In its sequel, an analysis of the study’s participants along with an inspection of its procedure and instrumentation was offered. Within the third and final segment of this critique however, readers will find: (1) a scrutinization of its Results section, (2) an examination of its Discussion section, (3) an assessment of the entire article, and (4) a proposed plan for a follow-up study, which may result in some improvements being made over its predecessor. Results Critique
Within the Results portion of many academic journals it is not an uncommon practice for percentages to be reported within an article’s contents (Pyrczak, 2008).
This practice is performed, of course, so the study’s outcome may be more clearly understood. But, along with the provision of these data, it is also imperative for scientists to provide their readers with the “underlying number of cases for each percentage” (Pyrczak, 2008, p, 103) because if this data is not supplied, it can present the appearance of deception.
Regarding the presence of these entries in this article, this writer observes inconsistencies. For, although these researchers had announced the number of participants that they had in their study’s beginning and in its end (Lin et al. , 2004), they did not publish what the differences were between the scores of the individuals who remained in the study and the scores of the individuals who left. In noting the obvious absence of this data, this analyst must rate this item ‘2’ (i. e. this is from the Likert cale, which means that ‘5’ is equated with the most excellent of ratings and ‘1’ is equated with the inference of serious inadequacies) due to the lack of this congruency. In addition to supplying this information, it is just as common for researchers to disclose mean values to consumer scholarship as well, which, according to Pyrczak (2008), should only be used when a distribution is not skewed. However, after reviewing this data in the Lin et al. (2004) article, this evaluator has determined to give the assayers a mediocre rating of ‘3’ on this particular.
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Though, to the experimenters’ credit, they had provided a table that displayed the mean and standard deviation of their participants’ dependent variables as well as a table that had accounted for these same values in the gains that these individuals experienced as a result of treatments (e. g. , which was either forgiveness therapy [FT] or alcohol and drug counseling [ADC]), they had omitted the publishing of the raw data of their participants, making it impossible for the determination of a normal distribution to be ascertained.
Whenever treatments in research are studied, consumers of this type of information are often drawn towards knowing the efficacies of the treatments in the Results section (Pyrczak, 2008).
In response to this demand, Lin et al. (2004) referred their readers to the article’s tables and provided the comment, “The FT group demonstrated significantly greater improvement from pretest to posttest according to one-tailed t tests of changes …” (p. 1117).
In further elaborating this point, the researchers asserted, “the two groups exhibited significant differences in regard to improvements …” (p. 117).
Though one may obtain very helpful information from the tables provided, these experimenters offered no statistical information on this matter in the text of this section. Additionally, it is interesting to note that the experiment’s effect size can be found located within the articles’ discussion section, “the effect size was 1. 58” (p. 1120).
Although this is a remarkable outcome, the authors make no mention of specific t and p values (e. g. , although this evaluator had noted a reporting of this data beneath Table 3 in the article).
Due to these factors, this graduate student supplies a rating of ‘3’ concerning this element. Concerning the cohesiveness of an essay, Pyrczak (2008) avers that its Results segment should not only convey a study’s outcome in paragraphs that can each convey a particular component of its findings but it should also be arranged in a manner that provides an exclusive focus on the research’s hypothesis as well as supply its related statistics. While this author can commend the researcher’s inclusion of the coefficients of their instrumentations and the tables that demonstrate the study’s results (Lin et al. 2004), the Results section in this composition falls short of the previously listed expectations of what this segment should comprise. For this assayer has observed that though the 10 variables measured had been noted, the study’s authors had not expounded upon the constituents of their findings. The rating this investigator gives the coherency of this paper is ‘2’. Additionally, as far as the study’s designers making a reference back to the purpose of the research (Pyrczak, 2008), this evaluator has ascertained they have not (Lin et al. 2004); however, it should be mentioned that in studies that have only a solitary hypothesis, such a requirement may not be applicable. With that being the case, this graduate student determines this requisite is not applicable (N/A).
... .537.1Public Administration0.03.80.213.86.20.0Source: Author's tabulations from CPS Supplement on Contingent and Alternative Work ... long-term security implications, the effects on consumer psychology could result in negative consumer confidence hindering buying patterns (Oakland Press, ... are only approximately 3,300 according to a Book Industry Study Group Inc. report.In April of 2001, Amazon.com ...
Discussion Critique Although Pyrczak (2008) advises that the discussion portion of lengthy articles should succinctly summarize the study’s aim and focus, as well as draw attention to the highpoints of the research’s outcome, Lin et al. has failed to do so.
