1. Where did the Jews get their name. 2 compare and contrast Arab tribes to Hebrews and the people of Muhammad. The term Judaism came about after the establishment of the state of Israel when the tribes divided into two, the northern and Judas kingdoms, ca 922-587 B. C. E.
The customs and belief systems of these nomadic tribes to be later identified as Arab tribes were very similar to the Hebrews’; however, the Arab tribes developed in some subtle ways. They remained nomadic, whereas the Hebrews tended to follow the teachings of the Holy Scriptures to the achievement of The Promised Land. As for the Arab nomadic tribes because of this development, a centralized governing agent which organized the religion did not develop as it did with the Hebrews. In approximately ca 1290-1250 B. C. E.
, Moses further supplemented both traditions with a covenant between God and his believers. Moses, married Zipp hora, from a different Semitic tribe, (Ishmael descendants? ) as they referred to God as the God of Abraham, this would indicate the strong similarity of beliefs and customs between the Hebrew and Arab tribes at that time. In approximately 600 C. E. , a somewhat modified revival of the beliefs and traditions of Abraham occurred, due to the persuasions of Mohammed.
He disagreed with the commonly held belief that Isaac and his descendants were the chosen ones. 3. What do the Islamic people follow. Why are they significant. Mohammed redefined the Arabic religious tradition on this point into the tradition of Islam.
... view about religion, they believed in Monotheism, the belief in one god, Yahweh. The Hebrews “demythicized nature”(40) in that ... also the demons; they caused the disasters and sickness. Hebrew beliefs were different than that of the ancient Mesopotamians. The ... outlook the Hebrews held was that of optimism, they lived happier more fulfilling lives. Their beliefs that Yahweh was a god of ...
Islamic belief centered on ‘submission to the will of Allah by fulfilling the five duties know as the Pillars of Islam’. Within the organized movement of Islam, ca 570-632 B. C. E. , a written tradition, as well as a central controlling agent of the Arab tribes, developed through compilation of the Qur ” an. The Qur ” an, although in some ways similar to the teachings in the Hebrew Holy Scriptures, totally and distinctly separated the Islamic belief system as a new, and competing, 4.
What is one of the offspring’s of Judaism and what does it believe. Another offspring of Judaism was Christianity. The belief that a Messiah would appear amongst the Jews by the end of the millennium came to life with the crucifixion of Jesus in Jerusalem ca 29 B. C. E. Jesus was believed by many followers of Judaism to be the long-awaited Messiah, and served to divide Judaism once again.
In contrast to Judaism, Christians believe that the appearance and teaching of Jesus represents a new covenant superseding the previous covenant between God and Moses. The Jews that chose to believe in this new covenant began the Christian movement. A focused Christian movement began based on the documentation of his teachings by men who lived during the two to three generations following Jesus’ death. The written tradition was called the New Testament, and was considered an addition to the Hebrew Holy Scriptures. Developments of Christianity, are chiefly attributed to Paul, for his contributions to the New Testament, and Peter, the leader of the Roman Church.
The influence of the Christian belief system is great – the socio-economic traditions of the western world revolve around traditions derived from Christianity (Catholicism).
5. How has women played and important role in these three religions and how halve the religions effected gender. .’ While women played a key role in all three of these religious systems, they have been historically mistreated and overshadowed by their male counterparts. In Hebrew society, women were excluded from the priesthood, for the exception of a few, who played an active role in the religious observances and politics of the times. For example, Deborah was responsible for claiming territory for her tribe due to the defeat of the Cana ates in 1125 B.
... deity of Islam is known as Allah in Arabic, but is not the same as the God of Judaism and Christianity. According to ... before Jesus was born. The Jewish belief is to love HaShem (God ... Jewish religion as not having a belief in Jesus as Messiah. However, this is a common misconception. Judaism was around thousands of years ...
C. E. Throughout the history of Christianity, women were also restrained from achieving equality amongst men, with few exceptions, such as St. Catherine of Siena, who lived between 1347-1380 B. C. E.
She became involved with Church policy at the highest level, thus, playing a very important role in Church politics. In Islamic society, women were important in the home and yet subordinate to men. They could neither claim nor inherit what their husbands won in the battlefield and had no right to divorce. ‘Baby girls were regarded with such disdain that in some instances they were buried alive at birth.’ Although Mohammed tried to improve their treatment, women enjoyed no equality with men.
Despite any differences between Judaism, Christianity and Islam, one incredible belief has remained – the decreased value and respect of women. This belief regarding women is responsible for the current status of women in modern society. Despite advancements in knowledge and technology, women are not currently recognized as equal to men in western civilization. This is attributed to the teachings of the Holy Scriptures, the New Testament, and the Qur ” an, which reinforce the subordination of women to men. 6.
