1,014 GRE

Practice Questions

Neill Seltzer and the Staff of The Princeton Review

PrincetonReview.com

*

### Random House, Inc. New York

The Independent Education Consultants Association recognizes The Princeton Review as a valuable resource for high school and college students applying to college and graduate school. The Princeton Review, Inc. 2315 Broadway New York, NY 10024 E-mail: editorialsupport@review.com Copyright ©2009 by Princeton Review Management, L.L.C. All Rights Reserved. All rights reserved. Published in the United States by Random House, Inc., New York, and simultaneously in Canada by Random House of Canada Limited, Toronto. All other questions in the book were created by the authors. *GRE is a registered trademark of Educational Testing Service. ISBN: 978-0-375-42901-9 ISSN: 1943-4855 Editors: Laura Braswell and Rebecca Lessem Production Editor: Emma Parker Production Coordinator: Mary Kinzel Illustrations by: The Production Department of The Princeton Review Printed in the United States of America. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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### Comparative Book Review Willow Creek

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Acknowledgments

The following people deserve thanks for their help with this book: Lauren Akamine, Jonathan Arak, Forrest Bankston, Maralyssa Bann, Laura Braswell, Adam Cadre, Ed Carroll, Vanessa Coggshall, Joe Consiglio, Cynthia Cowan, Adam Davis, Cathy Evans, John Fulmer, Peter Hanink, Christopher Hinkle, Dara Hogue, Karen Hoover, Kim Howie, Jary Juliano, Kimberly Kendal, John Kim, Stephen Klosterman, Anna Konstantatos, Rebecca Lessem, Sionainn Marcoux, Joan Martin, Melanie Martin, John Massari, Mike Matera, Lisa Mayo, Seamus Mullarkey, Aaron Murray, Andrew Nynka, Abolaji Ogunshola, Jerome O’Neill, Emma Parker, Emillie Parrish, Adam Perry, Doug Pierce, Nicole-Henriett Pirnie, Krista Prouty, Debbi Reynolds, Lisa Rothstein, Liz Rutzel, Meave Shelton, David Stoll, Phil Thomas, Scott Thompson, Kerry Thornton, Shawn Waugh, David Weiskopf, Jonathan Weitzell, Sarah Woodruff, and David Zharkovsky. A special thanks to Neill Seltzer for conceptualizing this book from start to finish, and to Graham Sultan for helping those conceptions become a reality. A very special thanks to Adam Robinson, who conceived of and perfected the Joe Bloggs approach to standardized tests and many of the other successful techniques used by The Princeton Review.

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Contents

Introduction. ………………………………………………………………. . 1 Drills.

. ………………………………………………………………………. . 17

### The Term Paper on John Adams By David Mccullough

John Adams, by David McCullough The book, John Adams, by David McCullough, is a powerfully written biography of one ... of our nation's greatest heroes. This biography explores Adams ... a great book, an interesting and valid view on the life of John Adams. G elles, Edith. "The Adams Phenomenon." November ...

Diagnostic Test……………………………………………………… . 19 Math Drill……………………………………………………………. . 20 Verbal Drill…………………………………………………………… . 28 Answers & Explanations ………………………………………….. . 36

### . . . .

Verbal. . ………………………………………………………………………. . 49 Analogies………………………………………………………………….. 51

### . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Drill 1…………………………………………………………………. . 57 Drill 2…………………………………………………………………. . 59 Drill 3…………………………………………………………………. . 61 Drill 4…………………………………………………………………. . 63 Drill 5…………………………………………………………………. . 65 Drill 6…………………………………………………………………. . 67 Drill 7………………………………………………………………….

### The Term Paper on What is the ‘covering law’ model of explanation?

... , Donald. “Psychology and Philosophy” 3. Is that model of explanation opposed to the critical interpretation of human behavior? In contrast ... all sciences, Scriven claims that “exact predictions and faultless explanations” will be difficult, if not impossible, to establish ... argument about the problem of data collection in establishing explanations for human behavior. Yet, Scriven extends the problem ...

. 69 Answers & Explanations…………………………………………… . 71 Drill 1…………………………………………………………………. . 05 1 Drill 2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 08 1 Drill 3 ………………………………………………………………………………….111 Drill 4 ………………………………………………………………………………….114 Drill 5 ………………………………………………………………………………….117 Drill 6………………………………………………………………….

. 20 1 Drill 7…………………………………………………………………. . 23 1 Answers & Explanations…………………………………………… . 26 1 Drill 1…………………………………………………………………. . 56 1 Drill 2…………………………………………………………………. . 63 1 Drill 3…………………………………………………………………. .171 Drill 4…………………………………………………………………. . 79 1 Drill 5…………………………………………………………………. . 87 1 Drill 6…………………………………………………………………. . 96 1 Answers & Explanations…………………………………………… . 04 2

### The Essay on Should we drill for oil in Alaska’s wilderness?

... is that should we drill for oil in Alaska’s wilderness? My opinion and answer to this question would ... simply be no. The United States of America should not drill for oil ... we have left on this world, we would not drill for oil in the Alaskan Nation Wildlife Refuge. ... firm grasp on the belief that we should not drill for oil in the Alaskan Wilderness. It would ...

Sentence Completions……………………………………………………. 99

Reading Comprehension. ………………………………………………… 145

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Antonyms………………………………………………………………….. 223

. . . . . . . .

Math.

Drill 1…………………………………………………………………. . 27 2 Drill 2…………………………………………………………………. . 29 2 Drill 3…………………………………………………………………. . 31 2 Drill 4…………………………………………………………………. . 33 2 Drill 5…………………………………………………………………. . 35 2 Drill 6…………………………………………………………………. . 37 2 Drill 7…………………………………………………………………. . 39 2 Answers & Explanations…………………………………………… .241

### Discipline in School and at Home

... the behavior of the students in the program schools when compared to the control schools. (Nelsen, 1979). Smaller studies examining ... on meaningful work and team building. In schools that successfully implemented the program the sense of community increased. More interesting ... the researchers found that students coming from schools that had implemented the program to increase a sense of community and ...

. ………………………………………………………………………. . 59 2

Plugging In Drill……………………………………………………… . 68 2 Answers & Explanations…………………………………………… . 76 2 PITA Drill…………………………………………………………….. 285 . Answers & Explanations…………………………………………… . 90 2 Number Properties Drill……………………………………………. . 05 3 Answers & Explanations…………………………………………… .311 Fractions, Decimals, and Percentages Drill………………………. . 25 3 Answers & Explanations…………………………………………… .

32 3 Ratios and Proportions Drill……………………………………….. . 42 3 Answers & Explanations…………………………………………… . 45 3 Exponents and Square Root Drill. ………………………………… . 54 3 Answers & Explanations…………………………………………… . 59 3 Lines and Angles Drill………………………………………………. . 68 3 Answers & Explanations…………………………………………… . 72 3 Triangles Drill. ………………………………………………………. . 81 3 Answers & Explanations…………………………………………… . 89 3 Circles Drill. …………………………………………………………. 400 . Answers & Explanations…………………………………………… . 08 4

### Parents For Public Schools

... hold the students responsible for their grades, courses, school work, test scores, and attendance. Therefore, a student is held accountable ... pre-existing body of knowledge. The scores from the tests help the schools determine the advancement of a student from ... be assessed through test scores, but also through attendance, school work, and observations. Parents hold the schools responsible for the ...

Plugging In & PITA………………………………………………………………. . 61 2

### . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Number Properties. ………………………………………………………. 299 .

Fractions, Decimals, and Percentages………………………………….. 317

Ratios and Proportions. ………………………………………………….. 339

Exponents and Square Roots……………………………………………. 349

Lines and Angles………………………………………………………….. 365

Triangles. ………………………………………………………………….. . 75 3

Circles………………………………………………………………………. 397

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3D Figures. ………………………………………………………………… 415

### . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3D Figures Drill……………………………………………………… .418 Answers & Explanations…………………………………………… . 21 4 Charts and Graphs Drill…………………………………………….. . 28 4 Answers & Explanations…………………………………………… . 42 4 Linear Equations and Inequalities Drill. ………………………….. . 52 4 Answers & Explanations…………………………………………… . 57 4 Quadratic Equations Drill. …………………………………………. . 65 4 Answers & Explanations…………………………………………… .

69 4 Probability, Rates, and Statistics Drill……………………………. 4 83 . Answers & Explanations…………………………………………… . 88 4 Groups, Sequences, and Functions: Drill 1. ……………………… 499 . Groups, Sequences, and Functions: Drill 2. ……………………… . 01 5 Answers & Explanations…………………………………………… . 04 5 Combinations and Permutations Drill…………………………….. .512 Answers & Explanations…………………………………………… .515 Coordinate Geometry Drill…………………………………………. 527 . Answers & Explanations…………………………………………… . 34 5

Charts and Graphs………………………………………………………… 425

Linear Equations and Inequalities. ……………………………………… 4 49 .

Quadratic Equations………………………………………………………. 463

Probability, Rates, and Statistics. ………………………………………. . 75 4

Groups, Sequences, and Functions……………………………………… 495

Combinations and Permutations………………………………………… 509

Coordinate Geometry…………………………………………………….. 519

Writing. . ………………………………………………………………………. 5 39 . Analytical Writing………………………………………………………… 541 Issue Essay Drill…………………………………………………………… 551 Argument Essay Drill……………………………………………………… 553 About The Author…………………………………………………………. 557 .