In lieu of this approach, these authors emphasize the fact that this study has been the first of its kind to show the significance of past resentments being challenged in a manner that can promote emotional health in substance-dependent inpatients (Lin et al. , 2004), and, they follow that information with comparisons between the Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI) scores of participants of similar research with the EFI scores of the participants in their study so the superior results that had been experienced with FT could be noted. Though these researchers had attempted to show “the strength of [their] findings” (p. 118), this writer posits that they had done so – but, not comprehensively; hence the rating assigned to this aspect is ‘4’. In regard to these experimentalists demonstrating an acknowledgement of particular restrictions in their approach (Pyrczak, 2008), this counselor-in-training must assigned Lin et al (2004) a rating of ‘5’. The rationale supporting this conclusion is attributed to not only the high quantity and quality of the information they had provided on this issue, but it is also associated with the proffering of this element being given in a brief and comprehensive manner.
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In illustrating the presence of these multi-faceted factors, the researchers supply their readers with five areas of admonishments related to the study’s: (1) sample size, (2) participants’ traits of resentments, forgiveness, anger, and preexisting pain, (3) participants’ levels of perseverance, (4) participants’ emotional stability, and (5) counselor’s propensity towards invoking the influence of “experimenter effects” (p. 1120) (e. g. , according to Jackson (2012) this term conveys a “threat to internal validity in which the experimenter, consciously or unconsciously, affects the results of the study” [p. 00]).
Concerning the guideline that Pyrczak (2008) offers on whether or not the study’s outcome had been “discussed in terms of the literature cited in the Introduction” (Pyrczak, 2008, p. 123), this author had noted that this element had been expressed in the Lin et al. (2004) article when these researchers had made comparisons between the average EFI scores of their study’s participants (e. g. , which was noted as 175) and the average EFI scores of the population in the Coyle and Enright (1997) research (e. g. , which had been stated as 280).
Considering these authors had demonstrated this congruency, this assessor assigns a rating of ‘5’ for this aspect. However, in her review of this segment, this assayer has discovered that the researchers had also expressed a contradiction of this rule as well (Pyrczak, 2008), as seen in the citing of the Subkoviak, Enright, Wu, & Gassin’s (1995) study (Lin et al. , 2004), which provided the average EFI scores of the nonclinical adult populations (e. g. this score was recorded as being in the range of 250).
Due to the lack of compliance with this guideline, this evaluator provides a rating of ‘1’ for this component.
... have also has an impact on smoking behaviors. The participants of this study were random individuals at a local convenience store ranging ... out a survey. All participants were willing. Sixteen out of the twenty-four were smokers. The research in the literature review was ... close to home This should be looked into for further research. Studying the statistics of whether or not losing a family member ...
According to Pyrczak (2008), scientific articles should also possess the feature of making specific “suggestions for future research” (p. 125), which this study’s investigators had demonstrated, “In terms of future research, we recommend a comparison of FT with other anger-focused therapies” (Lin et al. , 2004, p. 1120).
With such being the case, this researcher gives a rating of ‘5’ for their compliance to this guideline. Critique of Entire Article Despite the deficiencies that have been projected throughout the Lin et al. 2004) article in this review, this graduate student asserts that the problem these scientists had brought to our attention through this study is, indeed, consequential (Pyrczak, 2008).
Though a myriad of reasons could be mentioned in support of this stand, the bottom line is that individuals who are dependent on substances are also the very same individuals who are a clear and present danger to us all – including the drug abusers and alcoholics, themselves; so when these substance-dependent individuals have had enough of this lifestyle, they often seek help in eliminating these addictive elements in their lives through recovery programs.
Fortunately, as Lin et al. (2004) note, the reduction of anger levels and their related emotions have recently been viewed an important component of these facilities. In considering the article’s possession of this feature, this investigator gives a rating of ‘5’ on this aspect. To respond to the query asking if there were, “any major methodological flaws” (Pyrczak, 2008, p. 131) in the Lin et al. (2004) study, this assessor must respond in the affirmative.
For as this student had noted in her previous critique, the authors had given little to no attention to the threat of differential attrition, which according to Pyrczak (2008) is a term that “refers to the possibility that those who drop out of an experimental condition are of a different type from those who drop out of the control condition” (p. 99).
