gulf war In 1979, Saddam Hussian took control of Iraq, and immediately set the tone for his rule by killing twenty-one of his cabinet ministers. He wanted to make his country whole once again, so in 1990 he invaded Kuwait and in less than 4 hours he had taken Kuwait and controlled 24% of the world s oil supplies. This is when the United Nations declared that Iraq s annexation is invalid. The UN gives the word for military force to be used.
The beginning of the Gulf War occurred on November 29, 1990. The war of religious strength, and cruel leadership lasted 17 months. The outcome of the war was known before it even started; the only thing that was to be determined was how would the end come… On July 17 th Hussain accuses Kuwait of over producing oil, and stealing oil from the Rumailia Oil Fields. The theft occurred when Kuwait was extracting oil from the ground. Since borders are only seen on the top of the ground, oil fields can flow between the two countries borders.
(See fig 1).
Iraq accused them of stealing two billion dollars worth of oil which belonged to them. Iraq also accused Kuwait of OPEC production quotas for oil. On August 2 nd Iraq invades Kuwait and in only 4 hours they had control of Kuwait and 24% of the world s oil.
Initially, the United Nations warned Iraq to leave Kuwait, but they did not heed the warning. The UN feared that Iraq s next target would be Saudi Arabia. The UN sets a deadline for all Iraqi forces to leave Kuwait on January 15, 1991. The air campaign against Iraq was launched January 16. 1991, the day after the United Nations deadline for Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait expired. Saddam was given every opportunity to conclude the stand off peacefully, but US/Iraqi talks in Geneva were inconclusive, at best.
... administration had called for the United Nations Security Council to send weapons inspectors to Iraq to find these weapons.Resolution ... remaining super-power also harbor such ambitions. References: Iraq War, The Nation (Accessed: April 26, 2007) http://www.thenation ... their inspection the United States assembled a "Coalition of the Willing" nations to support the war against Iraq. Iraq was attacked and ...
The magnitude and the power of the air attack was shock to all concerned. The initial attack swept away much of Iraq’s ability to defend against further air assaults. Radar installations were attacked by helicopters. F-117’s were sent to the Iraqi capital of Baghdad to destroy command and control centers.
Air bases and hangars were bombed. U. S. Navy bombers and Tomahawk missiles wreaked havoc on all aspects of Iraqi air defense. The air campaign was conducted not just by the United States, but the Saudi, British, French, Italian, as well as various Arab Air Forces. The Allied air campaign was thorough and devastating.
Realizing that traditional anti-air defense was futile, the Iraqis took to psychological methods that included using human hostages as shields for prime targets. They placed their aircrafts near ancient historic sites and holy places, knowing the allies would be reticent to attack where there might be significant “collateral damage.” In an effort to demonstrate their own air offensive capability, on 24 January the Iraqis attempted to mount a strike against the major Saudi oil refinery in Abqaiq. Two Mirage F-1 fighters laden with incendiary bombs and two MiG-23’s took off from bases in Iraq. They were spotted by US AWACs, and two Royal Saudi air force F-15 s were sent to intercept. When the Saudis appeared the Iraqi MiGs turned tail, but the Mirages pressed on.
Captain I yad Al- Sham rani, one of the Saudi pilots maneuvered his jet behind the Mirages and shot down both aircraft. After this episode, the Iraqis made no more air efforts of their own, only sending most of their jets to Iran in hopes that they might someday get their air force back. With Iraqi air defense effectively neutralized, the Allied Air Forces proceeded to pound the Iraqi divisions arrayed in Kuwait and Southern Iraq. Utilizing fuel bombs, cluster bombs, armor piercing guided bombs, missiles and various other ordinance, Allied forces degraded Iraqi ability to fight on the ground. Attacks by B-52 bombers were noted to be especially terrible; entire regiments, brigades and divisions were effectively crushed in a few minute air raid by these powerful though dated bombers. Desert Shield, was a group of troops in the region to stop Iraq from taking anymore land.