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## Introduction

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Much like the SAT that you probably took to get into college, the GRE, or the Graduate Record Exam as it is officially known, is required for admission to many graduate programs. GRE test takers include future engineers, historians, philosophers, psychologists, nurses; even veterinarians. In short, the GRE is used by almost all graduate programs except medical school, law school, and business school. It may seem odd that a student who is applying for an advanced degree in architecture must take the same exam that a student applying for a degree in comparative literature does. In many respects, it is. The GRE, like the SAT, purports to test aptitude instead of specific knowledge of a subject. Depending on what grad school program you are going to, you might also have to take a GRE subject exam. Some programs simply have a minimum combined score that all applicants must achieve. Others, such as creative writing programs, care far more about the Verbal score than they do about the Math. One would think that engineering programs would care more about the Math score (and some do), but most engineering applicants score in the very highest percentiles on the GRE quantitative section. Therefore Verbal scores, not Math scores, become more effective when comparing one candidate to another. If you are frustrated that the skills you need for the GRE bear little resemblance to the subjects you will be studying in grad school, remember three things: 1. 2. The GRE is not a content test. It does not test a body of knowledge, such as U.S. History or French. It is designed to test a very specific way of thinking. Taking the GRE is a skill, and like any other skill, it can be learned. That is what this book and Cracking the GRE are all about. With diligence and practice, you can learn everything you need to know for the GRE in a surprisingly short period of time. The GRE is only one factor of many that will be considered for admission, and it is often the easiest to change.

So You’ve DeciDeD to Go to GraD School…

3.

The simple answer is: It depends. Some programs consider the GRE very important, and others view it as more of a formality. Because the GRE is used for such a wide range of graduate studies, the relative weight given to it will vary from field to field and from school to school. A master’s program in English Literature will not evaluate the GRE the same way that a Ph.D. program in physics will, but it’s hard to predict what the exact differences will be. A physics department may care more about the Math score than the Verbal score, but given that nearly all of its applicants will have high Math scores, a strong Verbal score might make you stand out and help you gain admission.

how Much DoeS the Gre Matter?

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How schools weigh the scores will differ not only from school to school but also from student to student. Schools may use GRE scores to validate the verbal abilities of international students who wrote fantastic essays. They may also be used in lieu of work experience for applicants who are only a year or two out of undergrad, or as a more recent snapshot for adult students returning to school after a decade or so. Mostly they are there so that schools have an apples-to-apples comparison of applicants with wildly divergent college, work, and life experiences. Also, most applicants are pretty qualified, so GRE scores are often an easy way to narrow down the pool. How your program uses your scores will determine quite a bit about how you prepare for the test. The best way to find out how your GRE score will be weighted is to contact the programs that you’re thinking about applying to and ask them. Speak directly with someone in your prospective graduate department. Contrary to what many people think, grad schools are usually quite willing to tell you how they evaluate the GRE and other aspects of your application, and they might just give you an idea of what they’re looking for. In any case, remember that the GRE is only one part of an application to grad school. Many other factors are considered, such as: • • • • • • • undergraduate transcripts (i.e., your GPA, relevant courses, and the quality of the school you attended) work experience any research or work you’ve done in that academic field subject GREs (for certain programs) essays (Personal Statements or other essays) recommendations interviews

The GRE can be a significant part of your graduate school application (which is why you bought this book), but it certainly isn’t the only part. Don’t worry about getting a good or bad GRE score. There is only the score you have and the score you need to get to go where you want to go. The gap between the two represents the amount of work you will have to do in the meantime. If you need an additional 50 points, that shouldn’t be too difficult to achieve. Polish up on your vocabulary, master the pacing of the exam, take some practice tests, and you should do fine. If you need another 100 points, that will take some more work. You’ll need to learn more vocabulary, identify and address your weaknesses on the quantitative section, and continue to practice. If you can push yourself to do that on your own, then this book and access to a few practice tests should be all you need. If you need more than 100 points, or if you aren’t likely to put in the time on your own, you will need a course or a tutor. It all starts with the research. Once you know the score you have and the score you need, you will know how much time you need to put in to prepare for the real test.

Introduction |

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the teSt—overview

There are four primary sections on the GRE: Analytical Writing, Verbal, Quantitative, and “Pretest.” The Pretest is typically a third experimental, unscored quantitative or Verbal section masquerading as a scored one. Here is the breakdown:

Section Number of Questions time

Analytical Writing Verbal Quantitative Experimental

1 Issue task 1 Argument task 30 28 Varies

45 min. 30 min. 30 min. 45 min. Varies

The total testing time is approximately 3 hours and 15 minutes, but the whole experience will take about 4 hours. When you are taking practice tests, make sure to complete all sections—even the essays—because stamina is an issue. Knowing how your brain works after two to three hours of intense concentration is big part of being prepared.

The testing centers can be intimidating places. You will be asked to show ID when you come in. You will be issued a locker where you can store your belongings, because you cannot bring anything with you into the test center. Then you will be asked to fill out a questionnaire and a legal disclaimer stating that you are who you say you are and that your reasons for taking the test are on the up and up; no taking it just for fun! The test centers cater to people taking a wide variety of tests, which means that you will be sitting in a very plain waiting room with a bunch of other fidgety, stressed-out people until you are called to the testing room. In the testing room you will be issued a cubicle with a computer, six sheets of scratch paper, two pencils, and a set of headphones that you can use to block out noise. In the beginning of the test you will be given a tutorial on how to work the computer (scrolling, clicking with the mouse, accepting answers, etc).

If you have taken a few practice tests, you’ll already know what to do. Save yourself time and skip the section.

when You Get there

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the test itself

The first section is the 45-minute Analysis of an Issue essay. You will be given a choice between two issue topics. The clock starts as soon as the two topics appear on screen. A complete list of the issue topics can be found on the ETS website under GRE—General Test—Test Preparation—Sample Questions. The test has a basic word processing function that will allow you to cut, paste, erase, and scroll. It does not have a spell check, but spelling is not scored on the GRE, so don’t worry about it. The second section is the 30-minute Analysis of an Argument essay. You get only one Argument, so you don’t get to choose. A complete list of potential arguments can be found on the ETS website in the place mentioned above. You will be offered an optional 10-minute break after you complete your second essay. Take as much time as you need to refresh yourself, but the more time you take, the longer you’ll be stuck in your cubicle. Technically, you are not allowed to use your scratch paper during untimed sections, but this is not always enforced, so you can start setting up your scratch paper if you want. (More on this later.) After the essays, most students will have three multiple-choice sections with one minute between each section. You cannot skip questions or go back to a question once you have entered and accepted an answer. All three sections will look like typical Verbal or Math sections, but only two of the three will count. The experimental section may be either Math or Verbal and may come first, second, or third. Occasionally ETS will identify the experimental section if it steps too far outside of the standard format so as to not confuse those who are taking the test. For the most part, the experimental section is used to gather data on new questions so that they can be added to the general pool of scored questions. There may also be an optional Research section. If present, it will come after the multiple choice sections. ETS will attempt to bribe you with a chance at winning a small scholarship ($500) toward your grad school tuition. Unless you are a particularly generous soul, don’t bother.

Introduction |

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After you have taken the scored portion of the exam, you will be given the opportunity to cancel your scores. Unless you passed out mid-section, left five to ten questions blank, or started hallucinating while on the clock, there is not much to be gained from canceling your scores. Your test fee is non-refundable. If you cancel, you will never know how you did. Your record will reflect that you took the test on this day, but that you cancelled your scores. You should find out how the program you want to attend will deal with multiple scores. Unless you have a compelling reason to believe that your scores were a disaster, accept them. Once you accept your scores, you will see your Math and Verbal scores only. Writing scores and percentiles will come about ten days later in the mail. You must turn in your scratch paper and collect your ID on your way out. Some schools look only at the most recent scores, while others combine scores, but most prefer to accept the highest. The CAT (Computer Adaptive Test) is not like any other test most students have taken. People don’t often do their best the first time they take it. They tend to do better the second time, even if it is only a week or two later, because they are more comfortable and more relaxed. Practice tests can make a world of difference. In addition to the dubious honor of contributing to ETS’s research and development, your registration fee also buys you score reporting for up to four schools. This will be the last section of your test. Later, if you wish to have scores sent to schools, ETS will charge you approximately $15 per school. Some students are reluctant to send scores to first-choice schools before knowing their scores. Send the scores anyway. If you are planning to apply to a particular school, that school will see all of your prior scores, even if you take the test five times. If you don’t apply, they’ll put the scores in a file, and after a year or two, they’ll throw them away. If you happen to know the school and department code for the schools of your choice, this part will go a bit faster. If not, no problem, you will have to negotiate a series of drop-down menus by state, school, and department. Taking the GRE is a long and grueling process. The more you have prepared, the less stressed you will feel on test day. Every Math or Verbal concept that you might see on the test is contained in this book. For the well prepared student, there should be no surprises on test day. You should know precisely what your target score is and how to achieve it.

ScoriNG

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You will receive separate Verbal and Quantitative scores. They are reported on a scale from 200 to 800, and they can rise or fall by multiples of ten. The third digit is thus always a zero—you can’t receive a score of 409 or 715 on a section of the GRE. Your Analytical Writing section will be listed separately, and it is scored on a scale of 0–6 in half-point increments. Here’s a look at the percentile rankings of different GRE scores. Percentile rankings tell you what percent of test takers scored beneath a given score. For example, a 620 in Verbal corresponds to the 88th percentile; this means that 88 percent of test takers scored below 620 on the Verbal section.

Score Math Percentile verbal Percentile Score Math Percentile verbal Percentile

what Does a Gre Score look like?

800 780 760 740 720 700 680 660 640 620 600 580 560 540 520

94 89 85 80 75 70 66 61 57 52 47 42 38 34 30

99 99 99 99 98 97 95 93 91 88 85 81 76 70 65

500 480 460 440 420 400 380 360 340 320 300 280 260 240 220

26 23 20 17 14 12 10 8 6 5 3 2 2 1 1

60 54 48 43 37 31 25 20 15 10 5 3 1 1

In addition to this book, you have some other worthwhile resources to consider. Princeton Review.com contains one full-length free CAT test and a free online course demo. It also contains e-mail tips for test takers and Word du Jour to help with your vocabulary. Cracking the GRE—While this book is primarily about providing additional practice items for each subject, Cracking the GRE is like a full course in your hands. It contains all of the strategies, tips, and advice that have the made The Princeton Review the best standardized test preparation company in the world. GRE Verbal Workout—Verbal Workout for the GRE gives you everything you need to tackle the Verbal portion of the GRE test. It includes hundreds of practice exercises to sharpen your skills.

