The Introduction hip hop as a ding an sich is marked by some confusion. Consider the name; is it ‘hip hop,’ ‘hip-hop’ or ‘hiphop’? You will see all three used in titles in this bibliography. Hip hop is, at the same time, a cultural phenomenon that developed in the late 70’s in the projects in Brooklyn and the Bronx, and a musical style from that phenomenon. Nevertheless, hip hop has become a pervasive element of popular culture, as witnessed by this bibliography.
There are hip hop exercise videos, children’s books as well as books, magazines, magazine articles and theses about it. Before we get to the bibliography, a brief hip hop history is in order. Hip hop began in the mid- to late 70’s, but its roots are much older (indeed, hip hop’s use of music from other genres is reflected in Renaissance parody masses).
According to one source, the roots of this phenomenon are in Jamaica in the 40’s. By the 60’s, it was common to find ‘sounds’, or a truck fitted with sound equipment parked at a street corner, playing American rhythm & blues records for the people in the neighborhood. Some of these DJs included Cox son Dodd, Prince Buster, and Duke Reid.
By the 1970’s this phenomenon was to be found in the US, particularly in the Farragut Projects in Brooklyn, NY. Some of these early DJs were Mboya, Plummer and Kool DJ D, who played mostly disco music. Another of these early figures, Kool Herc, emigrated to the States from Jamaica and settled in the Bronx with his sound system he called ‘the Herculords.’ In contrast to some of the other figures, Kool Herc focused on rhythm & blues and funk records. Another of Kool Herc’s innovations was to play only the ‘break,’ or the musical material between the verses of a song, repeating that break again and again. He did this using two turntables mounted with the same record.
... to girls as violent. The study has found that the phenomena of violence in girls are actually a social construct and ... in violence in girls is not actually supported by the records in the UCR. The researchers found out that there a ... analysis of the social issue of increasing girls with juvenile records. Using the Dickey-Fuller time series and plot displays, the ...
This came to be called ‘break-beat deejay ing.’ People began to perform ‘strange, acrobatic twisting dance routines’ to these episodes that came to be called ‘break dances.’ 2 Kool Herc eventually hired someone to ‘MC’ these parties. This person would talk to the crowd between the songs to keep the party going. This was the beginning of ‘rapping.’ DJ Hollywood, one of the early MC’s at Kool Herc’s parties would use rhyming verses in his rap. One of these included the words ‘hip hop’ ‘which much later were used interchangeably to define the music of rap and the culture of those who attended Kool Herc’s parties.’ 3 Afrika Bamba ata was another early figure in the rap / hip hop world. He participated in many early ‘battles,’ or competitions between DJs and MCs. In addition to rapping, these battles were decided on who had the more interesting collection of breaks to play.
Afrika Bambatta’s breaks were drawn from many genres, including rock, rhythm & blues, mambo, German disco and calypso. 4 This aspect in hip hop, incorporating ‘found sounds’ (which can include recorded samples of music by other groups in addition to voices or ambient sounds) has led to lawsuits when the groups involved failed to credit their sources. 5 Another early hip hop innovator was DJ Grandmaster Flash. He extended Kool Herc’s break beat deejay ing by pre-curing records to match the songs. This meant there was a much smoother transition between songs. matching songs.
Indeed many of the recordings in the discography identify the number of beats per minute for each song, enabling a DJ to match songs on this basis. Scratching, an important part of hip hop music was developed by Grand Wizard Theodore. This technique involves moving a record back and forth underneath the needle, creating a scratching, percussive sound. This technique has led some to claim that hip hop has led to the emergence of the DJ as musician, calling the turntable used in this way a percussion instrument. 6 Hip hop has also had an impact on the continuing production of recordings in the LP format. Without this format, hip hop DJs would be unable to do scratching, such an important aspect of the music.
... day Rap is one of the most profitable forms of music in the world. From underground to mainstream to a culture, hip-hop has ... favorite artist. The post-disco decade brought more wild music, and dancing to America. Rock and Roll was the biggest form of ... also cars, sports, and other subjects were effected. After seeing rock stars drive American muscle cars in their videos, people went ...
