India-Pakistan Nuclear Threat In May 1998, India carried out five nuclear tests and formally declared itself a “nuclear weapon state” (NWS).
This dramatic move stunned the world and immediately triggered a new round of the nuclear arms race in South Asia. India’s archenemy, Pakistan, responded by setting off six announced nuclear tests just two weeks later. The nuclear crisis in South Asia was intensified by the Indian-Pakistani military conflict in Kashmir and almost brought the two countries into another major war in summer 1999. As the world’s attention shifts to the Kashmir conflict, the challenge the Indian nuclear tests pose to the international nuclear order and the nonproliferation regime should not be overlooked. The conflict is not a recent one, however. It lasts from the beginning of the century, being an important constituent of the cold war relations.
For thousands of years, countless lives have been lost in battles over disputed territories. While the primary, tangible point of disputation in most border disputes is an easily identifiable piece of land on a map; such disputes are often far more complex than what can be measured in square miles. Often times, cultural tradition, ethnic legacy, and religious beliefs become dimensions that make such conflicts far more complex than can be resolved by a simple treaty creating a new border. This is the case in the Jammu and Kashmir region, located between northwestern India and northeastern Pakistan. Prior to 1947, the region comprising Pakistan, India, and Kashmir was known as British India, and was a colony of the British Empire consisting of hundreds of small states, each of which was controlled by a local leader know as a maharajah. When the British left the region in 1947, it was up to the individual states to determine which of the two new independent countries they wished to join. Those countries with Muslim majorities opted to become part of Pakistan, while those Hindu majorities chose to become part of the new India. While for the most part this system worked out well, two areas complicated the transition. One problem came from the geographic divide between two culturally distinct pockets of Muslims in British India.
This event is in the news because a country violated a law that the entire world agreed on not doing anymore. India have always wanted to become nuclear, and their wish came true. They accepted their consequences of being nuclear, but they are happy. It's neighboring country Pakistan and India have had two wars, and always competed to be the best, and so far India is winning, because India have ...
The country we now know as Pakistan was the region known as West Pakistan when colonial powers left in 1947. However, the region of Bengali also possessed a heavy Muslim majority, but was separated from West Pakistan by Hindu controlled parts of India. This region, which became East Pakistan, affiliated itself with West Pakistan by religion and constitution, but not by cultural heritage. Much like Alaska is part of the United States, but divided from the rest of the nation by Canada, East Pakistan found itself surrounded by India, but constitutionally united with West Pakistan. In Kashmir, another difficult situation would present itself. While the majority of the Kashmiri people were Muslim, the Maharajah of Kashmir was Hindu, and thus saw to it that Kashmir aligned itself with India, despite the Muslim majority.
The United Nations has intervened several times in the turbulent situation between India and Pakistan. A resolution to the war of 1947-1948 was mediated by the United Nations as both nations agreed in late December of 1948 to divide to country and establish “a line of control”. This agreement called for the people of Kashmir to eventually determine their own fate in a free and fair referendum, which never materialized. In 1957 legislation passed by India, without the consent of the Kashmiri people, essentially declared the disputed territory part of India. This action was in direct violation of the previously agreed upon treaty, and ignited fresh hostilities. In 1965 fighting broke out again; eventually ending in another U.N.-brokered agreement signed on January 1st, 1966.
... the energy needs of both Pakistan and India, besides encouraging trade relations between the three countries. Pakistan and Iran also signed a ... are active in discouraging war especially that can escalate a nuclear confrontation. Nonetheless, in the Pak-India context, two parallel challenges ... . Secondly, the Europe model, where all the inhabiting nations threw the past (which was soaked in the memories ...
In the cease-fire agreement, both sides pledged to work towards a peaceful resolution of their differences. The peace remained stable until 1971 when a civil war erupted in East Pakistan, which is now known as Bangladesh. This war once again precipitated hostilities between India and Pakistan in the Kashmir region, and was not stopped until the Simla Agreement brokered by the UN took effect in 1971. Since 1971, the duel has been a stalemate, as both sides exchange fire from time to time, and continue to posture asserting their national positions, but not engaging in full-scale armed conflict. On the nuclear side of things, many countries adopted the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in an attempt to curb the spread of nuclear weapons and their threat to international peace and security. Neither India nor Pakistan has embraced either of these treaties, arguing that they are hypocritical attempts by the nuclear powers of the world to prevent other nations from pursuing their right to self determination and self defense.