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other reSourceS

Introduction |

Word Smart for the GRE—This book highlights defines and breaks down the words that are most frequently tested on the exam. There are also quizzes and secondary definitions to help you avoid test tricks and traps.

This book is about building good test-taking habits, not about finding answers. Over four hours of testing, your brain will get tired, and you will begin to do things by habit without thinking about them actively. If your habits are good, they will help carry you even when your brain starts to check out. If you have not taken the time to create good test-taking habits, you will just get sloppy, and sloppiness will kill your score. The creation of habits requires repetition, and that’s where this book comes in. Practice your approach to different question types. Then, time and large score fluctuations will cease to be an issue. There will be no such thing as having a good or bad test day. You will be in control, and you will have your scores right where you want them.

how to uSe thiS Book

1. take the assessment

Start by taking the Math and Verbal assessment tests provided at the beginning of the book. Check your scores and find your areas of weakness. Pick two or three areas to focus on. The number of questions in a drill represents the frequency with which the question type shows up on most CAT exams. Start with the high frequency topics and focus on those first.

Each question type begins with a brief synopsis of the basic approach. Read these sections carefully. These approaches have been tried, tested, and refined by hundreds of test takers over the years. They are here because they work and represent good habits. How does the approach described by the book differ from your own? Can yours be improved? Some of the new techniques may feel awkward at first, but they’re there because they work.

. learn our Strategies

Start working on the drills in this book. Use your scratch paper, stick to your approach, and drill until it becomes habit. By the time you are done, every time a question of that type pops up, your hand and your mind will know instinctively what to do, no matter how tired you get. This is a powerful tool.

. Practice our Strategies

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what You won’t Find in this Book

If you are just starting your GRE prep, need more than 50–60 points, or don’t yet have an approach, this book is not the place to start. This book is not for teaching. It is a workbook for practice and drilling. Cracking the GRE describes the test and the techniques in much more depth. It breaks down the approach to each question in a step-by-step manner with plenty of examples. Cracking the GRE is where you go to learn how to take the test; this book is where you go to practice taking it.

Now that you know a little about the test and the book, let’s review a few quick strategies.

StrateGieS

Here’s how it works. When you sit down at the computer, your potential score could be anything between 200 (the lowest) and 800 (the highest).

The computer doesn’t know your potential, so it throws an average question at you. If you get it right, it assumes that you must be an above-average test taker. Therefore, it automatically assigns you a harder question. At the same time, it narrows down your potential scoring range, because now it has some data. You can no longer get a 200, but an 800 is still in range. By answering the first question correctly, you have just bumped yourself into a higher scoring bracket. If you answer the second question correctly, the process continues. In fact, every time you answer a question, correctly or incorrectly, the computer adjusts its assumptions and assigns you another question, so it can gather more data. The additional data allows it to narrow your potential scoring range. By the time you get to the end of the test, the computer has lots of data (all cross-referenced with that of other test takers), and your potential scoring range, at this point, is quite narrow. By the time you get to the end of the test, the computer is just fine-tuning; a correct or incorrect answer won’t have all that much impact. While the actual algorithms used in scoring the test can get quite complicated, there is really only one central fact that you should take away from this description of the test. Questions at the beginning of the test have an enormous impact on your score, while questions at the end have very little. Strategically, this means that you need to go as slowly as necessary to ensure that you get the first ten to twelve questions correct. If that means that you run out of time at the tail end, so be it. Speed kills on the GRE. In the first half of the test, accuracy is everything. Of course there are a few caveats to this system. If you got a question right, then a question wrong, then one right, then one wrong, and so on for a stretch of six questions in the middle of the test, the questions would cancel each other out, and your score would not change significantly. If you got those same three questions

Introduction |

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Pacing

wrong in a row, however, you would have sent your score into a negative trend, thereby negatively impacting your final score. If you guess on one question, pay particular attention to the next one. The last wrinkle to this system is that leaving blanks at the end of the test counts against you more than wrong answers do. When you are down to your last three minutes, stop trying to solve problems. Simply eliminate one or two obvious wrong answers per question and guess. If time gets really tight and you still have questions left, pick one letter and use it as your answer for all remaining questions, so that you have responded to every item before time runs out.

• • •

Summary:

The first ten questions are all about accuracy. Work slowly and carefully. Accuracy is more important than time. If you know you guessed on the prior question, pay particularly close attention to the next one. If you are running out of time, select one letter for all remaining items rather than leave questions blank.

After pacing, the next important skill on the GRE is the use of your scratch paper. On a paper and pencil test, you can solve problems right on the page. On the GRE CAT, you don’t have that luxury. Proper use of scratch paper ensures that techniques are happening and happening correctly. It can help you deal with a question that you might not otherwise know how to approach, protect against careless errors, have a remarkable effect on efficiency, and relieve an enormous amount of the mental stress that occurs during testing. On the Verbal section, the scratch paper has two primary functions: It allows you to park your thinking on the page and to keep track of which answer choices are still in and which are out. Quickly evaluate each answer choice with a check for one that could work, an X for one that will not, an M or horizontal squiggle for a maybe, and a question mark for one you do not know. By parking your thinking on the page you create clarity and organization, both of which lead to less stress, less mental effort, and ultimately less mental fatigue. Students who do the work in their heads will spend 20 percent of their time just looking at the screen, keeping track of what is in or out. On the Math section, there are a few question types that provoke very specific setups on your scratch paper. Keep your page organized with space on one side for the question set-up and space on the other side for calculations. Once you see the question type, make your set ups and start filling in information. When you have

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how to uSe Scratch PaPer

completed a question, draw a horizontal line across the page and start the next one in a clean space. Now you have organized your thinking and approach and set yourself up to succeed on the problem. This is stress-free living on the GRE CAT. It all starts with the scratch paper. On the Verbal, use your scratch paper as a place to park your thinking. Once you have evaluated each answer choice, select from the ones that remain and move on. Learn the set-ups for each question type. Do your work on the page. If you get off track, you will be able to find out why and where. On the Verbal, do not be afraid to use the maybe sign. Before you spend ten minutes scratching your head trying to assess a difficult answer choice, give it the maybe. You can always spend more time on an answer choice IF you have to, but you never want to spend more time than you have to.

POE means finding (and eliminating) all the wrong answers you can. Eliminating one or two obviously incorrect answers can increase your chances of choosing the correct answer. Eliminate three incorrect choices, and you have a fifty-fifty chance of earning points by guessing! You have to answer each question to get to the next one, and if you have to guess, why not improve your odds?

Poe (ProceSS oF eliMiNatioN)

There are four types of questions in the Verbal portion of the test. They are Analogies, Antonyms, Reading Comprehension, and Sentence Completions. You will have 30 minutes to answer 30 questions. Within the first ten problems, you are guaranteed to see at least a couple of each question type. The Verbal portion of the GRE is one giant vocabulary test. The more words you know, the better you will do. Learning giant lists of vocabulary words is an inefficient process, because only a tiny portion of those words will actually show up on the test. Learning new words, however, is never bad and is one of the few aspects of this process that has lasting value. The five hundred words in this book have been selected for the frequency with which they appear on the GRE. Of the five hundred words you will learn, four might appear on the test you take. Because they are difficult words, however, they are likely to show up on questions where knowing them is the difference between getting that question right or wrong. No one knows all of the words on the GRE. That means Process of Elimination is critical. This is where scratch paper comes in handy. Use your techniques to give each word a check, a squiggle, an x, or a question mark, and then move on. Use scratch paper for your POE work. If your hand is moving, you are actively assessing and eliminating answer choices; you are parking that thinking on the page.

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verbal Strategies

On average, you have one minute per question. A Reading Comprehension question, however, may take two, three, or even four minutes. One way to improve your score is to get good at Analogies, Sentence Completions, and Antonyms, so that you have plenty of time left to devote to Reading Comprehension. With good technique, none of the Sentence Completions, analogies, or antonyms should take more than 30–40 seconds. The drilling ensures that you are getting the maximum number of points that your vocabulary will allow and that you are doing the problems in the most efficient way possible. Once this is done you can relax and spend plenty of time on Reading Comprehension, where speed can lead to the greatest number of mistakes.

In the Math portion of the test, you will have 45 minutes to answer 28 questions. Math questions come in four basic formats: Charts, Problem Solving, Quantitative Comparisons, and Numeric Entry. • Charts are just that: They give information in charts, graphs, or tables and ask for information (often percentages).

Just as you do on Reading Comprehension, you will have a split screen and multiple questions (usually two or three) that refer to the same set of charts. Problem Solving questions resemble the standard five-answer multiple choice questions that you might remember from the SAT. Quantitative Comparisons—also known as Quant Comps—give information in two columns. You are asked to identify if one quantity is bigger, if both quantities are always the same, or if there is not enough information to determine which column is bigger. These have only four answer choices. Numeric Entry questions are new to the GRE, and they are not multiple choice. The concepts are the same as elsewhere on the test, but you must supply your own answer.

Math Strategies

• •

•

Here is a brief description of some general techniques that apply to the Math section as a whole. Techniques that relate to specific question types will be discussed at the top of each drill. These are brief descriptions, so for a more in depth look at the techniques and practice problems, use Cracking the GRE.