What distinctions are found among these three religions. are many distinctions between the three belief systems. One of the main distinctions of Islam from Judaism and Christianity is the emphasis of Islam’s last great prophet Mohammed – not acknowledged by either Judaism or Christianity. While both Islam and Christianity recognize Jesus as a prophet, Christianity further exalt Jesus as the Messiah.
Judaism does not recognize Jesus as a significant person. Since the establishment of Catholicism and Islam, Jews have been a migrating minority and in spite of the many wars and battles fought amongst Catholics and Muslims during the Crusades, Jews seem to be a prime target of discrimination from both Catholics and Muslims of the times. The differences between Islam and Christianity flared during one period of history, primarily due to reasons of influence and power. The expansion of Islam looked with favor on commerce and developed trading routes which extended from the Pacific to the Atlantic, and from central Africa to Russia. The Islamic world brought expanded economic opportunities to Europe and also benefited Muslim culture in science, medicine and philosophy.
... do not acknowledge other religions, for instance, Muhammad send to Islam. There are several denominations in Christianity and Judaism unlike in Islam that has single ... of Christianity and Judaism who believe in pure monogamy. Muslim religion is more restrictive such as in dressing code especially for the women that ...
This created a sense of competition between followers of Islam and the Christians, who had established huge followings and social-economic monopolies. The competition was transformed into hatred by Pope Urban II in 1095, who depicted Muslims as a wicked race, and so the Crusades began, one of the bloodiest and destined conflicts to occur between followers of Christianity and Islam. Most of the disagreements within these three religions have been used to gain political power and the control of trading routes in the West. Manifestations of these disagreements are the great influence that Catholicism has had on Western Civilization 7. How are all of these religions linked together through fathers…
Although the key figures are different, it is noticeable that organization is the most important factor in the development of all of these movements. These three movements are also linked by a need to justify and resolve issues of morality, as well as to assert an identity with a God. The essential need to believe and describe in the existence of a higher force or supreme being has been present in all western civilizations from the time of Mesopotamia to this day. All three religions place importance on a grand occurrence – a representation of God will come and rescue them from the evils of society, leading them to eternal life. Believers of Judaism awaits the coming of the Messiah. Christians await the second coming of Christ, and followers of Islam await the return of Mohammed.
The importance placed on a future occurrence is one of the strongest factors responsible for the continuance of these religions, as it reinforces the need to follow the customs, ethics, morals of the particular belief system, and helps to stimulate conversions to each of the belief systems. Another major difference is the competition of Islam and Christianity for converts, whereas Judaism carefully evaluates a family lineage as to establish the relation to Judaism or in cases of conversions one must adhere to a detailed set of covenants in order to be accepted. Islam and Christianity actively seek converts, whereas Judaism doesn’t. The final outcome of all of these religious beliefs is continuance of the structures they prescribe, and their profound impact on the development of western civilization. Judaism currently manifests itself as the final achievement of the state of Israel, and the catalyst for the basis of the influential world religions of Islam and Christianity. 8.
... . The political reprecussions will be felt for all of time. Religion, however, tends to complicate the issue a little. When the ... initiated the first crusade as an attempt to unite the conflicting Christian territories against a single and foreign foe, the Muslims ... the development of trade, and had long-range effects on Western society (on everything from feudalism to fashion) are indeterminable. ...
How halve these religions influenced western civilizations. Christianity influenced western culture through establishment and continuance of the Roman Catholic Church, its powerful infrastructures which controlled the Roman Empire and to present day influences of it are still strong. Islam created distinctive civilizations such as Damascus, Bagdad, Cairo, Cordova, and Delhi and has substantially impacted the people of Europe and Asia through their systems of trade and culture. Through their unique and combined interactions, the entire socio-political ideologies of western civilization have been affected. Importance should be placed on both the disagreements and agreements between Judaism, Christianity and Islam. As the current socio-economic status of western civilization, as well as eastern civilization, revolves around influences of the leaders that subscribe to one the above religions, it is extremely difficult to change outdated beliefs such as subordination of women and discrimination of humans due to their belief systems, specifically in current world events such as the situation of Israel in the Middle East and the wars taking place in former Yugoslavia.
Judaism comprises less than two per cent of western society, and yet has contributed in field after field. (web) 9. How does the middle east play a role in the struggle between these religions. The middle east plays a very large role in the struggle between these religions. The Islamic people believe the dome of the rock is the place were Muhammad. The Israelis believe the walls to the old city is the closest we can get to the old temple which was destroyed by the Romans.
The Christians believe Jerusalem is the site of the “Church of the holy ” which is the site where Jesus resurrected from the grave. Now as you can see to halve all of these clashing forces together in such a small area someone is bound to get Alltel greedy and want to much. There has always been this friction between the tribes of Abraham and the Levi tribe so it is understandable why there is a clash now. (Mirkham 24) 10. Why do the Jews feel it necessary to separate themselves from all other religions, and why do they wear those funny hats.
