First Generation Computers:
It was the period of world war which gave rise to the age of computers. The most important computers were (ENIAC) and (UNIVAC 1).
ENIAC stands for Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer. John Presper Eckert and John W played an important role in development of this program. ENIAC consisted of 7000 resistors and 18000 vacuum tubes. ENIAC was a decimal rather than a binary machine. It means that its numbers were represented in decimal form and arithmetic was formed in decimal system. Furthermore, UNIVAC 1 was designed by Remington Rand in 1951 and it stands for Universal Automatic Computer. Lastly the most important feature of the first generation computers were that it used the vacuum tubes and magnetic drums.
Advantages of 1st Generation Computers:
• Vacuum tube technology made possible the advent of electronic digital computers.
• Vacuum tubes were the only electronic components available during those days.
Disadvantages of 1st Generation Computers:
• Too bulky in size.
• The major drawback of ENIAC was that it had to be programmed manually by setting switches and lugging and unplugging cables.
Second Generation Computers:
Transistors were invented in 1947 by William Shockley, William Brattain and John Bardeen. The invention of transistor marked the start of second generation. The major change in computers was the replacement of vacuum tubes with transistors. As compared to first generation computers, second generation computers were smaller and of high speed. Moreover, the Instructions could be stored in internal memory of the computer and theses computers replaced machine language with the assembly language. Furthermore, it used low and high level languages such as COBOL and BASIC etc.
Introduction Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, people wanted and needed an easier way of calculating and measuring. Through the dreams of Charles Babbage, the computer was born. These new machines could do any regular math more than twice as fast as any human. Sadly, these ideas were not appreciated until almost one hundred years later. In the 1950's, the idea of computers was ...
Advantages of 2nd Generation Computers:
• Much less expensive than a vacuum tube.
• A transistor can work 40 times faster than a vacuum tube.
Disadvantages of 2nd Generation Computers:
• Air-conditioning required.
• Commercial production was difficult and costly.
2nd Generation Computers. Transistors
Third Generation Computers(Integrated Circuit):
The major invention of third generation was the development of IC (Integrated Circuit).
The concept of IC was developed by Jack ST. A single IC chip consisted of thousands of transistors. These computers used magnetic core memory as internal storage. The operating systems in third generation of computers allowed the machines to run many different functions.
Advantages of 3rd Generation Computers:
• These computers used less energy.
• It used high level programming.
Disadvantages of 3rd Generation Computers:
• These computers still required air conditioning.
Third generation computers
fourth generation Computers(LSI):
Fourth generation computers are modern day computers. They started with the invention of microprocessors. Advancements were made in the integrated circuit technology. VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits) and LSI (Large Scale Integrated Circuits) were also designed. This generation of computers used semiconductor memory that increased the internal storage of computers. Examples of fourth generation of computers are Apple Macintosh and IBM PC etc.
... The main disadvantages of third-generation computers were: Air-conditioning required. Highly sophisticated technology required for the manufacturer chips. 4. Fourth Generation Computers (1971 to Present) Microprocessors The ... of parallel processing In these computers following technologies will be used: ULSIC (Ultra Large Scale Integrated Circuits) technology Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology ...
Advantages of 4rth Generation Computers:
• These computers have high processing speed.
• No air conditioning required in most cases.
• Hardware failure is negligible and hence minimal maintenance is required.
• These computers have more internal storage.
Disadvantages of 4rth Generation Computers:
• These computers have highly sophisticated technology required for the manufacture of LSI chips.
Fourth Generation computer
Fifth Generation Computers(VLSI):
Fifth generation computers are still in progress and scientists are working on it. Their main aim is to bring those machines with our general IQ level that means to the knowledge of the world and the ability to reason logically. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality. The goal of fifth generation of computers is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of self-organization.
Fifth Generation of Computers