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In general, ETS is not interested in testing your ability to do lots of calculations. Therefore, if you find yourself doing extensive calculations on a particular question, you are probably off track. Often you can calculate your way to the correct answer if necessary, but usually there is a better way. Your success depends upon how quickly and readily you can spot the opportunities for shortcuts and eliminate wrong answers.

calculating

In many ways, the Math portion of the test is as much a test of reading as the Verbal portion. When you see a large block of text, break it down into bite-sized pieces and solve the problem one step at a time. Skipping or combining steps leads to trouble. Use your pencil to follow along with the text on the screen as you’re reading. Reading too quickly leads to careless errors, which will hurt your score.

reading

Ballparking is the use of approximation to more easily spot the wrong answers. First, you can Ballpark by rounding off the numbers to make a calculation simpler. This saves time and reduces the chances for careless error. In order to Ballpark, you need to understand what the question is asking. Make sure to park your thinking and your Ballparked answers on paper. Ballparking is also a valuable way to check your work, because it helps you eliminate answers that don’t make sense. The correct answer to a question which asks for the number of students in a class will not contain a fraction. (ETS won’t generally chop a student in half.) A question in which a person bicycles uphill one way and downhill on the way home will not involve a distance greater than the distance a person could or would bike to work in a day. Ballparking won’t necessarily eliminate four out of five wrong answers (although it could), but it will eliminate a few incorrect answers, and it will tell you whether the answer you came up with actually makes sense.

Ballparking

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Let’s try some examples.

Question 1 of 2 Four containers of flour are on the table: The first 1 1 contains of a pound, the second contains of 6 3 1 a pound, the third contains of a pound, and the 9 1 fourth contains of a pound. If each container 18 can hold one pound of flour, how many additional pounds of flour are required to fill all four containers? 2 9 2 3 11 9 25 9 10 3

The question is asking for how many pounds of flour are required to fill the four containers. The first container requires third 5 2 of a pound more flour, the second , the 6 3

8 , and the fourth 17 . Simplify the calculation by rounding off the fractions. 9 18 17 5 8 The fractions , , and are all very close to one, so round those up and your 18 6 9 2 calculation becomes + 1 + 1 + 1 . Thus, the answer will about 3.5. The only answer 3 that is even close is choice (E).

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Question 2 of 2 Paul drives from his apartment to his parents’ house and back. On the trip to his parents’ house, he travels at an average speed of 60 miles per hour. On the return trip, Paul drives at an average speed of 80 miles per hour. Which of the following is the closest approximation of Paul’s average speed, in miles per hour, for the round trip? 60.0 68.6 70.0 71.4 80.0

Combine elimination of trap answers with Ballparking. Eliminate choice (C) as a trap answer because it’s too obvious. Now use Ballparking to eliminate some more answer choices. You know that the average speed should be somewhere near 70 mph even though that’s not exactly the answer. That helps you eliminate choices (A) and (E) because you are looking for the average. Now think about the time spent on each leg of the trip. Going to his parents’ house, Paul spends more time driving at 60 mph than at 80 mph. Thus, the overall average speed will be weighted on the side of 60; the answer is 68.6. If you have to make a guess, at the very least, you have a 50/50 shot on a tough question.

1. Double-check before you choose an answer that was “too easy” on a difficult question. 2. When you get stuck on a tough question, eliminate the predictable trap answers before you guess.

Now that you have the basic strategies, let’s move on to the drills so you can put them to use!

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Drills

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Diagnostic Test

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Math Drill

Question 1 of 28 y ≠0 Column A 175 y

2

Question 3 of 28 The “hash” of a three-digit integer with three distinct integers is defined as the result of interchanging its units and hundreds digits. The absolute value of the difference between a three-digit integer and its hash must be divisible by 9 7 5 4 2 Question 4 of 28 Q 60° 2 45° Column A 35, 043 × 25, 430 R Column B 35, 430 × 25, 043

Column B − y2 7

The quantity in Column A is greater. The quantity in Column B is greater. The two quantities are equal. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given. Question 2 of 28

P Column A 8

S

Column B The length of line segment PR

The quantity in Column A is greater. The quantity in Column B is greater. The two quantities are equal. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given. Question 5 of 28 Column A 1 a = (17)4 Column B The units digits of a

The quantity in Column A is greater. The quantity in Column B is greater. The two quantities are equal. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

The quantity in Column A is greater. The quantity in Column B is greater. The two quantities are equal. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

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Question 6 of 28 P

Question 8 of 28 The positive sequence s1, s2 , s3 … sn … is defined by sn = sn −1 + 5 for n ≥ 2. If s1 = 7, Q O• x° x° 30° 60° R then the nth term in the sequence is 5n – 5 5n – 2 5n 5n + 2 5n + 7 Question 9 of 28 Column A The least prime factor of 72 Column B The least prime factor of 27

S In the circle with center O above, PS = 8. If x = 75, then what is the perimeter of the shaded region? 6−2 3 2π 3 2π 3 2π 3 2π 3 +8 −2 3+6 +2 3+6

The quantity in Column A is greater. The quantity in Column B is greater. The two quantities are equal. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given. Question 10 of 28 The average (arithmetic mean) of a, b, c, and d is 7. Column A 15 Column B The average (arithmetic mean) of 4a – 5c, b – 24, 8c – a, and 3d + 2b

Question 7 of 28 x and y are positive numbers. Column A x − y Column B x − 2 xy + y

The quantity in Column A is greater. The quantity in Column B is greater. The two quantities are equal. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

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Question 11 of 28

Question 13 of 28 x, y, and z are positive integers such that x + y + z = 10. Column A The number of solutions of the equation above in which at least one of the three variables is greater than 3 Column B The total number of solutions of the equation above

In the figure above, the width of the larger square is equal to the diagonal (not shown) of the smaller square. Column A The area of the smaller square Column B The area of the shaded region

The quantity in Column A is greater. The quantity in Column B is greater. The two quantities are equal. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given. Question 12 of 28 If x = 32, then what is the value of xx ? 34 38 39 312 318

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Questions 14–15 refer to the following graphs. INCOME OF CLUB G BY SOURCE IN 2002 (total income = $17,000,000)

Membership (in hundreds)

MEMBERSHIP OF CLUB G, 1995–2003

30 25 20 15 10 5 0

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

Other 14% Rentals 11% Magazine subsciptions 20%

Grapefruit sales 39%

Charitable contributions 10% Question 14 of 28

Car wash 6%

Ye ar

Note: Drawn to scale. Question 15 of 28 What was the approximate average (arithmetic mean) membership for the years 1997 through 2001, inclusive? 600 1,300 1,500 1,700 2,500

If income from grapefruit sales decreased 45 percent from 2002 to 2003, then which of the following represents income from grapefruit sales in 2003 ? 0.39 0.45 0.39 1.55 0.39 0.55

($17,000,000) ($17,000,000) ($17,000,000)

(1.45)(0.39)($17,000,000) (0.55)(0.39)($17,000,000)

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Question 16 of 28 11

Question 18 of 28 To fill a larger concert hall, a madrigal singing group consisting of sopranos, altos, and basses, in a 5:7:3 ratio, needs 40 singers. What is the least number of basses the group will need?

The quantity in Column A is greater. The quantity in Column B is greater. The two quantities are equal. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given. Question 17 of 28 Column A 1.07 Column B 1 1 − 0.07 The quantity in Column A is greater. The quantity in Column B is greater. The two quantities are equal. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

Question 19 of 28 If mx + qy – nx – py = 0, p – q = 2, and y 1 = − , then which of the following is true? x 3 n−m= 2 3 2 3

n−m= − m+ n = m+ n = 2 3 3 2

m+ n = −

3 2

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Questions 20–21 refer to the following graphs. SENIOR MANAGEMENT OF COMPANY Y Average Salaries of Senior Managers at Company Y Number of Senior Managers at Company Y

120

Salary (in thousands)

25 20 15

100 80 60 40 20

Salary (in thousands)

Senior Managers

ollars

10 Average Salaries of Senior Managers at Company Y

120 100

5 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year

0

1950 1960 1970 198080 1990 2000 Ye ar 60 in 1950 dollars in actual-year dollars 40 20 0

Question 20 of 28

Question 21 of 28 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

If from 1980 to 2007, the number of senior managers increased by 60 percent, then what was the increase in the number of senior managers from 2000 through 2007, inclusive? 2 4 6 9 12

Ye ar

Which of the following can be inferred from the data? I. II. III. From 1990 to 2000, the average salary, in 1950 dollars, increased by more than 10%. In 1960, there were fewer than 5 senior managers. For the decades shown, the number of senior managers increased by the greatest percentage between 1980 and 1990. None I only II only II and III only I, II, and III

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Question 22 of 28 The volume of a cube with edge of length 2 is how many times the volume of a cube with edge of length 2 2 2 2 4 8 Question 23 of 28 V 2?

Question 24 of 28 Mr. Sjogren deposited a total of $2,000 in two different CDs. He deposited x dollars in one CD at 1% interest and y dollars in another CD at 2% interest. The total simple annual interest earned from the two CDs at the end of one year was $25. Column A x Column B y

The quantity in Column A is greater. The quantity in Column B is greater. The two quantities are equal. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given. Question 25 of 28

x−y = x−z − y−z

a

Column A

x

Column B

y

U

Y

X

W

In equilateral triangle UVW, Y is the midpoint of line segment UW and X is the midpoint of line segment YW. Column A

7 4 a

Column B The perimeter of ∆VXY

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Question 26 of 28 Rachel and Rob live 190 miles apart. They both drive in a straight line toward each other to meet for tea. If Rachel drives at 50 mph and Rob drives at 70 mph, then how many miles apart will they be exactly 45 minutes before they meet? 50 60 70 90 100 Question 27 of 28 BILLIE’S TIME SHEET FOR JULY 2 Time in: Time out: Time spent stacking shelves: 8:57 in the morning 5:16 in the afternoon 80% of total time spent at work.