... religion, race, and ethnicity and so on. The purpose of this essay is to look into the ethnic conflict of Israel and Palestine ... Judea, home of the Jews in ancient times, was conquered by the Romans and renamed Palestine. Palestine was later conquered and ... restore the Jews to Israel, largely ignoring the existing Arab population. Following the Balfour Declaration in 1917, Palestine was granted ...
The Jewish people believe they are G-D’s children and in order to show respect the strive on following G-D’s books and his commandments. They follow his 316 directions to the T. The Jews wear the funny hat to make them selves different from the other religions. However there is no law in the Jewish religion that states to wear a head covering.
There is a law however that states one should remove their shoes in the holy places to show respect for-d. (Mirkham 72-73) 11. Why are the struggles between the Arabs and Israelis so potent today? The Arab-Israeli conflict is the continuation of an Arab-Jewish struggle that began in the early 1900’s for control of Palestine. Palestine today consists of Israel and the areas known as the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. The Palestinians lived in the region long before Jews began moving there in large numbers in the late 1800’s.
The Arab-Israeli conflict has been hard to resolve. (Ian Mirkham p 58-60) 12. when and why did the conflicts start? In the mid-1800’s, Jewish intellectuals in Europe began to support the idea that Jews should settle in Palestine, which the Bible describes as the Jews’ ancient homeland. The word Palestine does not appear in the Bible. But it has long been used to refer to the area the Bible describes. The idea that Jews should settle in Palestine became known as Zionism.
In the 1800’s, Palestine was controlled by the Ottoman Empire, which was centered in present-day Turkey. (web) 14. What is Zionism and why does it affect the middle east? Zionism became an important political movement among Jews in Europe because of increasing anti-Semitism (prejudice against Jews) there. The anti-Semitism resulted in violent attacks on Jews and their property. In the 1800’s, the immigration of European Jews to Palestine accelerated. At first, many of the immigrants and the Palestinian Arabs lived together peacefully.
... productivity or future viability of the group. Conflict between groups is more likely when resources are scarce, groups have a past history of ... date than it’s truly a problem within that group. Your conflict will erupt and problems will set in. According to ... (2011) within our text it states that Conflict occurs both within and between groups. Internal competition can have a negative effect on ...
But as more Jews arrived, conflicts between the two groups increased. (Stugart 105- 103) 15. What role did Egypt play in the conflicts in the middle east. The History of the conflict in the Middle East is long and well documented. To both, and to many biased observers the history of the Egyptian/Israeli conflict is very one sided, with one government, or one people causing the continued wars between the two neighboring states. But, as any social scientist of any reputation will state, all international conflicts have more than one side, and usually are the result of events surrounding, and extending over the parties involved.
Thus, using this theory as a basis, we must assume that the conflict between Israel and Egypt is more complicated than a partial observer would see it. For the purpose of this paper, we are going to examine the basic factors of Egypt’s Involvement and conflict with Israel, with some emphasis on the involvement of the United State, and the Western Nation in this conflict. Also, I wish to pay particular attention to the question of who, or what brought these countries into conflict. Were they both victims of their situation, or did they become actively involved in promoting conflict, or perhaps a third party source, such as the US pushed them into conflict? (Stugart p 101-103) 16. where were the Iranians during all this? Iran is a country located in the Middle East. The main source of income for the country is oil, the one object that had greatly influenced its history.
Iran’s present government is run as an Islamic Republic. A president, cabinet, judicial branch, and Majilesor or legislative branch, makes up the governmental positions. A revolution that overthrew the monarch, which was set in 1930, lasted over 15 years. Crane Brentano’s book, An Anatomy of a Revolution, explains set of four steps a country experiences when a revolution occurs.
Symptoms, rising fever, crisis, and convalescence are the steps that occur. The Iranian Revolution followed the four steps in Crane Brentano’s theory, symptoms, rising fever, crisis, and convalescence occurred. (Stugart p 21-26) 21. When did the Palestinians rule and when did they decline there power. Persia ruled in Palestine until the country was captured by Alexander the Great in 333 BC. His successors — the Egyptian Ptolemies and the Syrian Seleucids — tried without success to force Greek culture and religion on the people.
Eventually in the second century BC, the Jews revolted and established an independent state (141-63 BC).
This lasted until Pompey the Great conquered Palestine for Rome and made it a province of the Roman Empire ruled by Jewish kings 22. Who was in Israel before the Palestinians or the Israelites? Even before the Palestinians or the Jews were in Palestine, a group of people known as Canaanites had established themselves there. By the third millennium BC they were living in cities, one of which was Jericho. They developed an alphabet from which other writing systems originated and their religion had a major influence on that of the Jews and through them on both Christianity and Islam. 23.