For better or for worse, hip hop has invaded popular culture. It also reflects that culture for good or ill. Some hip hop is racist, some is sexist. But there are also many hip hop musicians who focus on such issues as social inequity and the danger of heroin use. From its early days in the US, being played in projects and some underground clubs, it has gained a profile that has led even to its inclusion in the 1992 presidential debates over Sister Sol jah.
In the 20 th Century Fox movie, Bul worth, 7 Warren Beatty plays a Senator who berates his opponents using rap. Hip hop, it would seem, is here to stay.
Coupe, Stuart and Glenn E. Baker. The New Rock ‘N’ Roll: The A-Z of Rock in the 80’s. New York: St.
Martin’s Press, 1983. Hardy, Phil and Dave Laing. Encyclopedia of Rock. New York: Schirmer Books, 1988. Clifford, Mike, consulting editor. The Harmony Illustrated History Encyclopedia of Rock.
New York: Harmony Books, 1992. Heatley, Michael. The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Rock: The World’s Most Comprehensive Illustrated Rock Reference. New York: Harper Collins, 1993.
Romanowsky, Patricia and Holly George-Warren, eds. The New Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll. New York: Fireside, 1995. Small, Michael.
Break it down: The Inside Story from the New Leaders of Rap. New York: Carol Publishing Group: 1992. Stan cell, Steven. Rap Who who: The World of Rap Music.
New York: Schirmer Music, 1996. Hip-hop webliographyThe Bibliography Aerobics sound recordings Hip hop world. Baltimore, MD: Dynamix Music Service, 1994. TopBooksAlim, He sham. ‘Exploring the Trans global Hip Hop Ummah.’ In Muslim Networks: From Hajj to Hip Hop, Miriam Cooke and Bruce Lawrence (eds. ) Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2004…
... as Bam), who had a tremendous effect on rap music and the ‘Hip Hop’ culture and who will be discussed at length in ... . A New York City female rap trio by the name of Salt ‘N’ Pepa would provide the rap music industry with the ... still survive and flourish. As already stated, rap music began in poor black neighborhood in New York City, the Bronx. It quickly spread ...
‘Hearing what’s not said and missing what is: Black Language in White public space.’ In Discourse and Intercultural Communication: The Essential Readings, Scott Kei sling and Christina Paul ston (eds. ).
Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2004… ‘Hip Hop Nation Language.’ In Language in the USA, Edward Fine gan and John Rockford (eds. ).
New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004…
”We Are the Streets’: African American Language and the strategic construction of a street conscious identity.’ In Black Linguistics: Language, Society and Politics in Africa and the Americas. Ma koni, S. , Smit herman, G. , Ball, A. , Spears, A.
(eds. ) New York & London: Routledge, 2003. Basu, Dipannita. Rap music, hip-hop culture, and the music industry in Los Angeles. In CAAS (Center for Afro-American Studies) report. 15 (1-2), 1992-1994, pages 20-24.
Los Angeles: UCLA: 1994. Bazin, Hugues. La culture hip-hop. Paris: Desc lee de Brouwer, 1995. Boyd, Todd. The New H.
N. I. C. New York: New York University Press, 2003. Boyd, discussing ‘the new head niggers in charge’ posits that politics should make way for hip-hop as the language for a new generation.
Bracey, John H. and Manisha Sinha, eds. African American Mosaic: A Documentary History from the Slave Trade to the Twenty -First Century, Vol. 2, From 1865 To The Present.’ Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall Textbooks, 2004. Contains a chapter by James Spady entitled ‘The Hip Hop Vision, which examines the visionary aspects of Hip Hop and its historical and cultural relationship to African American and African Diasporic History. It is the first critical essay on Hip Hop to be included in a textbook on African American history.
Campbell, Mary. Hip hop happy! : adventures in physical activity for 3-5 year olds. Ottawa: Serious Fun Enterprises, 1994. Dargaville, Michael. The hip hop leap frog: a novel.
Bungendore, N. S. W. : Central Sun Books, 1995.
Illustrated. Fab 5 Freddy. Fresh fly flavor: words & phrases of the hip-hop generation. Stamford, CT: Longmeadow Press, 1992. Fernando, S.