Question 28 of 28 What is the probability that the sum of two different single-digit prime numbers will NOT be prime? 0 1 2 2 3 5 6 1

According to the time sheet above, Billie spent approximately how many hours stacking shelves on July 2 ? 1 3 2 3 1 3 2 3 1 3

5 6 7 8 9

Diagnostic Test | 2 7

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Verbal Drill

Question 1 of 30 British modernists used the literary tropes of fragmentation and failure to explore the impending ——- of British colonialism; through their literature, the modernists illustrated the imminent ——- of the Empire. avarice. .destruction demise. .sunset envy. .eclipse castigation. .rise dissolution. .wealth Question 2 of 30 PIQUE: aggrieve dulcify shirk aggrandize rouse Question 3 of 30 INSENSIBLE: pragmatic cogent insensate rational cognizant Question 4 of 30 LUMINOUS: stentorian incandescent mellifluous stygian innocuous Question 5 of 30 SINGULARITY: hilarity ordinariness plurality celerity opprobrium Question 6 of 30 AUSTERE: spartan ticklish unadventurous plumed fiendish

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Question 7 of 30 EQUIVOCATION : HEDGE:: valedictory : greet affidavit : swear peroration : summarize homily : praise exhortation : dismiss Question 8 of 30 MISCREANT : BASE:: harridan : charming magistrate : lax adjudicator : dismissive regent : stately tyro : green Question 9 of 30 PENURIOUS: repentant harmless wealthy penal parsimonious Question 10 of 30 Although one would think it impossible to design ——- definition for such a subjective conceipt, the French have defined the worlds greatest cuisine as that which does the most with the least, using their innumberable varieties of cheese as verifiable proof. an endemic a metaphysical a theoretical an ephemeral an empirical

Question 11 of 30 QUARRY : HUNT:: terminus : voyage guerdon : repetition accolade : campaign epitome : culture anomaly : puzzle Question 12 of 30 The development of hydrogen-powered cars will always be ——- by the physical fact that, although hydrogen contains more energy per gallon than does gasoline, it is much less dense than gasoline, and thus carries less energy per pound, making it ——- for any vehicle to carry enough hydrogen on board for long trips. assisted. .easy inhibited. .convenient enhanced. .austere hindered. .exacting parodied. .unrealistic

Diagnostic Test | 2 9

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Questions 13–14 refer to the following passage. Critics of Mark Twain’s novel, Huckleberry Finn, view the protagonist’s proclamation “All right then I will go to hell” in chapter 31 as the story’s climax. Twain’s novel lent itself to such radical interpretations because it was the first major American work to depart from traditional European novelistic structures, thus providing critics with an unfamiliar framework. The remaining twelve chapters act as a counterpoint, commenting on, if not reversing, the first part where a morality play receives greater confirmation. Huck’s journey down the Mississippi represents a rite of passage, in which the character’s personal notions of right and wrong comes into constant conflict with his socially constructed conscience by the various people and situations the protagonist encounters. The novel’s cyclical structure encourages critics to see the novel’s disparate parts as interlinked; the novel begins and ends with the boys playing games. Granted, this need not argue to an authorial awareness of novelistic construction; however, it does facilitate attempts to view the novel as a unified whole. Nevertheless, any interpretation that seeks to unite the last few chapters with the remaining book is bound to be somewhat unconvincing. This is not because such an interpretation is unnecessarily rigid, but because Huckleberry Finn encompasses individual scenes of the protagonist’s self-recognition that resist inclusion into an all-encompassing interpretation. In this respect, the protagonist can best be likened to the Greek tragic figure, Oedipus.

Question 13 of 30 The author most probably mentions the “novel’s cyclical structure” in order to demonstrate that Twain was keenly aware of novelistic construction show that the remaining twelve chapters have little connection to the rest of the novel support the critic’s position that Twain was unaware of novelistic construction provide support for a particular critical interpretation of Twain’s work argue that Twain’s protagonist has much in common with Oedipus Question 14 of 30 Which of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage? In order to understand Twain’s novel, critics must compare its protagonist to Oedipus Twain’s novel contains some chapters that resist easy inclusion into a unified interpretation. The unconventional structure of Huckleberry Finn indicates a lack of authorial awareness. Twain’s novel was the first major American novel to discard traditional European structures. The protagonist of Huckleberry Finn is considered a modern day Oedipus by critics.

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Question 15 of 30 ASPERITY: visual expression partition contretemps hallucinatory experience empressement Question 16 of 30 IMPECCABLE : REPROACH:: implacable : stoicism interminable : sojourn impotent : puissance indeterminate : certitude impenetrable : quagmire Question 17 of 30 DEMIT : ABDICATE:: enter : disembark approve : ratify maintain : supply unfetter : liberate receive : rescind Question 18 of 30 The prosecutor failed to make a ——- argument; despite a surfeit of ——- to bolster his claims, he left the jury little choice but to acquit the defendant. meticulous. .consternation condescending. .refutation dubious. .peroration trenchant. .sanctimony cogent. .substantiation

Question 19 of 30 MERCENARY : SOLDIER:: amanuensis : stenographer soubrette : maid botanist : researcher academician : professor culinarian : cook Question 20 of 30 Dr. Hanash would never entirely abjure the often ——- article; despite its many detractors, the work ——- polemic discourse for years after its publication and remains pervasive in the literature today. spurned. .forestalled praised. .fomented cited. .solidified traduced. .engendered evidenced. .produced

Diagnostic Test | 3 1

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Questions 21–24 refer to the following passage. Comparative historian Marc Ferro claims that the largest discrepancy in knowledge between what academic historians and what the average citizen knows about history is found in the United States. How has this situation come about? Certainly the problem does not lie with the secondary literature. Whereas in the past, American historians were handicapped by secondary literature that was clearly biased towards a European viewpoint, since the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 60s, the secondary literature in American history has become far more comprehensive. And it cannot be simply a matter of space constraints; the average high school history textbook is well over a thousand pages in length. One theory holds that American history textbooks are simply the socializing instruments of a controlling elite. The stratification of American society is preserved, according to this theory, by the creation of what Marx termed “false consciousness.” The theory holds that the way people think about their society and their history is crucial to maintaining the status quo. If the power elites come to believe that their success is the deserved product of their hard work and ingenuity, then there will be no desire to change the system. Similarly, if the lower classes are taught that their plight is solely due to their failings, they will be more likely to accept their fate and less likely to rise up in revolution. Griffin and Marciano contend that history textbooks promote nothing more than hegemony. Many educational theorists share this viewpoint, which in their discipline is often known as critical theory. Proponents of this view, including Kozol, Friere, and Giroux, argue that the dominant classes would never create or foster an educational system that taught subordinate classes how to critically evaluate society and the injustices it contains. As long as schools serve to transmit culture, the power elite will never allow any real reform in the system. It is all too easy to blame citizens’ poor understanding of American history on some shadowy coterie of cultural aristocracy. But critical theory and other theories that lay the blame for American ignorance of history on the doorstep of the elites cannot explain their own success. Is it not a paradox that critical theory scholarship dominates its field? If the titans of society had

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as much power as the critical theorists contend, they would surely censor or marginalize the works of social scientists in this field. Furthermore, graduates of “elite” preparatory schools are exposed to alternative interpretations of history, subversive teachers, and unfiltered primary source materials more frequently than are students at public institutions. This would seem to indicate that the powerbrokers have little control over what happens at their very own schools, let alone far flung rural schools or schools deep in urban territory. The real culprit may be something not as insidious as a vast upper class conspiracy, but more along the lines of pernicious forces working at a highly local level. Almost half of the states have textbook adoption boards consisting of members of the community. These boards review and recommend what books are taught in neighborhood schools. And because textbook publishers are first and foremost seeking to maximize profit, it is these local boards that they must appease. Question 21 of 30 According to the passage, proponents of critical theory believe which of the following? I. II. The creation of a false consciousness is necessary to preserve the stratification of American society. It is not in the interests of the powerful classes of society to engender critical reflection among the majority of citizens. Members of the upper classes may be freely taught alternative interpretations of history, but not members of the subordinate classes. I only II only I and II only II and III only I, II, and III

III.

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Question 22 of 30 It can be inferred from the passage that Marx was an early proponent of critical theory textbooks are not solely designed as teaching instruments the secondary literature on American history is no longer biased textbook publishers do not take the views of the power elite into account under the current system, real education reform is impossible Question 23 of 30 The author of the passage suggests that critical theory is simply another means by which the power elite preserves the stratification of American society does not contain any of the same biases which have appeared in the secondary literature prior to the civil rights movement is the predominant theoretical framework used by historians to explain the discrepancies in the historical knowledge of the average citizen is not unique in its attempts to attribute Americans’ poor knowledge of history to the machinations of a particular class of individuals is unable to explain how the power elites in society are able to create a false consciousness among the citizens

Question 24 of 30 The passages indicate that Griffin and Marciano are among the leading critical theorists believe that the lower classes may revolt see textbooks as tools of domination hold many of the same views as Kozol, Friere, and Giroux believe textbook publishers should not make profit a priority Question 25 of 30 LUCULENT: comprehensible recondite illegible meretricious intelligent

Diagnostic Test | 3 3

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Questions 26–27 refer to the following passage. One of the most noxious wind-borne allergens is ragweed (Ambrosia), as evidenced by an estimated 30 million sufferers in the U.S. alone and a societal cost of over $3 billion. Each plant is able to produce more than a billion grains of pollen over the course of a season, and the plant is the prime cause of most cases of hay fever in North America. Although the plant produces more pollen in wet years, humidity rates above seventy percent tend to depress the spread of pollen by causing the grains to clump. Ragweed spreads rapidly by colonizing recently disturbed soil, such as that engendered by roads, subdivisions, and cultivation and has adapted to a multitude of climatic conditions, including desert and high mountain areas. Complete elimination is virtually impossible. Physical removal is undone by even one seed or one bit of root left behind. Ragweed regenerates in about two weeks from only a half-inch of stem, usually with additional branching and flowering, so mowing can actually be counterproductive. Ragweed is susceptible to only the most aggressive herbicides, and because ragweed tends to cover large areas, control would mean widespread use of highly toxic chemicals. Control by natural predators? No known mammal browses on ragweed. Some species of Lepidoptera (butterflies, skippers, and moths) larvae feed on ragweed, but this arena of control is not well funded, and consequently not well-researched. Given the health issues and costs occasioned by ragweed, government funding for natural control research is warranted.

