February 1, 2010
Information systems are only a piece of a grand system which is made up of people and groups of people. In everyday life, people and businesses require a need for information to help solve problems or dilemmas. Many of an organizations issues are located on all levels of the business. The information that is needed to help solve problems can be put into a requirement analysis. An information system provides answers combined with policies, procedures, and resources with the assistance of technology.
For the problem that needs solved the information system must be aligned with the requirements analysis. Techniques that are used for developing information software are continuously changing as technology advances. Every single information system development project needs a formal and specific expression created of a stated problem. The implementation and design is formulated through numerous methods and formal languages.
There are three era’s in which information technology has been involved starting in 1965. The first era, known as the data processing era was between the years of 1965-1975. Since 1965 there have been many definitions for information systems and the ways the systems are used have changed significantly. With the use of centralized mainframes, government agencies and large businesses were able to manage their data processing. The mainframe computers were very big in size, slow, and expensive; however they were able to process large volumes of information. Information systems were used for inventory, purchasing, staff schedules, productions operations management, corporate planning, and budgeting. (Anthony, 2005).
List of the databases in which data about you exists •Flat- file data bases. The flat file databases are used to store small amounts of data that is required to be edited by the hand. They are made up of files strings that combine one or more files and they are effective in storing simple data lists but they become complex if the data structures are replicated. Flat file databases require a simple ...
The second era, known as the Micro Era occurred during 1975-1985. In the year of 1981, IBM announced their first personal computer and Bill Gates and Paul Allen developed the operating system from their recently founded Microsoft. This era advanced at a fast rate with new information systems being created. Management was able to use interactive information systems and queries. Data was not centralized with the personal computer and the data processing manager’sposition was threatened. The position of Chief Information Officer was introduced during the 1980’s.
The internet has been around for longer than most people realize. In 1969 The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network was created. The ARPANET linked scientists and this was the beginning to the internet that is in use today.
The third era which is known as The Network Era provided new and easier ways to conduct business locally and globally. Customers were able to purchase items over the internet and employees were able to check benefits. Data mining software came into play as well as multimedia capabilities. Management had the competitive benefit of information systems. The IT manager for each business had an increase in workload with computers being added to network systems.
Competitive advantage became possible with the use of the internet and the World Wide Web. Businesses were able to expand to different parts of the world and communicate in real time without having to wait on the slow postal delivery. Documents are now able to signed and submitted within a matter of minutes which significantly speeds up business transactions.
The World Wide Web 2 ABSTRACT The World Wide Web has been an innovating concept from which many entities have prospered a great deal. Having a well-constructed strategic plan has been the key element for managers in the different areas of this vast world, which in turn help them deal with the ever-changing world of computers, and it's amazing pace. There are many individuals who have decided to ...
Information systems have greatly advanced since 1965 allowing businesses to create new advantages and become more competitive. As a company learns new ways to market and connect customers with their organization profits continuously increase. If an organization cannot keep up with the advances in technology the company will not succeed. In today’s world a substantial amount of consumers purchase products over the internet rather than going into a physical store. It is vital for companies to maximize the benefits of information systems in order to remain competitive.
Anthony, R. (2005).
Planning and control: A framework for analysis. Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press.
Hauben, M. (2007).
History of ARPANET. Retrieved January 12, 2010 from
Laudon, K., Laudon, J. (2009).
Essentials of management information systems (8th ed.).
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.