... of music to enter our homes and lives. Hip Hop - Stop! Bibliography -Sims, Calvin Gangster Rappers: The Lives, The Lyrics. The New York Times ... 28 September 1993: 84. -MTV Online: Interviews/Music ...
H. The new beats: exploring the music culture and attitudes of hip-hop. Edinburgh: Payback Press, 1995. Bibliography and index… The new beats: exploring the music, culture, and attitudes of hip-hop. 1 st Anchor Books ed.
New York: Anchor Books/Doubleday, 1994. Bibliography and index. Forman, Murray. The ‘hood: Race, space and place in Rap and Hip-hop. Wesleyan Press: 2002. Examines how rap and hip-hop portray neighborhoods to emphasize culture and identity.
Fresh, Mr. Tout sur la break dance et la hip hop culture. Lausanne, Suisse: P. M. Favre, 1984. George, Nelson, et al.
Fresh, Hip Hop Don’t Stop. New York: Random House, 1985. Illustrated. Hager, S. Hip Hop: The Illustrated History of Break Dancing, Rap Music, and Graffiti.
New York: St. Martin’s, 1984. Illustrated. Reviewed in Billboard 96 lit or. Hawks ley, Gerald. Hip and Hop.
New York: Gallery Books, 1987. Hund gen, G. , Karnak, Olaf. Chasin’ a dream: die Musik des Amerika von Soul bis HipHop. Koln: Kiepenheuer & Witch, 1989.
Index, discography and bibliography. Kru lik, Nancy E. M. C. Hammer & Vanilla Ice: the hip-hop never stops! .
New York, NY: Scholastic, Inc. , 1991. Kunjufu, Jaw anza. Hip-hop vs.
MAAT: a psycho / social analysis of values. Chicago, IL: African American Images, 1993. Lha mon, W. T. Raising Cain: blackface performance from Jim Crow to Hip Hop. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1998.
MEE Symposium. Reaching the hip-hop generation: final (symposium proceedings) report. [Philadelphia]: MEE Productions, 1993. Nelson, H.
and Gonzales, M. A. Bring the noise: a guide to rap music and hip-hop culture. NY: Harmony, 1991, 1988.
8 Pardue, Derek Parkman. Movement as metaphor for blackness: hip hop as act. Report (M. Music) — University of Texas at Austin, 1996.
Perkins, William Eric. Droppin’s cience: critical essays on rap music and hip hop culture. Critical Perspectives on the Past. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996. Plant.
Le president hip hop! [Paris? ]: Le Monde, 1991. Potter, Russell A. Spectacular vernaculars: hip-hop and the politics of postmodernism. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995.
Bibliography and index. Redmond, Eugene, ed. Drum voices. University of Illinois, Edwardsville, Illinois, 2004. Contains ‘The Hip Hop Nation as a Site of African American Cultural and Historical Memory’ by James Spady. Roberts, John W.
... mid-1980 s rap music has greatly influenced both black and white culture in North America. Much of the slang of hip-hop culture, including such ... the mid-1980 s, rap moved from the fringes of hip-hop culture to the mainstream of the American music industry as white musicians began ...
From to hip-hop: social dance in the African-American community in Philadelphia. Philadelphia, Pa. : Od unde, 1995. San severe, John R. Post-bop hip-hop: a tribe called Quest. [Racine, Wis.
]: Western Pub. Co. , 1993. Sexton, Adam. , ed. Rap on rap: straight-up talk on hip-hop culture.
New York: Delta, 1995. Shab azz, Julian L. D. The United States of America vs. hip-hop. Hampton, VA: United Bros.
Pub. Co. , 1992. Shaw, Arnold. Black popular music in America: from the spirituals, minstrels, and ragtime to soul, disco, and hip-hop. New York: London: Schirmer Books; Collier Macmillan, 1986.
Sho mari, Hashim A. From the underground: hip hop culture as an agent of social change. Fan wood, NJ: X-Factor Publications, 1995. Smash, Nick. Hip hop 86-89. Woodford Green, Essex, England: International Music Publications, 1990.
Illustrated. Spady, James G. , and Joseph D. Eure.
Nation conscious rap. Afro Americanization of knowledge series; 3. New York: PC International Press, 1991.