What did able men do 1 month a year? The descendants of able men who established a dynasty or tradition would worship the God of their father, or fathers, and adhere to the original covenant. Genesis 31 portrays and swearing by their respective ancestral gods: Jacob by the god (s) of Abraham and Laban by the god (s) of Nah or. Once a group expanded into a federation of clans or, religious organization became necessary. A central shrine (such as the one at Shiloh in Israel) for amphictyonic (religious confederation al) pilgrimage festivals required a professional and other religious personnel to take care of sacrifices, give oracular guidance, interpret dreams and omens, as well as to provide instruction. In an amphictyony of 12 tribes, each tribe could render federal service for religious and secular purposes, one month each year. A special tribe (such as the Levites in Israel, or the Malians in Iran) could be dedicated full-time to cultic duties.
24. What happened to Israel and how did it become a commercialized city? A greater degree of centralization and organization of the cult would generally follow from the establishment of a powerful state. The cult of of Babylon spread in importance and influence because Babylon became the capital of a powerful kingdom in the time of Hammurabi (18 th century BC) and of a mighty empire during the reign of Nebuchadrezzar (604-562 BC).
The Egyptian cult of not only became powerful but took on the form of a universal religion as a result of the military and political triumphs of the rulers of Thebes, particularly during the reign of Thutmose III (1479-26 BC).
Under, Jerusalem became the centre of a great commercial empire. The Temple of Solomon and its God, the God of Israel, were catapulted into an international prominence that was quite different from the national status that marked the extent of Hebraic religion previously. The new internationalism of Israel’s involvements paved the way for the universality of the views of the prophets. The God of Israel was subsequently concerned with all mankind and not merely with one people in one small land. This ultimately meant the transformation of biblical religion from the cult of a single people to a more subtle, spiritual movement that required different organization and different personnel. The priesthood became defunct with the destruction of Herod’s Temple and the cessation of sacrifices in AD 70.
(Frank Mead p 34 – 42) 25. How would you hold an ethnic group together? There were various devices for holding an ethnic-religious group together even though it might be fragment ized into scattered communities. Laws of purity, especially those pertaining to diet, kept different groups apart. Each normally respected the other’s rules, but the fact that each group had different taboos kept them from breaking bread together and mingling socially. They could do business with each other in the marketplace, but they could not fraternize in each other’s homes. Above all, laws of purity were deterrents to intermarriage, the major factor that breaks up religious communities and encourages homogenization.
26. what are the essentials of the christian faith. Roman Catholicism is one of the largest religions in the world, with over a billion adherents distributed all over the world. It is characterized by it’s highly developed doctrinal and organizational structure. Catholicism’s history began when adherents of Judaism accepted Jesus Christ as not just a prophet, but as the Son of God and the Savior of the world. Founded: Roman Catholicism was reputedly started with the commissioning of the Apostle Peter ‘as the rock on which the church is to be built’ (Matt.
Catholicism, which means universal, received the adjective ‘Roman’ due to the Church’s adoption of the organizational grid of the Roman empire. The adjective was also used because of the tradition that Peter had founded the Church in Rome and that he and Paul were buried there. Adherents: With few exceptions, Roman Catholics are found throughout the world, out of many nations and peoples. Roman Catholics are found concentrated in several areas of world such as southern Europe, South America and certain areas of Asia such as the Philippines.
Please see the distribution chart below. 27. How do we label our religions? The first question in studying religion is how we approach religion. To best understand religion, we should approach the world’s religions with the attitude of religious pluralism; that is, with the view that all religions are equal. There are several methods used in the study of religion. The first is the historical comparative method which involves the comparison of a faith’s history and traditions.
It focuses on orthodoxy, or ‘correct thought’. The second method is the phenomenological method, which is centered on, or ‘correct practice’. Information on a faith is gathered through unbiased, empirical observations. Other methods involve subjective modes of study such as the confessional method of study. The confessional method interprets a religion based on the particular point of view of the religion. This approach can lead to bias in comparing differing religions.
The final method is the empathetic approach, which is based on putting oneself in the place of the practitioner of a particular religion. You see with their eyes and feel as they feel. All of these approaches have their strengths and weaknesses. They can give us a start in understanding as well as labeling the world’s religions. Religions can be labeled along several axes. 28.
How do we universalize the religions? A universalizing religion is dependent on how open the religion is to accepting outsiders. Universalizing religions have four characteristics: adherents believe what they think is proper for all human kind have a means of transmission are not inextricably linked to a nation, ethnicity, or place are dominant somewhere Universalizing religions include Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. Universalizing religions can have an ethnic ‘flavor’ and may include ethnic subgroups such as the Amish and the Nation of Islam. These groups may be referred to as segmental religious systems. Religions may also be classed according to organization. A church is a comprehensive and balanced set of teachings as found in Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and the Anglican Church.
A denomination is comprehensive, but has more strict rules as with the Presbyterian Church. A sect is a group in which the characteristics of that group are more important. Examples of various sects are Pentecostals, Assembly of God churches, and Mormonism. A cult is a very small, geographically isolated group usually with a charismatic figurehead. Examples of cults include Monies and the Peoples’ Temple. Note that this definition of cult does not include doctrinal definitions used by certain and deprogrammer’s, although major departures from orthodox doctrines are often characteristic of cults.
