feasibility study Introduction The problem of overpopulation of dogs in Texas is the issue of the day. The need for more extensive and thorough research in this field was identified by the local authorities of Texas. A research proposal containing alternative solutions has been prepared. There are several main obstacles to successful completion of the Feasibility study: insufficient education among the pet owners, high cost spar/neuter clinics available, and lack of legislative basis. The overall purpose of this Feasibility Study is to propose the most appropriate solution and to evaluate whether it indeed can be recommended as a further guide to action. The specific objectives of the feasibility study can be determined and outlined as follows: To raise awareness of the overpopulation of dogs in Texas among the society; To identify suitable methods and measures for use in the feasibility study; To identify alternative solutions and evaluate them in a study; To prepare recommendations as further guide to action Research Methods The feasibility study will identify three most favorable solutions and will examine criteria associated with the practical solutions.
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The statistic on dogs overpopulation, reproductive and repopulation statistical rate of the litters will provide the reader with information and calculation underlining the importance of problem. Additionally, the alternative suitable solutions will be examined. Criteria The criteria used in this feasibility study involve the level of social and public engagement into the problem stated and generally include cost, effectiveness, and ethical aspects of solving overpopulation problem. Research The problem of overpopulation of dogs in Texas is a problem of increasing concern. By allowing the dog to breed, you increase the quantity of litters that will have to be neutered or euthanized because no one wants them. According to research data, typically most dogs have 4 to 7 puppies per year. The general data of re-population rate of the dogs is based on Repopulation Rate of Dogs (see Appendix 1).
The estimated perspectives of uncontrolled breeding are reflected in the Estimation Table, Appendix 2. Three alternative solutions are proposed for further examination, and can be identified as follows: To issue the law according to which the pet owners are obliged to have all pets spayed or neutered by six months of age or get a permit from local authorities if the pet owner wants to breed. In case the owner of the pet is caught without a permit, a fine is foreseen as a lawful punishment; To popularize programs for pets widespread sterilization programs, to increase awareness of people concerning the consequences of dogs over population; to popularize educational programs dedicated to the problem and consequences of dog overpopulation; To increase the number of low cost spar/neuter clinics available; Alternative One To issue the law according to which the pet owners are obliged to have all pets spayed or neutered by six months of age or get a permit from local authorities if the pet owner wants to breed. In case the owner of the pet is caught without a permit, a fine is foreseen as a lawful punishment. Just as it sounds, this alternative will demand high explicit costs associated with this option for preparation of the necessary basis for law enforcement. However, the high explicit costs can be recovered due to the system of fines foreseen. Ethical aspects: neutral.
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The effectiveness of this proposal is quite high as the majority of people will obey the law. Nevertheless, the aim to educate people and to awake national conscience concerning the possible effects and impacts of dog overpopulation to U.S. ecosystem will be miserable. Alternative Two The alternative Two foresees educational measures undertaken in order to reduce the problem of dogs over population. It embraces a range of projects for pets widespread sterilization programs aimed to increase awareness of people concerning the consequences of dogs over population. According to the information from The Courtesy of HSUS Website (n.p.) carefully planned and implemented sterilization programs could produce a dramatic reduction in the number of unwanted companion animals born.
In fact, in those towns and cities that have implemented such programs, we’ve already seen the number of companion animals who had to be euthanized decline by 30 to 60 percenteven in those communities where human populations have been steadily increasing. Additionally, popularization of educational programs can have great impact on the problem and consequences of dog overpopulation. The alternative Two also will demand high explicit costs associated with this option. The high explicit costs hardly will be recovered. Ethical aspects: the solution is ethical. The effectiveness of the alternative two will depend on the level of national conscience awareness of the citizens and level of their education. Alternative Three The alternative Three foresees undertaking measures aimed to increase the number of low cost spay/neuter clinics available. In case the spaying and neutering pets will be cheaper, the prevention of unwanted animals will be assured.
