and RNA
– Double stranded
– Thymine as nitrogen base
– Single stranded
– Uracil is the nitrogen base- Uses ribose sugar
– The cell in the mRNA is produced in the nucleus.
Role of Each
– mRNA: carries the information to make a protein or polypeptide chain.
– tRNA: transports amino acids to the ribosome, and the anti-codons of the tRNA are complimentary ribosome.
Ribosome: creates polypeptide chain.
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– Create a new mRNA stand.
– DNA polymerase separates a DNA strand.
VIRUS AND MONERA
– Vector: something, usually an insect that transmit’s a virus.
– filoviruses (ebda)
Virus capsid > Helps attachment to the cell membrane.
– RNA or DNA is found in every core of every virus.
– Latent viruses don’t replicate right away when they enter a cell.- Virulent viruses begin replication right when they enter host cell.
– RNA replicate in cytoplasm. DNA replicates in the nucleus and attach onto the host DNA.
– Viroids: single stands of RNA with no surrounding capsid causes disease – affecting crops.
– Prions: glycoprotein containing polypeptide causes BSE (mad cow).
– Whiteblood cells (B cells) produce antibodies.
– Antigen: Substance that causes the body to produce an antibody.
The antigen activates memory T and B cells so it doesn’t have to recognize the virus again, so you can’t get sick from the same virus type because it’s immune.
– Two types of T cells: Killer T cells, memory T cells, Helper T cells.
Compare/Contrast Conjugation and Transformation
Exchange piece of DNA access pili bridge into recipient cell and destroys original part of DNA.
Phyla’s type of Movement (Protozoa’s)
– Ciliates: Cilia
– Sarcadonia: Pseudopodia
– Sporozoa: Not mobile
– Zoomastigina: Flagella
– Autotroph: an organism that uses energy and makes its own food using sunlight.
-Saprophyte: An organism that feeds on dead organic matter.
– Open digestive system > Food goes in one end and waste is excreted out the other end.
– Closed digestive system > Food goes in one en and waste is excreted out the same end.
– Shistosomiasis: Flooding would increase the chance of spreading the disease.
Instructions: Read chapter 3 in your textbook and review the lecture notes and study resources provided by your instructor. Type your answer in the answer block provided for each question. Answer blocks should expand as you type. If you experience difficulty typing in the provided answer blocks, you may type your answers in a new document. Save a copy of the completed activity to your computer for ...
> Feces spread in the water. More water = more snails.
– Reproductive system is the overly developed system in the class Cestoda.
– Planarian use beating tuffs of cilia to remove wastes from their body.
> Flame cells are responsible for this.
– Cephalization > Sense receptors and nervous system are located at the anterior ends.
– Planarian worms use pharynx tube to suck up pieces of flesh.
> Undigested waste also exists through pharynx using the ventral tube.
– Both the tapeworm and the trichina worm infect people by eating undercooked meat.
– Platyhelminthes – Flat worms ex) Planarian
– Nematoda – Round worms ex) Ascaris Worm
– Intermediate host of a blood fluke is a snail.
Intermediate Host vs Final Host
– Intermediate: Sexually immature parasite lives here.
– Final: Sexually mature parasite lives here.
– Parasitic Worms survive n the harsh environment of the stomach and small intestine due to the folded tegument, a thick covering.
ANNELIDS AND MOLLUSKS
Open vs. Closed Circulatory System
– Open > Blood does not circulate entirely within vessels, blood baths in spaces called a hemocoe/blood cavity.
– Closed > Blood circulates through a blood vessel system.
4 Classes of Mollusks
1) Polyplacphora > Chitons
2) Gastrophoda > Snails
3) Bivalvia > Clams
4) Cephalopda – Squid
– Polyechetes have many setae and Obigochaetes only have a few setae.
All Mollusks Share
– True coelom
– Bilateral Symmetry
– 3 distinct parts > Visceral Mass
– Radula is the feeding structure of a mollusk.
– The shell in a mollusk is excreted by the mantle.
– The Cephalopod relaxes it’s mantle and allows water to get in, then it contracts the mantle forcing water out it’s siphon. This creates a current that pushes the cephalopod backwards > Jet Propulsion.
– Chemical wastes are removed from the earthworm through tubules called nephridia.
The Circulatory system is a system in the bodies of all organisms that moves the nutrients that are needed as well as gases and wastes to and from cells and helps fight unwanted bacteria and other diseases. It also helps alleviate the body temperature to maintain homeostasis, which is the property of either an open system or a closed system in a living organism. It brings the body’s cells what ...
– Clitellum secretes a mucus ring, around both earthworms, here they exchange sperm and eggs. Worms wiggle free from each other, mucus ring slides off, picking up sperm and eggs. Fertilization takes place here.
– Pulmonary : Respiration through lungs.
– Coetaneous: Respiration through lungs.