29. what does location halve to do with religion? A mistake often made in the studying the relationship between geography and religion is to assume that geography is an explanation for the origin of certain features within a religion. We study this relationship to understand the effect of geography upon a religion, and the effect of that religion upon the geography of a region. Across many of the world’s religions, mountains have been associated with talking to God or as the abode of a god. Mount Sinai was the place where God talked to Moses and the Jews. The Mount of Olives was where Jesus ascended into heaven and where he is supposed to return.
Mt. Athos in Greece as an ancient monastery where monks dedicate their lives to living in seclusion devoted to God. Olympus was the home of the ancient Greek pantheon and Mt. Fuji was the dwelling place of gods in Japan. Man even built artificial mountains in an attempt to reach the divine in the form of pyramids, , and mounds. Rocks also had religious significance.
Stonehenge and Easter Island provide examples from ethnic religions of the past. The (the ‘Wailing Wall’ in Jerusalem), being the last vestiges of the Second Temple, is a modern example. Other physical features have had religious significance as well. Trees were used to create totems. The Nile River was sacred in ancient Egyptian religion and the Ganges Rivers is sacred today to the Hindus. Water is used as a means of purification in Christianity, Judaism, and Islam.
The desert is often seen as a means of spiritual refinement. It is seen by many as having given rise to monotheism. (David Ariel p 63- 65) 30. What does ecology halve to do w religion? In simple ethnic religions, the processes of nature become ritualized in an attempt to entreat, placate, or change these processes or the powers behind them.
The simple ethnic religions are built around the cycles of nature as manifested by fertility rituals, of agriculture, and harvest festivals. As the society and religion becomes more complex, the type of ritual practiced also changes. The pastoralist society of ancient Israel despised the fertility rites of the surrounding agricultural societies and the pigs associated with them. When Christianity began, it had many of the values from the Mediterranean agricultural societies from which it originated. Gradually, freed from the strictures of Jewish law, and with the relative ease of transmission through the Roman road system, Christianity began to take on the characteristics of the peoples who accepted it. The Jewish Passover became Easter.
Christmas was not originally celebrated by early Christians, but absorbed the pagan celebration of the winter solstice. Christianity lacks the celebration of the harvest season, and eventually allowed the observance of Hallo we ” en. The celebration of Thanksgiving Day in North America has also come to fill this gap in the Christian calendar. (Ori Devil p 33- 37) 31. What does land have to do with the religions of the Middle east? Environmental determinism is the belief that the physical environment determines religious thought. According to this idea, the importance of the Ganges River in India eventually gave rise to the belief that it is sacred.
Possibilism is the idea that the environment put very broad limits on religious thought. Probabilism theorizes that for each environment, there is a range of possibilities where some conceptual structures are more probable than others. Religion can have a number of different effects on landscape. The most well known is that of sacred structures. Sacred structures would include such things as cathedrals, churches, temples, cemeteries, shrines, and monuments. These structures represent organization within the society and an economic level which allows for surplus and specialization.
Study of these structures include form, orientation, and density. Places of worship occur in areas of concentrated population, and tend to be larger than other concentrations of people. Dwelling places of God (s) such as shrines or temples can be located anywhere. Orientation of houses of worship in both and is important. Function often dictates form. The density of places of worship is often dictated by function as well.
For example, orthodox Judaism teaches that a (a pool for ritual cleansing) is the most important structure in a Jewish community, and should be built even before a. Religious practice may also affect landscape in how a community handles the world around it. Such things as crop rotation, acceptable and unacceptable commodities, and burial practices all have their effects. Food taboos may alter the area fauna and flora. Work taboos will affect the daily rhythms of life and commerce. The prohibition of usury (interest on loans) might hinder the economic well-being of a region.
Social ranking sanctioned with religious justification will structure the society. (David Ariel p 98-99) 33. Why do we organize religion what good will it bring the? Religions differ in how they divide the geographical space of earth (and beyond! ).
Simple ethnic religions often ritualize their living space through myths about ancestors.
Australian Aboriginal ‘dream time’ is a reflection of their living space. Whether or not a religious system produces a mythical geography that corresponds to their physical reality, it will have some sacred connection to elements of the original territory. For example, a common biblical term for a place of eternal fiery punishment is gehenna. This is a variant rendering of Hinn om, a valley south of Jerusalem, where child sacrifices by fire were conducted by the heathen priests. As religion becomes more complex, space is divided and often separated from the outside world.
