National Curricula in the UK place a very high priority on social inclusion for example the National Curricula in England (QCA, 1998) has a ‘general teaching requirement’ on ‘providing effective learning opportunities for all pupils’. (QCA, 1998).
Analyse the characteristics which influence the learning of a group of learners.
Learning disabilities is a general term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical skills.(scribd, 2010).
There are many characteristics that will have an influence on learning in a group. They all have different ways in which they affect the outcome of the learning session.
Physical and physiological
When designing instructional opportunities, the designer often assumes that everyone learns the way he or she does. Unfortunately that could never be further from the truth. For the program to be effective, it must be stimulating to the targeted audience. How can that be accomplished? The construction of an audience profile with the use of questionnaires can be a valuable start. The key to instructional design is to work around the participants rather than the content. It is very important to not develop a program based on the characteristics you hope your audience will have. You must be realistic; the audience may come to you with a wider variety of interests and knowledge. This may seem overwhelming and confusing for a programme designer, but with careful preparation and open mindedness, a successful project can result. (Hopkins, 1999)
... course must consider the features of their courses and the characteristics of their learners before they think about what kind ... develop problem solving skills, lateral thinking skills, group work ability, self-directed learning skills, and communication skills in the cause of ... other, thus creating an active and interactive learning environment. One student in each group will be asked to give a short ...
“Cognitive learning is the result of listening, watching, touching or experiencing.” (Thinkquest, 2011).
In cognitive learning, the individual learns by listening, watching, touching, reading, or experiencing and then processing and remembering the information. Cognitive learning might seem to be passive learning, because there is no motor movement. However, the learner is quite active, in a cognitive way, in processing and remembering newly incoming information. (thinkquest, 2011).
Moral / Value
Young adult learners may still be going through significant physical, emotional and moral changes in their lives. These changes are varied and need to be recognised by teachers. Teachers, through experience, careful observation and on-going evaluation will recognise changes and will be able to adapt lessons to keep them inclusive.
There are many other characteristics, in adult learners they may be apprehensive about going back into a learning environment. Many adults will also have social needs during learning such as being able to start a little later than normal as they have to get children to school in the morning. Adults have a lot more real life situations going on in their lives.
Physical disabilities will hinder any learning and there is a plethora of information about this characteristic. Being a slow learner is a disability and this will be noticed in the learning session by evaluation and observation. A teacher can intervene and try and meet the needs of a slow learner by changing where they sit and allocate them a seat next to an accomplished learner. Incorporate all learning styles such as VAK this will provide immediate feedback. (Scribd, 2011).
Review legislative requirements relating to inclusive practice and consider their implications.
The Equality Act 2010 provides a new cross-cutting legislative framework to protect the rights of individuals and advance equality of opportunity for all; to update, simplify and strengthen the previous legislation; and to deliver a simple, modern and accessible framework of discrimination law which protects individuals from unfair treatment and promotes a fair and more equal society.(equality act, 2010).
... their self-esteem and make them more comfortable with the learning environment. Reference Rogers, J. (2004). Pedagogy: A ... language teachers should remind her about the importance of learning English, they should also applaud her for her fluency ... be more appropriate to channel his differences to positive learning experiences. Activities that promote the showcasing of individual differences ...
Although the Act has been passed there are a number of areas where there is a need for immunity within the boundaries of the Act. On the 1st October 2010, a section of the Act stated that, ‘Harmonising the thresholds for the duty to make reasonable adjustments for disabled people’, (equality act, 2010).
This can be adapted and businesses can adapt and tailor their premises and work ethics to suit, however in such cases as a colour blind person trying to seek employment as an electrician this is where there has to be a caveat put in as a matter of HASAW. The author has worked in situations where in the Forces a colour perception is need to identify different colours of wires which have been part of an Improvised Explosive Device, (IED).
The MOD does have a number of physically disabled people working for them many have been fully able bodied people and have been injured in some way. There are a number of them still in active service and now can still run their 1.5 mile fitness test within their allotted time.
Wheel chair access for the disabled is a topic that brings many people into heated discussions. Many old buildings can’t be adapted to help wheel chair users, but they must be developed to aid access where possible. Within KMC there is a route that leads from the car park and a wheel chair user can get to the top floor using this route. As a listed building it has taken very little to adapt the building to meet the needs of the wheel chair user and keep the building in its listed state. A great cause for concern is also mobility scooters, as they can cause frustration among other people due to the speed they can achieve. In a learning environment this can lead to accidents and injury. A case has been heard of ‘A pensioner who mowed down a woman of 90 with his mobility scooter avoided prosecution because no law existed to enable police to take action’. (Daily Mail, 2011).
Hit and run mobility scooter driver, 76, escaped prosecution due to legal loophole which left police powerless. Mrs Macey was struck from behind and had no idea what had hit her.
Although this was not in a learning environment it does highlight the accidents that they can cause and some animosity and anger that can build up in able body people. There is a move in many local County Councils to crack down on Disability awards. This is due to the amount of people who are claiming disability and the Governments tightening of the budget. This may have an effect on the amount of people who can’t get to educational establishments due to the disability awards being removed from them. This of course is going to be a large barrier to them actually being included in any learning.