In search of evidence to support this fact, this evaluator’s review of this essay discovered that there had been only a single remark that had been made to explain the 65% attrition rate of both groups, “Perseverance on the part of our client was a factor in this study’s results” (Lin et al. 2004, p. 1120).
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This statement however, is hardly adequate in meeting the rigorous standards of science. Nonetheless, before offering a rating on this aspect, this assayer must aver that the participants of this research had been quite a challenging group to study. For as these researchers asserted, “Given the high levels of mobility and chaos that characterize the lives of this client population, this dropout rate is not unusual” (p. 1115).
In contemplating the factors that are associated with this flaw, this assessor must give a rating of ‘3’ on this issue. While it may safely be said that the comparative study that Lin et al. 2004) performed on FT is, admittedly, flawed, this evaluator is convinced that it is likely to encourage others to conduct further research on this innovative treatment for at least three reasons: (1) the ever-growing problem of substance-abuse that appears to society to have relatively few and/or ineffective answers, (2) the astounding success of the effect of FT that had been demonstrated in this study, and (3) the fact that this therapy “moves to the heart of the matter for some clients” (p. 1119) – actually, this student somewhat disagrees with that statement.
Substance-dependent individuals hurt themselves as well as others and she contends that, “hurt people – hurt people”. However, this assayer is in complete agreement with the researchers’ posit that this treatment will, if permitted, get to the core of the matter of these destructive habits. With that said, on this measure, this evaluator assigns a rating of ‘5’. In spite of the flaws that are contained within this research, this writer affirms that it is highly probable that this study will be helpful to decision makers who need to arrive at the most informed choices for their clients (Pyrczak, 2008).
To provide an example for this rationale, this graduate student, looks at the variable of ‘vulnerability to drug use’ (Lin et al. , 2004) on Table 2 for the experimental group – where it points to the statistic M=15 under the heading of ‘Posttest’. In making a comparison, the next step would be to observe the same statistic under the same heading for the alternative treatment group, which states its value to be M=33. 71. From the perspective of this assessor, there are more reasons for using drugs than may be noted in these 10 variables, but they are not all, of course, onsidered here. Yet, these statistics do demonstrate a strong inference that a focus on forgiveness can result in the ridding of a very destructive factor in a person’s life. That is certainly something, which is worth considering. With that said, this investigator gives a rating of ‘5’ for this aspect. Concerning the matter of the worthiness of this essay being published in highly credible academic journals (Pyrczak, 2008), this evaluator affirms that it should be distinguished as being in such a category.
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This author will present no argument for this being so on the merit of its perfection because, obviously, it is imperfect. But, as Pyrczak points out, if such a standard had been rigorously maintained, “the vast majority of research in the social and behavioral sciences would need to be summarily rejected” (p. 132).
The value of this study’s publication lies in the potential benefits that in can bring our society in general. This assayer is granting the distinguished rating of ‘5’ for this element.
From the perspective of this evaluator, the individuals responsible for this research should be significantly gratified to have placed their moniker on a work that has such potential to benefit so many. For in conducting this investigation, they had not only helped the people who had undergone the treatments – they had also helped the individuals who loved them as well. Despite the many imperfections that this study was revealed to have, this writer would, indubitably, be proud to have had her name on this publication as a co-author. The rating of this measure is an unequivocal ‘5’.
Follow-up Research Proposal As this graduate student ponders the changes that might result in improvements in the design of a follow-up study on FT, she becomes quite persuaded that reviewing the goals of the sampling methods would be a good place to start. For one of the alterations that could be made concerning this element would be to attain a sample size that would, at least, be 50, but preferably more, considering the drop out rate of substance-dependent individuals in such programs. If this would be accomplished, there would be the added benefit of it possibly being generalized, which, of course, would e a desirable feature to obtain. On this same subject, this author would also have the study’s design to include participants that had a much greater variety in demographics as well. This would certainly be an improvement over the original research because all of the Lin et al. study’s participants were of European-American descent, except one (e. g. it is interesting to note that the ethnicity/race of this one individual had not been disclosed).
Another suggestion, which also has to do with sampling, is obtaining participants from other facilities that would have a more culturally diverse clientele.
This may run the risk of the confounder of cultural influence but it is a risk that this counsel-in-training believes could be well worth the effort. The final suggestion on this subject that this investigator would like to make is having a study that would be designed to contain participants that would be comprised exclusively of children. Since the concerns of children are the ones that are the dearest to this author’s heart, she cannot help but become quite enthusiastic at the thought.