The divided space may then be divided into varying degrees of holiness, or separation. In an ethnic religion, a national land itself may become holy as found in Zionism and other nationalist movements. Sacred places may be found in lakes, rivers, rocks, mountains, and groves, possibly in association with a particular person or event. Unusual physical features, the birthplace of a religion or religious figure, may also contribute sacred places. Shrines may be constructed, becoming a focal point within the religious system. Shrines were an important feature of the medieval Catholic Church, and may be found throughout India today.
Eventually sacred places may become religious centers as religious systems evolve. The sacredness of a religious site might be transferred to another, conquering religion. Churches were often built over pagan sites, and mosques were often built over destroyed Hindu temples. Some religious centers may rise to pre ” eminence because of their intense sanctity as religious capitals.
Before the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, Jerusalem was the religious capital of Jerusalem, center of the temple cult. Today, Jerusalem is sacred to Jews because of the importance it has in the Jewish faith, history, ritual, and identity. Every Passover is ended with the proclamation, ‘Next year in Jerusalem!’ Holy places, shrines and religious centers may become places of pilgrimage. Even today, millions of people trek each year to the Ganges River to bath in it’s sacred water. The hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca, is the sacred obligation of every Muslim once in his life. The years pilgrimage puts great demands upon the infrastructure of the region.
Pilgrimages may also be responsible for spread of ideas, increasing trade, transmitting disease, and altering existing traffic patterns. More complex religious systems may divide space into hierarchical territories. Other religious bodies maybe more or less autonomous. The following chart illustrates the spectrum with various examples: (David Ariel p 56- 60) 34. How were the religions distributed and were? Approximately 33% of the world’s population is Christian. Another 18% is Muslim.
Another 13% is Hindu. Where do they all live? How are these and other religions distributed throughout the world? To answer these questions involves delving into a fascinating realm of history, geography, and culture. You ” ll find the facts on distribution in the pages of the each of the religions on this website. We will discuss here some of the processes and terminology involved in the distribution of religions. Usually three processes are involved in creating the distribution of a religion: diffusion, migration, and competition for space. The diffusion of religion is one the principle ways of transmitting culture and ethical values.
Migration is one of the ways of transmitting religion spatially. It can occur through the natural expansion of population or through the processes of conquest and exile. One result of conquest and exile may be a diaspora, where there is a lack of a core area of dominance for a particular religion. An example of a diaspora is found in history of Judaism. The Jewish Diaspora was scattered in small villages and ghettos throughout Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia. Only in our day has the Jewish people again found a home in their ancient homeland of Israel.
Religions can also grow through contact conversion. This usually happens when two groups are in close contact with each other. Buddhism spread from it’s land of origin in India into China and beyond by means of contact conversion, even after Buddhism virtually disappeared in India. Islam often spread through trade which resulted in the mosques now found on the far flung islands of Indonesia. Intermarriage is also brings conversion, depending upon how universalizing the religion is. Another means is through missionary work.
Many of the churches of the west have been well known for their organized missions to many different parts of the world. or ‘Mormons’ are known today for their practice of sending missionaries not only door-to-door in most western nations, but also to many other parts of the world as well. Another fact to consider in distribution of religions in the pattern of it’s interaction with other religions. A religious system will either seek peaceful co-existence, competition, or exclusion. The type of interaction a religion exhibits may be more of a function of history than of religious doctrine. (OriDevir pg 35-38) 35.
What did peaceful co existence do for mass religion? Peaceful co-existence occurs when two systems not only tolerate each other, but may actually be compatible with each other. This unique balance is often found in the eastern Asia where people may be either Taoist, Confucian, Buddhist, or any combination thereof. It is not necessary for one religion to dominate or replace another. On the other hand, Christianity has a strict and narrow set of teachings which do not allow for a diversity of opinions or a piecemeal selection of important doctrines. Ecumenicism is that movement now found among most of the major Christian denominations which seeks to minimize differences and to strengthen and unite the church. Competition exists when at least one of the religious systems involved is characterized by instability.
When Christianity sent missionaries to the simple ethnic religions of the world, the ethnic religions often showed the greatest instability. Interaction does not always result in a complete adherence, but may result in more of a transfer of culture rather than religion. Intolerance may be found in religious systems that exclude the religious beliefs of others as being incompatible with truth, as understood by the adherents of that religion. This attitude has historically been found in the monotheistic religions such as Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Spatially, enforced religious orthodoxy usually creates large homogeneous blocks marked by sharp boundaries. Political power may also be used to enforce this orthodoxy as was the case among the Zoroastrians of Persia, in the imposition of Christianity by the late Roman Empire, the Inquisition conducted by the Catholic Church, and in our day by the Ayatollah Khomeini within the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Holy wars backed by politically empowered religious institutions were, for example, fought in Palestine during the Crusades, and have been proclaimed today by certain Muslim extremists as jihads. The universalizing religions have shown the greatest distribution and growth as a result of being able to open their doors to the peoples of the world. These faiths place the responsibility for an individual’s ultimate destiny within the hands of the individual — not through the actions of another or the vagaries of enchantment. We hope that this basic introduction to the Geography of Religion will encourage you to explore this interesting topic. Return to the Website Menu for webpages about the geography of several of (www. Jesus//religion / information /new / jerusalem /bible / study.
com) 36. what is Christianity? Christianity arose as an obscure Jewish sect, and through the dedicated missionary efforts of such persons as the Apostle Paul was distributed throughout the Mediterranean basin. Church tradition suggests that each of the remaining Apostles of Jesus taught in such diverse places as the British Isles and India. After years of official persecution by the Roman Empire, Christianity was embraced as the state religion by Emperor Constantine.