Question 26 of 30 Which of the following can be inferred about the spread of ragweed pollen? Allergies caused by the spread of ragweed pollen cost the U.S. more to treat than any other type of allergy. Some ragweed plants produce fewer grains of pollen when exposed to certain highly toxic herbicides. Ragweed plants adapted to desert and mountain climes tend to spread fewer grains of pollen than do plants in other locations. The clumping of pollen grains caused by high humidity levels affects the ability of the wind to carry the grains. The spread of ragweed pollen is the cause of all cases of hay fever in the United States. Question 27 of 30 The author most probably mentions some species of Lepidoptera in order to detail a species that may be more effective at controlling ragweed than are the most aggressive herbicides suggest a potential research avenue to the problem of controlling ragweed that is at present poorly explored discuss a type of mammal that feeds on ragweed plants and may be successful at controlling the spread of ragweed plead with the government to spend more money and put more research efforts into finding a natural control for ragweed argue that complete elimination of the ragweed plant will only be possible if the government funds research into natural controls of ragweed

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Question 28 of 30 COUNTENANCE: innervate sanction inveigh tolerate interdict Question 29 of 30 COZEN : DUPE:: navigate : martyr ensconce : mercenary panegyrize : narcissist inflame : alchemist contemn : churl

Question 30 of 30 Bolstered in part by the ——- economy, the “decluttering” movement has expanded its following to include those initiates who have ——- purged existences in order to prioritize their financial, as well as emotional, necessities. floundering. .rejected robust. .attempted flagging. .embraced steady. .maintained rising. .endorsed

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answers Math Drill

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 2. 1 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 0. 2 21. 2. 2 3. 2 4. 2 25. 6. 2 27. 8. 2 A B A A C D C D A C C E C E D D B 9 A A A C B A D D B C

Verbal Drill

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 2. 1 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 0. 2 21. 2. 2 3. 2 4. 2 25. 6. 2 27. 8. 2 29. 0. 3 B B E D B D B E C E A D D B E D B E A D C B D C B D B E E C

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explanations Math Drill

1. 2. A Since y2 is always positive, Column A is positive and Column B is negative. The answer is choice (A). You can prove this by Plugging In several different values for y. Straight angle PSR measures 180 degrees, so angle QSR must be 90 degrees, and angle SQR must be 45 degrees. So triangle QSR is a 45-45-90 triangle. Dividing QR by 2 gives you the lengths of 2 . Angle QPS measures 30°, so triangle PQS is a 30-60-90 triangle, and you QS and SR, that is, 2 can find PS by multiplying QS by 3, which gives you 6. Add the lengths of SR and PS to find the length of PR, which is 2 + 6 . But 2 + 6 ≠ 8 . Rather, simplify 8 to 2 2 = 2 + 2 . Compare this to Column B, and realize that you can ignore a 2 in each column. 6 is greater than 2, so Column B is greater. 3. A Plug In a three-digit integer, such as 341. Swapping the 1 and the 3 gives you 143. Subtracting 143 from 341 gives you 198 (which is already positive, so its absolute value is also 198). 198 is not divisible by 7, 5, or 4, so eliminate choices (B),(C), and (D). Plug In another number, such as 546. Its hash is 645. Subtracting 546 from 645 gives you 99, which is not divisible by 2, so eliminate choice (E). Even if the hundreds digit or the units digit are zero, the difference between a three-digit integer and its hash is still divisible by 9. The answer is choice (A).

Before you start multiplying these huge numbers, realize that no GRE question requires a great deal of arithmetic. Notice that the three digits after the thousands place have merely been swapped to form Column B from Column A. So, represent Column A as (35K + 43)(25K + 430) and Column B as (35K + 430)(25K + 43) (K is short for 1,000). In FOILing these, you’ll see that the result from multiplying the First expressions together is (35K)(25K) in both Columns. Similarly, the result from multiplying the Last expressions is (43)(430) in both Columns. So these expressions can be ignored in comparing the two Columns. All that remains is the Outer terms added to the Inner terms. In Column A, this is (35K)(430) + (43)(25K), and in Column B, this is (35K)(43) + (25K)(430). If you factor out 43 from each Column, you obtain 43(350K + 25K) and 43(35K + 250K), or 43(375K) and 43(285K) for Columns A and B, respectively. Column A is larger. You don’t need actually to calculate the value of a, just the value of the units digit. 172 has a units digit of 9 because 72 is 49. Squaring 172 gives you 174, whose last digit is therefore the last digit in 92, that is, 1. Hence, both Columns are equal, and the answer is choice (C).

B

4.

A

5.

C

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6. D If x = 75, both angles marked x add up to 150 degrees, so the remaining angle in the semicircle (angle QOR) must measure 30 degrees. PS is a diameter, so the circumference of the circle must be πd = 8π. The length of arc QR must represent the same fraction of the circumference as cen length of QR 2π 30 tral angle QOR does of 360 degrees: . The = , so the length of arc QR is 3 8π 360 diameter of the circle is 8, so radii OQ and OR have length 4. The triangle inside sector QOR is a 30-60-90 triangle because angle QOR measures 30 degrees and you are shown a right angle. The remaining angle must be 60 degrees to add up to 180. So, the leg of the triangle across from the 30 degree angle will be half of OQ, which is 2, and the other leg that forms part of radius OR will have length 2 3. So, the remainder of radius OR must have length 4 − 2 3 . Adding the three edge lengths of the shaded region gives you 2 π + 2 + 4 − 2 3 = 2 π − 2 3 + 6; the 3 3 answer is choice (D).

7. C Column B contains a common quadratic pattern. Factor the right-hand side x − 2 xy + y = choice (C).

(

)

(

x− y

)

2

= x − y . Both Columns are equal, so the answer is

8. D Plug In 2 for n to find the second term in the sequence: sn = sn –1 + 5 so s2 = s2–1 + 5 = s1 + 5 = 12, your target number. Now Plug In 2 into the answer choices for n to see which equals 12. Only choice (D) works. 9. A The Columns are already represented as the product of prime factors: 72 = (7)(7), so the least prime factor of Column A is its only prime factor, 7. Similarly, 27 = (2)(2)(2)(2)(2)(2)(2), so Column B is 2. Be careful! Remember that you are being asked to determine the greater of these two Columns. The answer is choice (A).

To find the average of a list of numbers, add them up and divide by the number of elements in the list. a +b +c +d = 7, so a + b + c + d = 28. You can substitute this into the simplified You are told that 4 ( 4a − 5c ) + (b − 24) + (8c − a ) + (3d + 2b ) = 3a + 3b + 3c + 3d − 24 = form of Column B as follows: 4 4 3 ( a + b + c + d ) − 24 3 ( 28) − 24 60 = = = 15. Both Columns are equal, so the answer is choice 4 4 4 (C). Alternatively, you can Plug In values for a, b, c, and d. The easiest way to make their average equal 7 is to Plug In 7 for all four values.

0. 1

C

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11.

C

Plug In an easy number for the width of the smaller square, such as 3. So the area of the smaller square is s2 = 32 = 9. Drawing in the diagonal of a square forms two 45-45-90 triangles, so the diagonal (the hypotenuse of either triangle) has length 3 2. You are told that this is the width of 2 the larger square, so the area of the larger square is s 2 = 3 2 = 18. The area of the shaded region is the result when the area of the smaller square is subtracted from that of the larger: 18 – 9 = 9. Thus, both Columns are equal, and the answer is choice (C).

( )

12.

E

First, evaluate x: x = 32 = 9. Notice that the answers are presented as powers of 3, not a list of actual numbers. So xx = (32)9 = 318, and the answer is choice (E). Be systematic. Start generating solutions (x, y, z) by making x and y as small as possible, so that z will be as large as possible: (1, 1, 8). Now increase x and y one unit at a time to try to make z decrease to 3: (2, 2, 6) and (3, 3, 4) are the next solutions you can generate. At this point, if you increase either x or y by 1, z becomes 3, but the variable you increased becomes greater than 3: (3, 4, 3), or (4, 3, 3). No matter what you do, one of the variables will be greater than 3. Thus, all solutions include a variable greater than 3, and the answer is choice (C).

The question asks for the amount of a 45% decrease on the current grapefruit sales. Try setting up your actual equation before doing any calculations. The current amount of grapefruit sales is .39 (17M). 45% of that number is (.45) (.39) (17M). Because it’s a decrease, we have to subtract 45% from the current total, or [.39 (17M)]–[(.45) (.39) (17M)]. Notice that you have the same terms on both sides of the minus sign. This means that we can factor these terms out, like this: (.39) (17M) (1–45). Now take a look at the answer choices. Choice E fits the bill with (.55) (.39) (17M).

13.

C

14.

E

15. D To find the average membership, add up the total membership and divide by the number of years. 6 + 15 + 17 + 22 + 26 86 = = 17.2. 5 5 The vertical axis indicates numbers in hundreds, so multiply by 100 to get 17,200; the answer is Ignoring the hundreds in the second chart, the average should be: choice (D).

6. D First, simplify the expression in each Column by splitting up the fraction. Thus, Column A 1 17 y and Column B becomes + 1. Both Columns contain 1, so it can be elimibecomes 1 + y 11 17 5 nated from the comparison. Now Plug In 12 for y: Column A becomes = 1 , and Column 12 12 12 1 B becomes = 1 . Column A is larger, so eliminate choices (B) and (C). Now Plug In 16 for 11 11 16 5 17 1 = 1 . Column B is larger, so y: Column A becomes = 1 , and Column B becomes 11 11 16 16 eliminate choice (A); the answer is choice (D).

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17.