... taking pot shots at oncoming aircraft. The Iraqi tank force was nothing special, but it was able ... by far the worst of the three. It attacks the central nervous system and it can either ... and chemical resistance was because of Iraq's world status. If Iraq had done anything with their chemicals ... another relatively quickly. In the Iranian war the Iraqi air defense worked very well. It was tight and ...
This lead to Desert Storm, or the all out attack and push to get Iraq out of Kuwait. Desert Storm was the joint mission of twenty six countries which formed the Allied Forces. By January of 1991, over half a million allied troops were deployed in Saudi Arabia and throughout the Gulf region. When diplomacy failed between the US and Iraq officials, the attack began.
Allied forces started the attack, bombing Iraq and her forces in Kuwait. Hussain s counterattack was to launch SCUD missiles at Israel and Saudi Arabia. He hoped that it would separate the Arab nations. Israel almost retaliated but held back on the advice of President Bush. The Americans promised to protect Israel from the SCUD missile by setting up Patriot Missile batteries, which would shoot the missiles down.
Meanwhile, the allied airforce made up of Apache helicopters and F- 117 A Stealth bombers, bombarded Iraqi army facilities and elusive mobile missile launchers. (See fig 2. ) The Allied air attacks were more devastating then predicted. Iraq Equipment Losses Coalition Equipment Losses Type Lost On hand Lost On hand Tanks 4, 000 4, 230 4 3, 360 Artillery 2, 140 3, 110 1 3, 633 APC 1, 856 2, 870 9 4, 050 Helicopters 7 160 17 1, 959 Airplanes 240 800 44 2, 600 When Allied forces launched the ground war on February 23, the Iraqi forces were already defeated. The intense air attack caused the Iraq armies to be cut off from vital supplies and bases. The soldiers gave up instead of fighting, but in some cases more highly trained forces such as the Republic guard, stood and fought.
... Iraq also accused Kuwait of poaching from the Iraqi oil reserves during the war, when Iraq shut down all oil production. Besides these economic disagreements between Iraq and Kuwait ... ’s it was Egypt, Syria, and Saudi Arabia allied together to lead the Arab world in the search for ... being paid to the Arab states that were allied in the defense of Kuwait. The Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC) is ...
Superior American, British, and French troops, equipment and training proved to be too much for the Soviet-equipped Iraqis. By mid February, the allied forces, along with underground Kuwaiti Resistance, controlled Kuwait City. Allied air forces were pushing back the Iraqi army, bombing them with their artillery. On February 27 th, President Bush ordered a cease fire and the surviving Iraqi soldiers returned to Southern Iraq. At this time an internal rebellion began to break out against Saddam s regime.
There were many consequences for Iraq which came out of the Gulf War. This time at the end of the war Iraq ended up worse than last time at the foot of the liberation of Kuwait. Despite the crushing defeat and subsequent Shiite and Kurdish rebellion, Saddam s government retained control of the power in Iraq. As a result of the cease fire, Iraq accepted the imposing no-fly zones over her territory and United Nations weapons inspection teams sniffing through her nuclear and other weapons programs, one being chemical and biological weapons. The economic sanctions which were imposed during the war continue today, possibly causing the severe hardship the economy is having in Iraq. Other conflicts were caused by sympathy for the Iraqis such as the Saudi-Yemen Border Conflict and the Syria-Lebanon civil war.
The countries that were involved on the Allied side were Afghanistan, Australia, Bahrain, Belgium, Britain, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, France, Germany, Honduras, Hungary, Italy, Kuwait, New Zealand, Niger, Oman, Poland, Qatar, Romania, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Syria, United Arab Emriates, and the United States which put in the majority of the troops and supplies. The Iraqi s were backed by the Russian s, relating back to the conflict in the middle east and the cold war. Since the cold war, the relations between the Russian s and American s has been troubled. The Russian s were backing the Iraqis sending them ammunition and training them in the art of war. The aftermath of the war was devastating. Much of Kuwait s industry, infrastructure, and buildings had been destroyed.