Several important church councils were held during this time period to decide on controversies over doctrine. Eventually, the decisions of these councils provided guidelines to determine orthodoxy or heresy. The many divisions and sects now found in Christianity today has been the result of opinions which differed from the established doctrine. (web) 37. What is the geography of Christianity? Christianity has greatly influenced the geography of medieval Europe, and later, the rest of the world due to colonization and missionary efforts. Perhaps the most significant contribution of Christianity was the reorganization of Europe from pagan bands and villages into the centrally organized holds of feudal Europe.
This reorganization was patterned after the ecclesiastical envisioned by the Church and set the stage for all that was to come in the Monasteries were set up throughout Europe as either destinations or as way stations for pilgrimages. Monasteries became the repositories of civilization, learning, and often wealth. The Church provided sanction and divine recognition for governments of the day in the form of ‘Divine Right’. The Church was responsible for the ordination of kings and often arbitrated disputes over territory. Until the Reformation, the Church was a power to be reckoned with in both religious and secular matters. Also important in the geography of Christianity is the spacial distribution of the various denominations, each denomination’s geographic divisions, and what effects each denomination has upon the land.
For example, many new Protestant sects such as the Shakers experimented with new communal living arrangements in a quest for utopia during the first part of the nineteenth century. Although most of these efforts eventually failed, they created intentionally designed settlements of farms and workshops expressing new cultural and societal ideals. Roman Catholicism and Mormonism express their ecclesiastical geography through dividing the world into a hierarchy of areas. Catholics and many Protestant groups have missionary territories throughout the world (CHaim Rachel p 23-25) 38. What do the Christians say about their homeland. Then Joshua summoned the Reubenites, the Gadites and the half-tribe of Manasseh 2 and said to them, ‘You have done all that Moses the servant of the LORD commanded, and you have obeyed me in everything I commanded.
3 For a long time now — to this very day — you have not deserted your brothers but have carried out the mission the LORD your God gave you. 4 Now that the LORD your God has given your brothers rest as he promised, return to your homes in the land that Moses the servant of the LORD gave you on the other side of the Jordan. 5 But be very careful to keep the commandment and the law that Moses the servant of the LORD gave you: to love the LORD your God, to walk in all his ways, to obey his commands, to hold fast to him and to serve him with all your heart and all your soul.’ 6 Then Joshua blessed them and sent them away, and they went to their homes. 7 (To the half-tribe of Manasseh Moses had given land in Bashan, and to the other half of the tribe Joshua gave land on the west side of the Jordan with their brothers. ) When Joshua sent them home, he blessed them, 8 saying, ‘Return to your homes with your great wealth — with large herds of livestock, with silver, gold, bronze and iron, and a great quantity of clothing — and divide with your brothers the plunder from your enemies.’ 9 So the Reubenites, the Gadites and the half-tribe of Manasseh left the Israelites at Shiloh in Canaan to return to Gilead, their own land, which they had acquired in accordance with the command of the LORD through Moses.
10 When they came to Geliloth near the Jordan in the land of Canaan, the Reubenites, the Gadites and the half-tribe of Manasseh built an imposing altar there by the Jordan. 11 And when the Israelites heard that they had built the altar on the border of Canaan atGeliloth near the Jordan on the Israelite side, 12 the whole assembly of Israel gathered at Shiloh to go to war against them. 13 So the Israelites sent Phinehas son of Eleazar, the priest, to the land of Gilead — to Reuben, Gad and the half-tribe of Manasseh. 14 With him they sent ten of the chief men, one for each of the tribes of Israel, each the head of a family division among the Israelite clans.