B

First, simplify the expression in each Column by turning it into a fraction. Thus, Column A becomes 1 1 1 100 7 7 and Column B becomes = = = 1 . Both Columns contain 1, so it 0.93 93 93 93 100 100 can be eliminated from the comparison. 7 divided by 93 will be larger than 7 divided by 100; the

latter is divided into more pieces, so each piece will be smaller. Therefore, the answer is choice (B).

8. 1 9 With a ratio of 5:7:3, the total number of singers must be at least 15. If you double the number, and keep the ratio, there would be 30 singers. To have at least 40 singers with the same ratio, the actual total would be 45, or 3 times 15, which means there are three times the number of basses (3) in the ratio, or 9. Notice that the question gives you information about p and q, and the answer choices refer to m and n. Therefore, you need to isolate those from the variables x and y by factoring. Regrouping the first given equation gives you (m – n)x + (q – p)y = 0. Because p – q = –(q – p), the second given equation tells you that q – p = –2. Cross-multiplying the third given equation yields x = –3y. Substituting the last two results into the regrouped first equation yields (m – n)(–3y) + (–2)y = 0. Moving the second expression to the other side of the equation yields (m – n)(–3y) = 2y. Inspecting this equation tells 2 2 you that (m – n)(–3) = 2, so m − n = − . Because m – n = –(n – m), you know that n − m = , and 3 3 the answer is choice (A).

0. 2 A The number of senior managers in 1980 was 15. To find 60 percent of this, multiply 60 3 (15) = (15) = 9. So in 2007, there were 15 + 9 = 24 senior managers. In 2000, there were 22, 5 100 so the increase from 2000 to 2007 was 2; the answer is choice (A).

In the first bar graph, the average salary, in 1950 dollars, actually appears to have slightly decreased from 1990 to 2000, so statement I is false. Eliminate choices (B) and (E). In the second bar graph, there were 8 senior managers in 1960, so statement II is also false. Eliminate choices (C) and (D); the answer is choice (A).

The volume of the larger cube is s 3 = 23 = 8 and the volume of the smaller cube is s 3 = 2 = 2 2 . 8 4 4 2 Dividing the larger by the smaller yields = = = 2 2 , and the answer is choice (C).

2 2 2 2

19.

A

21.

A

2. 2

C

( )

3

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3. 2

B

Because VY bisects UW, it is an altitude—this is true in any triangle that is at least isosceles. So ∠VYW measures 90 degrees. In an equilateral triangle, all three angles measure 60 degrees. So ∠YVW measures 30 degrees, and ∆VYW is a 30-60-90 triangle. Plug In an easy number for a, such as 4. All three sides have length 4, and because you are given that Y and X are the midpoints of UW and YW, respectively, you can conclude that YW = 2, and YX = 1. Using YW as the side opposite the 30 degree angle in the 30-60-90 triangle, multiply by 3 to get 2 3, the length of VY. Now use the Pythagorean theorem to find the final side of ∆VXY : (1)2 − ( 2 3 )2 = (VX )2 ;VX = 13 . So the perimeter of ∆VXY is 1 + 2 3 + 13 ≈ 1 + 2(1.7 ) + 13 = 4.4 + 13 . 9 = 3 and 16 = 4, so 13 must be bigger than 3, and Column B is therefore larger than 7.4. Plugging In 4 for a in Column A gives you 7, so Column B is larger.

4. 2

A

If x and y were equal, then $1,000 would be invested at each rate, earning $10 at 1% and $20 at 2%, for a total of $30. The CDs earned only $25, so more must have been invested at the lower rate; the answer is choice (A).

5. D You can define a − b as “the distance from a to b on a number line.” Thus, the given equation 2 becomes “the distance from x to y is the distance from x to z minus the distance from y to z.” You can draw this on a number line two different ways:

x y or z y x z

You are asked to compare x = x − 0 to y = y − 0 , which can be translated as “the distance from x to 0” and “the distance from y to 0”. You only know that y is between x and z, and you are given no information about whether the points are on the positive or negative half of the number line, so you cannot determine which is closer to 0, so the answer is choice (D).

3 6. D Together, Rachel and Rob cover 120 of the 190 miles in one hour. This means that they cover 2 4 3 that distance in that time, that is, 90 miles in any 45 minute period. So, 45 minutes before they 4 meet, they are 90 miles apart, and the answer is choice (D). If you picked choice (E), you found how far they had traveled 45 minutes before they met, rather than how far they had left to travel.

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27.

B

First, figure out how many hours Billie worked. From 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. is 8 hours. She started work 3 minutes before 9 a.m. and finished at 16 minutes after 5p.m., for a total of 19 more minutes, 1 1 which is close to 20 minutes, or of an hour. So Billie worked approximately 8 hours. To take 3 3 80 percent of this, multiply by the answer is choice (B).

80 4 2 4 1 4 25 100 = . So she spent 8 = = = 6 hours; 100 5 5 3 5 3 15 3

8. 2

C

The single-digit primes are 2, 3, 5, and 7. Be systematic in listing the results. Start with 2, adding it to the other numbers, then move to 3, and so forth: 2 + 3 = 5; 2 + 5 = 7; 2 + 7 = 9; 3 + 5 = 8; 3 + 7 = 10; 5 + 7 = 12. Out of these six results, 5 and 7 are prime, but the other four results are not, so 4 2 the probability you seek is = , and the answer is choice (C).

6 3

Verbal Drill

1. B This sentence employs parallel structure, and the semicolon trigger tells you that both blanks will go in the same direction. You can recycle fragmentation for the first blank and failure for the second blank; POE all answers except choice (B).

Although the most familiar definition of the word pique is to excite interest or curiosity, the primary definition is to wound pride or vanity. That’s the definition being tested here, so the opposite is to soothe or please. Aggrieve is a synonym for the meaning tested here, and rouse is a synonym of the more familiar definition of pique. If you know that pique is negative, then you know you need a positive word. Aggrieve is negative, so eliminate choice (A).

Dulcify means to mollify, which is a pretty good match, so the best answer is choice (B).

Insensible means unconscious or unaware, so the opposite is aware. Insensate is a synonym. Pragmatic and rational are traps, because if you think that insensible means not sensible, you are looking for an answer like sensible. If you’re not sure what insensible means, you can still eliminate choice (C); it has the same prefix as insensible, so it’s not likely to be its opposite. Cognizant means aware, so the best answer is choice (E).

2.

B

3.

E

4. D Luminous means emitting light, so the opposite is characterized by darkness. Incandescent is a synonym. If you’re not sure what luminous means, you may be able to guess its meaning using roots. Lum means light, so the correct answer must have something to do with darkness. Stygian means dark or gloomy, so the best answer is choice (D).

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5.

B

Singularity is unusualness or exceptionalness, so the opposite is normality. Singularity contains the word singular, so plurality is a trap. Depending on the context, singularity is either positive or neutral, so you can eliminate solely positive words. Hilarity and celerity are positive; eliminate choices (A) and (D). Ordinariness means normality, so the best answer is choice (B).

6. D Austere means bare or unadorned, so the opposite is adorned. Spartan is a synonym. Austere is negative, so you’re looking for an answer that’s positive. Spartan, unadventurous, and fiendish are negative and ticklish is neutral; eliminate choices (A), (B), (C), and (E). Plumed means adorned, so the best answer is choice (D).

7. B Equivocation is speech used to hedge one’s point or to avoid getting pinned down. Note the secondary meaning of hedge here; you can see that it is a verb by comparing it to the other right-side words. A valedictory (think of the valedictorian at a graduation) is someone who says goodbye, not someone whose purpose is to greet the audience. An affidavit is speech used to swear that a statement is true, so keep choice (B). A peroration does not summarize; in fact, a peroration is a very long speech. (The prefix per- can mean through or thoroughly, so peroration is an oration which is very thorough and lengthy.) A homily is a sermon which gives a moral lesson, but it may or may not praise someone. Finally, an exhortation is speech used to encourage an audience, not dismiss it, leaving you with choice (B) for the answer. A miscreant is a person with a base or villainous nature. Note the secondary meaning of base here, which you can see is an adjective by glancing at the other right-side words. Is a harridan a charming person? Actually, no—a harridan is a scolding, shrewish woman. Is a magistrate, or a legal administrator, a lax person? Not necessarily. An adjudicator is someone who judges a situation, but is not necessarily dismissive. A regent is someone who helps rule, but a regent is not necessarily stately. Finally, a tyro is a beginner, or someone who is green, leaving you choice (E) for the answer. Although the primary definition of penurious is stingy, it can also mean poor. That’s the definition being tested here, so the opposite is rich. Parsimonious is a synonym for the primary definition. If you know that penurious is negative, you know you need a positive word. Penal and parsimonious are clearly negative, so eliminate choices (D) and (E). Wealthy means rich, so the best answer is choice (C).

The sentence starts with a different direction trigger: Although. In this case the sentence is looking for something which is the opposite of subjective. A good word for the blank, therefore, would be objective. This is supported by the notion that the definition must be verifiable. Empirical means provable and is therefore the best synonym. The answer is choice (E).

8.

E

9.

C

0. 1

E

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11.

A

A quarry is the goal of a hunt; for example, a quarry could be a buck or a fox. The choices use some hard vocabulary, so try to eliminate choices with words you know based on this relationship. For example, is an accolade, or statement of praise, the goal of a campaign? Not necessarily. Is an epitome the goal of a culture? No, so eliminate that choice as well. Is an anomaly the goal of a puzzle? No. You are left with two difficult choices. A terminus is the endpoint, or goal, of a voyage. A guerdon is a reward, which is not the goal of a repetition, leaving you with choice (A) for the answer. The trigger although introduces two conflicting aspects of hydrogen-powered cars. The first clue states that hydrogen contains more energy per gallon than does gasoline, which is a good thing. The trigger indicates a change of direction, so a good word for the first blank is challenged. Start with the first half of the answers and look for a word that means challenged. Use POE to eliminate choices (A), (C), and (E). The second blank continues in the same direction as the first, based on the second trigger, thus, so a good word for that blank is unlikely. That means you can eliminate choice (B), because convenient does not match unlikely. Choice (D) is the best match.