... Learners in 2004, focused on adapting education to the needs of individual children or young people under the direction of the class ... and advancing the learning of children and young people within my class. Motivation affects the nature of an individuals behaviour, the strength ... adult, working in a small group or as a whole class. To support and advance the learning of children and young people ...
Special needs individuals need help in many ways with literacy and numeracy. They need the understanding of schools to facilitate their needs. UNESCO, Have taken many steps to ensure that inclusive practice is taking place in educational establishments and a paper released in 1994 states;
“Special needs education is an issue of equal concern to countries of the North and of the South it cannot advance in isolation. It has to form part of an overall educational strategy and, indeed, of new social and economic policies. It calls for major reform of the ordinary school.” (Salamanca Statement, 1994).
Describe what they consider to be the most significant barriers to learning for the adult learners that they teach, and include a discussion of what they or their organisation has done to overcome these barriers.
Part of being an effective teacher involves understanding how adults learn best. Compared to children and teenagers, adults have special needs and requirements as learners. Despite the apparent truth, adult learning is a relatively new area of study. The field of adult learning was pioneered by Malcolm Knowles. (lieb, 1991).
During trekking or climbing sessions it has been noticed that adults need to direct themselves and they want to be involved in the learning process. Adults have life experiences and knowledge that incorporate work and life responsibilities and previous education.
Unlike children and teenagers, adults have many responsibilities that they must balance against the demands of learning. Because of these responsibilities, adults have barriers against participating in learning. Some of these barriers include lack of time, money, confidence, or interest, lack of information about opportunities to learn, scheduling problems, “red tape,” and problems with child care and transportation.
... cases. The smaller class size accommodates individual learning or pair-work and allows the teacher to personalise the approach to a ... students may experience anxiety about repeating a learning history that appears fixed to them. Harmer points out that "as teachers of adults we ... other hand, is seen as .".. the motive that keeps individuals at a task through its own inherent qualities" (McInerney & ...
Most adults will return to education to better themselves in their quest for better payed jobs or even to take the first step into full or part time employment. This means that they will be starting with basic skills. The Moser report defines basic skills as:
‘… the ability to read, write and speak in English and use mathematics
at a level necessary to function and progress at work and in society in
general.’ (DfEE, 1999)
The barriers for individuals fall into four broad categories:
1. Dispositional (motivation, fear of formal education)
2. Structural (availability)
3. Resource (travel and childcare)
To overcome the problems of adult barriers a system is in place for firstly doing an initial assessment. During this process individuals can list their needs which may be seen as barriers such as having to plan their days or even to be helped as they have not been in the classroom for years or they are very shy. The individual can then be assessed for learning styles using the computer in the LRC or in the HE suit. Being able to assess the learning in this way allows the teacher and individual to discuss potential barriers in the learning styles.
Within out outdoor education there is a great deal of Health and Safety which has to be adhered to. This can be a barrier to some learners as they may not like wearing a hard hat or they may not like a teacher assisting them on with safety gear. This can easily be overcome by two teachers showing and demonstrating how to don the equipment. The use a female teacher at the same venue is considered to be the norm.
Many adult learners will have a great deal to get off their chests first thing in the morning and it is sometimes better to have a half hour ‘get it off your chest’ session prior to starting any outdoor activity as it will put the student at ease and allow them to concentrate on the task at hand.
... a real barrier to effectively learning / practising language areas. The only person that the lone student can relate to is the teacher. Therefore it ... fact the whole lesson can be focussed specifically to the individual students needs. For example a child who is speaking fluently but ...
A good structured time table will also put the minds of adults at rest as they will be able to plan their social, work and education time more efficiently.
As part of the initial assessment process an individual learning plan can be set out to make sure that any barriers are being looked at and that they are being met.
Describe the system that their organisation has in place to monitor the effectiveness of their inclusive practice, and discuss how they monitor, evaluate and improve their own skills in inclusive practice.
A great monitor for measuring the effectiveness of inclusive practice is an OFSTED report. A more realistic and real time monitor is the use of student questionnaires. At the end of each phase students are asked to fill out the form which covers all aspects from, how did the teacher explain the skills to, was there enough resources for the session. Another monitor is for students to carryout assignments. This measures the level of tuition and learning by reflecting on a particular phase. An example of this is the recent trip to the Lake District where students had to manage their own equipment and undertake an overnight expedition. On their return they had to write an assignment on the effects of the tiredness and sleeping out in a tent among other topics.
Policies and procedures are in place to ensure that every learner matters when it comes to outdoor activities, however there is the need to weigh up the Health and safety of the activity with the Equality Act 2010. Students have a learning plan and they are reviewed after each phase. This enables the teacher and the student to assess whether they are reaching their goals or not.
In the outdoors it is easier to observe individuals and this is a good monitor for assessing a student’s ability to assimilate information and for the teacher to see that they are making progress.
... and software you are using. Students can help and so can other teachers but not all the time. Build your basic IT troubleshooting ... - the hard way - but without fatal consequences.By the time this phase of the unit is finished we found that it was ... format Analyze graphs and collect information on teenage leisure activities5 Plan report - introduce base questions and introduce the use of clip ...