15 When they went to Gilead — to Reuben, Gad and the half-tribe of Manasseh — they said to them: 16 ‘The whole assembly of the LORD says: ‘How could you break faith with the God of Israel like this? How could you turn away from the LORD and build yourselves an altar in rebellion against him now? 17 Was not the sin of Per enough for us? Up to this very day we have not cleansed ourselves from that sin, even though a plague fell on the community of the LORD! 18 And are you now turning away from the LORD? ”If you rebel against the LORD today, tomorrow he will be angry with the whole community of Israel. 19 If the land you possess is defiled, come over to the LORD’s land, where the LORD’s tabernacle stands, and share the land with us. But do not rebel against the LORD or against us by building an altar for yourselves, other than the altar of the LORD our God. 20 When A chan son of Zerah acted unfaithfully regarding the devoted things, did not wrath come upon the whole community of Israel? He was not the only one who died for his sin.’ ‘ 21 Then Reuben, Gad and the half-tribe of Manasseh replied to the heads of the clans of Israel: 22 ‘The Mighty One, God, the LORD! The Mighty One, God, the LORD! He knows! And let Israel know! If this has been in rebellion or disobedience to the LORD, do not spare us this day. 23 If we have built our own altar to turn away from the LORD and to offer burnt offerings and grain offerings, or to sacrifice fellowship offerings on it, may the LORD himself call us to account. 24 ‘No! We did it for fear that some day your descendants might say to ours, ‘What do you have to do with the LORD, the God of Israel? 25 The LORD has made the Jordan a boundary between us and you — you Reubenites and Gadites! You have no share in the LORD.’ So your descendants might cause ours to stop fearing the LORD.
26 ‘That is why we said, ‘Let us get ready and build an altar — but not for burnt offerings or sacrifices.’ 27 On the contrary, it is to be a witness between us and you and the generations that follow, that we will worship the LORD at his sanctuary with our burnt offerings, sacrifices and fellowship offerings. Then in the future your descendants will not be able to say to ours, ‘You have no share in the LORD.’ 28 ‘And we said, ‘If they ever say this to us, or to our descendants, we will answer: Look at the replica of the LORD’s altar, which our fathers built, not for burnt offerings and sacrifices, but as a witness between us and you.’ 29 ‘Far be it from us to rebel against the LORD and turn away from him today by building an altar for burnt offerings, grain offerings and sacrifices, other than the altar of the LORD our God that stands before his tabernacle.’ 30 When Phinehas the priest and the leaders of the community — the heads of the clans of the Israelites — heard what Reuben, Gad and Manasseh had to say, they were pleased. 31 And Phinehas son of Eleazar, the priest, said to Reuben, Gad and Manasseh, ‘Today we know that the LORD is with us, because you have not acted unfaithfully toward the LORD in this matter. Now you have rescued the Israelites from the LORD ” shand.’ 32 Then Phinehas son of Eleazar, the priest, and the leaders returned to Canaan from their meeting with the Reubenites and Gadites in Gilead and reported to the Israelites. 33 They were glad to hear the report and praised God. And they talked no more about going to war against them to devastate the country where the Reubenites and the Gadites lived.
34 And the Reubenites and the Gadites gave the altar this name: A Witness Between Us that the LORD is God. (the bible) 39. Are the people being talked about in the bible jewish or of? Throughout history, doctrinal controversies have arisen in the Church which have forced theologians to search out answers. The nature of Christ, salvation, and the canon of Scripture are a few examples. Especially in recent centuries, Christians have faced-off over differences surrounding the eternal security of the believer, the perseverance of the saints and the possibility of losing one’s salvation, with various expositors marshaling evidence in support of their particular position.
Much of the current debate  has centered in the book of Hebrews and its warning passages, particularly Hebrews 6: 4-6. The ominous tone of this warning leaves the reader with no doubt that those who ignore it do so at great risk Historically, these verses have been a fulcrum upon which Calvinists and Arminians have struggled for leverage in the debate regarding the Christian’s eternal salvation. While Arminians use this passage to teach that a Christian can lose his salvation, Calvinists often argue that the subjects of the passage are not really Christians as proved by their apostasy. Still others claim the writer is only proposing a hypothetical situation that could never actually happen. (Chaim Raphael p 62-63) 40. How did the Irish Catholic help the migration of the church? Throughout the eighteenth century Irish immigration increased, despite an ambivalent and at times hostile attitude of the colonial authorities toward settlement.
Penal laws as well as gubernatorial fiat prohibited the establishment of an enduring ecclesiastical presence in Newfoundland. The granting of religious liberty to Roman Catholics in the colonies in 1779 in response to a change in the English penal code and the publication of this change through governor in 1784 signalled the beginning of an enduring presence of the Roman Catholic Church in the island. Pope Pius VI established Newfoundland in 1784 as a separate ecclesiastical territory under the direct control of Rome. James Louis O’Donel, an experienced Franciscan Recollect father and former provincial for Ireland, became the prefect of the new mission, thus removing the island from the control of the Bishop of London, who traditionally had held spiritual jurisdiction over all British North American colonies. O’Donel was given complete authority over the Roman Catholic clergy in his province as well as full ecclesiastical faculties, including the right to perform the sacrament of confirmation. In response to petitions by clergy and laity and after consultation with the British authorities, who saw O’Donel’s presence as a stabilizing force on the island, Rome, in 1796, elevated the Prefecture of Newfoundland to a Vicariate Apostolic.
This resembled a situation similar to the one the Roman Catholic hierarchy of England found itself in. On 21 September 1796, James Louis O’Donel was.