12. D

3. D According to the author, The novel’s cyclical structure encourages critics to see the novel’s disparate 1 parts as interlinked…however, it does facilitate attempts to view the novel as a unified whole. Thus, the cyclical structure supports a critical interpretation of the novel. Choice (D) best summarizes this idea. 14. B In the first paragraph, the author states, The remaining twelve chapters act as a counterpoint, commenting on—if not reversing,—the first part where a morality play receives greater confirmation. According to the second paragraph of the passage, Huckleberry Finn encompasses individual scenes of the protagonist’s self-recognition, that resist inclusion into an all-encompassing interpretation. Throughout the passage, the author shows that the novel has certain elements that do not fit nicely into a unified vision of the book. Choice (B) is the best restatement of the information given in the passage. Asperity means harshness in tone or manner, so the opposite is friendliness or warmth. If you know that asperity is negative, you know you need a positive answer. Visual expression and partition are neutral, and contretemps is negative; eliminate choices (A), (B), and (C). You can also eliminate choice (D), because, like visual expression, it has no opposite. Empressement means extreme cordiality, so the best answer is choice (E).

15.

E

6. D Someone who is impeccable is faultless, or not deserving of reproach. There is some tough vocabu1 lary in the answer choices. Start by trying to eliminate based on vocabulary you know. For example, an implacable person is beyond pleasing, not undeserving of stoicism. Something interminable is endless, but not undeserving of a sojourn, or a brief stay. Someone impotent lacks puissance, but is not undeserving of it. Something indeterminate is not deserving of certitude because it is not certain; hold on to that choice. A quagmire may be impenetrable, but something impenetrable is not unworthy of a quagmire, leaving you with choice (D) as the best answer.

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17.

B

To abdicate is to formally demit—or give up—a position. If you weren’t sure about the meanings of those words, or about what kind of relationship they had, you could still try to eliminate by working backwards. Enter is the reverse of disembark. Do demit and abdicate seem similar or different? If you know that they are similar words, you can eliminate choice (A) by using this side-ofthe-fence approach. To ratify something is to formally approve it, which does match the stem-pair relationship, if you were able to recognize it. Even if you did not know that relationship yet, keep choice (B) because it does at least have a defining relationship. Maintain and supply do not have a defining relationship (you could maintain something by supplying it, but this is a stretch, not a definition), so eliminate choice (C). To unfetter someone is to liberate them, so keep choice (D) for now. Receive and rescind have no relationship, eliminating choice (E). Comparing your final options—choice (B) and choice (D)—the aspect of formality makes choice (B) the better match and the best answer. If the jury acquitted the defendant, or let him off the hook, the prosecutor could not have done a very good job. Therefore, you know that he failed to make a good argument, despite the fact that he had a lot of something to bolster his claims. What would bolster, or help, his claims? Some great evidence would definitely help him, so use evidence for the second blank. Working from the first blank first, you can see that condescending and dubious do not match the word you filled in, good. Meticulous, trenchant, and cogent all could refer to good arguments, so keep those choices for now. Look at the second blank options; consternation and sanctimony do not match evidence. Substantiation is a good match, so select choice (E).

A mercenary is a hired soldier. Looking at your choices, an amanuensis is a hired stenographer. Soubrette is a fancy word for maid, but it doesn’t mean a hired maid. Botanist and researcher do not have a defining relationship. Academician is a fancy word for professor, and a culinarian is a fancy word for cook, but neither pair matches the stem pair relationship, leaving you with choice (A) for the answer. The article is described in turns as having detractors and as a fixture in the literature. There is more than one trigger in the sentence, so be sure to keep track of which clues are relevant to which blank. If you start with the first blank, and know the meanings of abjure and detractor, you might infer that the article was often criticized. You can immediately eliminate choice (B). Cited and evidenced are distracting choices. They are associated with research and publication, but it is unlikely that someone would regret writing a frequently cited work. The second blank is neutral, but knowing that polemic discourse followed for years after its publication, you should look for a word that means encouraged. Forestalled is opposite in meaning to encouraged, therefore you can eliminate choice (B). Choice (D) is the best match here.

8. 1

E

19.

A

0. D 2

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21.

C

In order to answer this question, you must understand what critical theory is. The third paragraph mentions critical theory directly, and states that its proponents believe the dominant classes would never create or foster an educational system that taught subordinate classes how to critically evaluate society and the injustices it contains. This most closely matches statement II. Eliminate choice (A). The second paragraph is also important because the author states that critical theorists share the views of the theorists mentioned in the second paragraph. These theorists hold that the stratification of American society is preserved…by the creation of what Marx termed false consciousness…The theory holds that the way people think about their society and their history is crucial to maintaining the status quo. This matches statement I. Eliminate choices (B) and (D). The third choice is incorrect. The author mentions this point in the critique of critical theory in the final paragraph. Choice (C) is the best answer. Choice (B) is supported by the final lines of the passage, which indicate that textbook publishers are first and foremost seeking to maximize profit. Thus, textbooks are not just teaching instruments, but money makers. Choice (A) is not supported by the passage. The theorists use Marx’s term, but that doesn’t mean he was a member of the school. Choice (C) is wrong; the passage simply says the literature is more comprehensive. That’s not the same as saying it is no longer biased. Choice (D) is not supported by the passage. Although the author rejects the idea that the power elites are in control of textbooks, it may still be true that publishers take their views into account. Choice (E) is put forth by the critical theorists, but it is not necessarily true.

2. 2

B

3. D In the final paragraph, the author states, but critical theory and other theories that lay the blame for 2 American ignorance of history on the doorstep of the elites cannot explain their own success. Thus, there must be other theories similar to critical theory and critical theory is not unique, which supports choice (D). There is no information to support either choice (A) or (B). Choice (C) is wrong because critical theory is used by educational theorists, not historians. Choice (E) is not supported by the passage. 4. 2 C The passage’s discussion of Griffin and Marciano is limited to a single sentence: Griffin and Marciano contend that history textbooks promote nothing more than hegemony. The choice that most closely matches this sentence is choice (C). The other choices are not mentioned in conjunction with Griffin and Marciano. Luculent means clear or easy to understand, so the opposite is difficult to understand. Comprehensible is a synonym. Illegible is a trap because luculent refers to difficulty in understanding concepts or meanings, not words that aren’t written clearly. If you know that luculent is positive, you know you need a negative word. Comprehensible and intelligent are positive; eliminate choices (A) and (E). Recondite means difficult to understand, so the best answer is choice (B).

5. 2

B

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6. D The first paragraph states that ragweed is one of the most noxious wind-borne allergens. Later, the 2 paragraph states that humidity rates above seventy percent tend to depress the spread of pollen by causing the grains to clump. If the pollen is borne by the wind and its spread is depressed by clumping, the clumping must have some negative affect on the wind’s ability to carry the pollen. The passage doesn’t mention the cost of treating other allergies, so choice (A) is wrong. Nothing supports choice (B). The passage doesn’t compare the rates of production of plants in different climates, so choice (C) cannot be inferred. Choice (E) goes too far; the passage states that ragweed pollen is the cause of most cases not all as the choice states. 27. B The answer to this question lies in the line, Some species of Lepidoptera (butterflies, skippers, and moths) larvae feed on ragweed, but this arena of control is not well funded, and consequently not wellresearched. The author mentions the species to indicate that there may be a potential answer to the problem of controlling ragweed, but this answer has not been fully explored. This most closely matches choice (B). Choice (A) is wrong because the author doesn’t make a comparison between the methods of control. Choice (C) is wrong because the species discussed are not mammals. The author does suggest the government explore natural remedies, but choice (D) doesn’t properly answer the question. The mention of some species of Lepidoptera is not used to plead with the government. Choice (E) is incorrect because earlier in the passage the author indicates that complete elimination of the ragweed is unlikely. The primary meaning of countenance is face or visage, but when used as a verb it means to tolerate or approve. That’s the definition being tested here, so the opposite is to denounce or forbid. If you know that innervate is a medical word that relates to nerves, you can eliminate choice (A)—otherwise, hold on to it. Sanction and tolerate are both synonyms for countenance. Even if you weren’t sure what countenance meant, two answers with the same meaning can’t both be correct, so eliminate choices (B) and (D). To inveigh against something means to speak against it, but it’s not quite strong enough. Interdict means to prohibit or forbid, which is closer to what we need, making the best answer choice (E).

This is definitely a difficult question, starting with hard vocabulary in the stem pair. A dupe is someone who is easy to cozen, or trick. If you don’t know these words, try working backwards and see if any pairs do not have defining relationships. Do navigate and martyr have a defining relationship? No, so eliminate choice (A). Similarly, ensconce and mercenary have no real connection. A narcissist is someone who is likes to panegyrize, or bestow praises upon, him or herself. Could a dupe be someone who likes to cozen him or herself? Maybe—keep choice (C). Inflame and alchemist do not have a defining relationship. A churl is a rude and boorish person, who would be easy to contemn. A dupe is someone who is easy to cozen, or fool, so choice (E) is a good match for the stempair relationship. That makes more sense than choice (C) does, making choice (E) the best answer. Remember, don’t be afraid to choose words you don’t really know if the rest definitely don’t work.

8. 2

E

29.

E

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0. 3

C

Start with one blank at a time. Don’t be immediately drawn in by bolstered in the first blank, as there really is not enough information to describe the economy. If you move to the second blank, the clue initiates may signify that new followers have begun simplified existence. You should then be able to eliminate choice (A). Maintained doesn’t quite mean “begin,” but hold onto it for the moment. Turning back to the first blank, you know that new followers have joined the movement in order to prioritize financial necessities, thus you might infer that the economy is bad. Now eliminate answers (B), (D), and (E). Choice (C) is the best match here.

4 8 | 1, 0 14 Practice Questions for the GRE

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