The latest crisis surfaced when terrorists assaulted Indias Parliament in New Delhi on December 13, 2001. In August 1945, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima an Nagasaki, bringing World War II to a close. Some 150,000 people died during the initial blasts on the two cities, and many more died from radiation sickness later. The bombing of Hiroshima was the first use of atomic weapons the world had never seen. The detonation set off a decades-long nuclear arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union; the Cold War. It cost both countries billions of dollars, created a global atmosphere of fear and mistrust, and eventually led to the downfall of the Soviet Union.
Not to mention the lives that could have been saved putting the money to better use in programs for the poor, hungry, sick, etc. With the official fall of the Soviet Union in 1990 the Cold War had come to an end, and so did much of the worlds concern about nuclear weapons. For most of the Cold War the two super powers maintained relatively stable countries, and exercised restraint and caution when it came to the use of their large arsenals against one another. Plus the two countries were massive and were an ocean apart. Today, the world faces new threats to its stability. More and more nations are becoming nuclear or are working on it.
... peace, but rather in a tense cold war with the Soviet Union, the paper was able to ... pictured four alternatives facing the United States: continuing on the present course of limited budgets ... offset substantially the deterrent capability of American nuclear weapons.In comparison, it emphasized the inadequacy ... up by the Union of Soviet Republics (USSR) after World War II that involved rigid censorship ...
The states and regions acquiring these technologies are becoming less and less stable. These two things combined have become a major concern for many of the worlds nations. Countries like N. Korea, India, Pakistan, Israel (suspected have possessing undeclared weapons), and many rogue nations like Iran and Iraq, under the leadership of Hussein, that the United States fears because they act outside of international law. In the case of Iraq and Iran, much of the technology is received from China and N. Korea, and much of that originates from the former Soviet Union, which has experienced major security problems since its dissolution. Politicians and citizens alike during the early 1970s viewed detente as the first step towards ending the Cold War.
This agreement to a cooling off of East-West tensions, initiated by U.S. President Nixon and Soviet Premier Brezhnev, gave hope for the first time that the two superpowers could coexist. In addition to political acknowledgement of each others spheres of influence, detente consisted of armaments limitations and reductions agreements starting with SALT in 1972. Moreover, economic ties began to formulate during this era as the USSR allowed Eastern European markets to be opened to Western imports. However, the Cold War was a long way from being over. Despite the apparent truths between the superpowers, a combination of several factors prolonged the Cold War. First, as long as the ideologies behind the two governments continued to exist as they were, the Cold War could never come to a close.
More important than any other factor, either the U.S. or the USSR had to change their tenets and practices before the Cold War could come to a close. Both still sought to spread their influence around the globe, despite any agreements made in respect for each others spheres of influence. As long as the two superpowers continued in their competition for influence worldwide, the Cold War would continue to wage on. Therefore, it seems as if that from the beginning a misunderstanding existed between the U.S. and the USSR over detente. The U.S.
believed that detente prevented the USSR from challenging it outside its own spheres of influence. The U.S. conceded recognition of Soviet hegemony in Eastern Europe and in turn expected the USSR to respect U.S. predominance in areas such as the Middle East, Africa and Latin America. The Soviets, however, saw detente as only a relaxation in relations with the U.S. (Keylor) The USSR saw competition for influence, particularly in the Third World, as an acceptable and necessary part of Soviet foreign policy and well within the provisions of detente. The Soviets felt justified in this approach since the U.S.
Up until 1945 the tensions between the USSR and the USA had been covered by the fact that both sides were trying to fight against Hitler and therefore relations up until the war had been relaxed. However this changed after 1945 the victory against Germany brought them international superpower status giving them more control and influence over many countries especially in Eastern Europe. As a ...
had been preventing them from peacekeeping and expansion into the Middle East. As a result, regional conflicts continued to hamper the relationship between the superpowers. The Arab-Israeli conflict served to demonstrate just how volatile detente really was. The two superpowers continued to arm and support their clients in the region, viewing the complex tangle of rivalries there through the lenses of the Cold War. (Keylor, p.396) Aside from regional conflicts, another factor that rekindled the hatred between the superpowers was the renewal of the arms race in the late 1970s. USSR testing of a MIRVed missile and deployment of a new long-range bomber, the Backfire, raised concerns amongst U.S.
leaders about their nations national security. (Keylor, p.385) Armaments tensions further heated when Soviet and American delegates failed to reach an agreement at the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces (INF) talks. At the end of 1983, the Soviet delegates waked out of the INF talks and the United States began to deploy the Pershing and cruise missiles at the designated European sites. (Keylor, p.386-387) As both sides continued their conventional, nuclear, and strategic arms build up, ….