Additionally, according to Texas Department of Health, spaying females helps to avoid potential infections and, if done early, reduces the chances of mammary cancer. Castrating males diminishes fighting and subsequent injuries, roaming, prostate cancer, and, in cats, the dreaded art of marking territory through spraying (Texas Medical Center News n.p.).
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Besides, there are many centers such as Animal Trustees of Austin (ATA) that are committed to ending overpopulation by making affordable sterilization surgery for dogs and cats accessible to the general public through [our] spay and neuter clinic, which provides high quality services at affordable prices to approximately 7,000 dogs and cats each year. Obtaining state subsidies and local offerings can help make prices for sterilization surgery even more affordable. The solution will inevitably require high explicit costs. However, a considerable amount can be taken from the Citys budget or State subsidies.
Ethical aspects: the solution is ethical. The effectiveness of the Alternative Three is relatively high. Conclusion and Recommendations Increasing the number of low cost spar/neuter clinics may be the most effective method for solving the problem of dogs over population in Texas. Given careful management and proper conditions (for example, lower cost of sterilization, monitoring, consultations, etc).
The Feasibility Study proposes that further research and investigating are necessary to define the sources of funding and cost effectiveness of the proposal as a vitally important option for the problem of dogs over population in Texas. Ethical and social approval might also be required for the feasibility study of dogs overpopulation depending on solution selected for further implementation into action. A submission for ethical or social approval should be dome as soon as appropriate project solution is identified and confirmed. Annotated Bibliography Animal Trustees of Austin (ATA) Website.
Retrieved October 1, 2006. http://www.animaltrustees.org/ata-spayneuter.htm Animal Trustees of Austin (ATA) is a Low Cost Spay/Neuter Clinic that Clinic has spayed and neutered over 53,000 dogs and cats, thus preventing the birth (and possible death) of hundreds of thousands unwanted puppies and kittens. The ATA Website provides with valuable information concerning both dogs overpopulation in Texas and explains the necessity of affordable sterilization surgery for dogs and cats accessible to the general public. Labunski, Dee. The Courtesy of HSUS Website. Pet Overpopulation and Ownership Statistics. Retrieved October 1, 2006. http://members.aol.com/tipoftexk9rescue/PetOverpop ulationandOwnershipSt.html The publication provides the reader with HSUS Pet Overpopulation ownership statistic data, information about the crisis and explanations why spaying and neutering is the first step to a solution.
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The article focuses attention on implementing widespread sterilization programs, [only] by spaying and neutering all companion animals and proposes a range of community-based solutions. Texas Medical Center News. (June 1, 2000).
Good Pet Care is Important to Human Health. Vol. 22, No.
10. Retrieved October 1, 2006. http://www.tmc.edu/tmcnews/06_01_00/page_19.html The article underlines the importance of appropriate pet care and dwells on necessity of obeying good health and sanitation rules at home that should include important rules about pets to prevent passing some diseases and parasites from animals to humans. Additionally, the author reports the problem of overpopulation of dogs in Texas and claims that castrating males diminishes fighting and subsequent injuries, roaming, prostate cancer, and, in cats, the dreaded art of marking territory through spraying Vince Ward (2005).
Repopulation Rate of Dogs. Retrieved October 1, 2006. http://www.angellis.net/Web/timeline/wolf.pdf The author proposes statistic data based on Grey Wolf. Re-population Rate of Dogs, estimation table of a broad perspective of potential growth rate of the dogs in case no measures are undertaken to find the appropriate solution is especially helpful for the current Feasibility Study. Glossary Age Limit The average limit/range that animal will live in the present time Gestation the period of time it takes from conception to actual birth Litter Size The quantity of offspring produced at one birth by a dog Nurturing Time The period until weaning Sexual Maturity The period of time required for the young to become an adult that is able to produce viable litter Appendix 1 Animal Gestation Nurturing Time Sexual Maturity Litter Size Age Limit Age Multiplier Gray Wolf 60-63 days 5 weeks 22 months 12 (avg 4-7) 4 (15 in captivity) Averages .17 years .1 years 1.83 years 6 4 years 20 years Utilization # Reproductive Rate Maturity Rate Mortality Rate .5 years (12 per year) 2 years .25 * a maximum re-population rate with a litter size of 12 would double the population growth table Note: The dogs in a general term are used, although data is based upon the Gray Wolf (Repopulation Rate of Dogs, n.p.) Appendix 2. (Re-population Rate of Dogs, n.p.) The Estimation Table The Estimation Table is based on estimation perspective.