Among the heavily damaged places were the homes of the royal family, government and other public buildings, oil wells, and roads. Looting was widespread, on both an individual and organized basis: entire collections of libraries, museums, and laboratories were transported to Iraq. Since the war, Kuwait has been largely rebuilt. However, many oil wells were set on fire, creating huge oil lakes, thick black smoke, and other environmental damage.
... affairs? When American Air forces started to bomb Iraq, the Iraqi military were well aware of that, and they ... States, there were also some allies in this war. The war with Iraq was won, however taking into consideration that this ... .S. has interests in the oil business in the mid-east.This may or may ... the mid-east is a top proprietor in the oil business. It is also well known that the U ...
Two days after ground war began, Iraq announced it was leaving Kuwait. On leaving Kuwait the Iraqis blew up 732 well heads in the oil fields of Kuwait, lighting oil-well fires that. This was oil that failed to ignite from the explosions. The last fire was extinguished in November 1991.
In the meantime up to 30 million barrels of Kuwaiti crude had gushed from damaged well heads. Satellite imagery showed that lakes covered a combined surface area of more than 35. 4 sq km. It was the biggest oil spill ever on land sea or air says Brent Black welder, president of the Washington, D. C. based Friends of the Earth.
In the immediate aftermath of the war, wildlife suffered greatly. To ducks, swallows and flamingos, the highly reflective pools of oil were seen as water. The number of corpses littered the shores of the lakes suggested that at least 20, 000 large waterfowl died. The risks to humans were not as clear.
Officials feared oil would seep into the Kuwaiti water supply and destroy their source of fresh water. As a result of cleaning up the lakes, Kuwait pumped 21 million barrels from the lakes, cleaned it and sold it. The remaining oil was baked by the desert into an asphalt- like crust and depressions filled with a gooey residue of weathered oil. As studies and proposals continue, drifting sands have covered most the oil, and out of the minds of those who cared. Militarily, the gulf war was the most efficient campaign in UN history. In the end this was a popular war that secured economic advantages for the Western World- ensuring our way of life was not threatened by a shortage of the free flow of natural resources.
It confirmed the value of air power and air superiority on the battlefield… Many countries sent weapons and troops to the conflict. Some of countries such as the United States sent larger convoys, with such weapons as Apache helicopters and F-117 A stealth bombers. Canada sent two destroyers, 12 C-130 planes, 4 frigates, 3 minesweepers, 168 tanks, 300 armored vehicles and 70 jets. The US sent 540, 000 troops, 6 aircraft carriers, submarines, 4000 tanks, 1700 helicopters and 1800 airplanes. This comparison shows how much more involved the US was compared to Canada who only played a minor role in the outcome of the war.
... power. Our authority to remove Iraq from Kuwait was clearly legitimate. The Gulf War was fought with proportionality clearly in the leadership ... no underlying reason, such as to receive better prices on oil or to make the Kuwaitis indebted to the US so ... no underlying reason, such as to receive better prices on oil or to make the Kuwaitis indebted to the US so ...
Although the conflict was decided in a short period of time. It set boundaries and coalitions between nations that had none before. This will enable countries that helped the Alliance to prosper in the end, with economic sanctions and other benefits that will not be granted to nations that fought with Iraq (Russia).
This was a religious war, that is still not settled, if someone does not step in and put down rules and regulations, another issue like this one will arise and Gulf War II will breakout. Nothing good came out of the war, destruction and environmental disasters, this is the same as all wars. No matter how hard everyone tries to hide it the fact is clear, the loss of life is no way to solve a problem, especially a problem that has been going on for many years now and will not be solved without outside influence.
As long as people like Saddam Hussian are still in power life will be lost, and objects be destroyed, he is the 21’s Century Adolf Hitler. Bibliography web Site Created By Scott O’Hara. Copyright 2001 web Copyright 1998, 1999 Roger A. Lee; Last Modified: 7/20/99 web Craig F. Stead, created (05/02/2001) web Copyright 2001 Yahoo! Inc.
National Geographic, November 1993, Oil Fires in Kuwait Boston Herald, February 12, 2001, Desert Storm 10 Years After.