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It reflects a broad perspective of potential growth rate of the dogs in case no measures are undertaken to find the appropriate solution. The table is self-explanatory, year means estimated year. When an immature dog becomes breedable it is removed from the column Immature to the column Breedable. In the column Immature black numbers indicate litter born that year. Red numbers indicate immature young that werent born that year. The Mortality Rate is the rate that is added each year for each young that are born.
An example would be if 4 young were born and the Mortality Rate were .25, 1 of the young would die and be removed from the Immature column. In the Total Population column, the number of surviving animals is listed (Repopulation Rate of Dogs, n.p.) YEAR BREEDABLE IMMATURE MORTALITY RATE TOTAL POPULATION 1 M = 1 F = 1 M = 3 F = 3 M = .75 F = .75 M = 4 F = 4 2 M = 1 F = 1 M = 3(3) F = 3(3) M = 1.5 F = 1.5 M = 6 F = 6 3 M = 1 F = 1 M = 3(2)(3) F = 3(2)(3) M = 1.25 F = 1.25 M = 8 F = 8 4 M = 4 F = 4 M = 12(3)(2) F = 12(3)(2) M = 3.25 F = 3.25 M = 18 F = 18 5 M = 6 F = 6 M = 18(9)(3) F = 18(9)(3) M = 4.75 F = 4.75 M = 32 F = 32 6 M = 9 F = 9 M = 27(14)(9) F = 27(14)(9) M = 7.5 F = 7.5 M = 52 F = 52 7 M = 18 F = 18 M = 54(20)(14) F = 54(20)(14) M = 14 F = 14 M = 92 F = 92 8 M = 32 F = 32 M = 96(40)(20) F = 96(40)(20) M = 24 F = 24 M = 164 F = 164 9 M = 52 F = 52 M = 156(72)(40) F = 156(72)(40) M = 39 F = 39 M = 281 F = 281 10 M = 92 F = 92 M = 276(117)(72) F = 276(117)(72) M = 69 F = 69 M = 488 F = 488 11 M = 164 F = 164 M = 492(207)(117) F = 492(207)(117) M = 123 F = 123 M = 857 F = 857 12 M = 281 F = 281 M = 843(369)(207) F = 843(369)(207) M = 210.75 F = 210.75 M = 1490 F = 1490 13 M = 488 F = 488 M = 1464(633)(369) F = 1464(633)(369) M = 366.75 F = 366.75 M = 2588 F = 2588 14 M = 857 F = 857 M = 2571(1098)(633) F = 2571(1098)(633) M = 643.5 F = 643.5 M = 4516 F = 4516 15 M = 1490 F = 1490 M = 4470(1928)(1098) F = 4470(1928)(1098) M = 1118 F = 1118 M = 7868 F = 7868 20 Total Breedable = 5,252 Only the total breedable is displayed for the years from 20 on. The yearly increase is based on source material, which cites 112%, rather than the 162% increase of years 10 through 15 25 Total Breedable = 9,255 50 Total Breedable = 157,343 100 Total Breedable = 45,472,472 200 Total Breedable = 3,799,820,471,125 M=males, F=females * Before the 200 year mark, the numbers become unreasonable. Clearly, by this point disease or other factors would have cut back on the population growth radically.
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