Learner’s Guide Manufacture craft baked flour confectionery products using the whisking method (No. 6) Unit Std # 6 NQF Level 3 Credit (s) 12 Field NSB 06: Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Sub-Field Manufacturing and Assembly Issue date: July 2002 Review date: TBA Contents Why am I doing this? 3 At the end of the module you will… 3 How to use this module 3 Introduction 4 – 5 Introduction baked flour confectionery products 6 – 11 The production of baked flour confectionery products 12 – 27 Prepare yourself for the processing of craft flour confectionery products using the whisking method 28 – 29 Bake flour confectionery products – Sponge cakes, Meringues and Swiss Rolls 30 – 37 Cake Sponge Making 38 – 48 Swiss Roll 49 – 55 Finishing and decorating craft flour confectionery products 56 – 65 Faults 66 – 68 Food safety practices and procedures 69 – 80 Cleaning and Sanitation – work environment & machines 81 – 85 Perform end of production activities 86 – 87 Summative Exercise 88 – 89 Self-assessment 90 – 93 Why am I doing this? This module is for anyone working in a craft baking environment who is responsible for the manufacturing of craft flour confectionery products using the whisking method and basic decorating of the baked craft flour confectionery products. At the end of this module you will be able to demonstrate knowledge of: 1. The production of craft flour confectionery products using the whisking method. 2.
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Planning and preparing for the processing of craft flour confectionery products using the whisking method. 3. Baking craft flour confectionery products. 4. Finishing and decorating craft flour confectionery products. 5.
Performing end of production activities. How to use this module: When you see this sign you must do an activity or conduct an experiment. Introduction This module will contribute to your full development within the baking manufacturing environment by providing recognition, further mobility and transportability within the field of manufacturing and assembly. The skills, knowledge and understanding demonstrated within this module are essential for social and economic transformation and within the baking manufacturing and processing environment.
You should have completed the module below before continuing with this module: Demonstrate understanding of and use the number system. Demonstrate understanding of appropriate measurements and relationships between different units of measure, and solve problems involving measurement, volume and time. Read and respond to a range of text types. Understanding of health and safety requirements in a baking environment. The scope of this module is for anyone who is responsible for the manufacturing of craft flour confectionery products using the whisking method and basic decorating of the baked craft flour confectionery products. The context of this module the manufacturing of craft flour confectionery products using the whisking method includes sponge cakes, Swiss rolls and meringues.
Recipes must include working from scratch and using premixes. The finishing and basic decoration includes spreading, dipping, dusting, piping techniques, rosettes and rope design. Definition of Terms Word Meaning Coat Refers to covering a cake with a topping, cream or almond paste. Confectionery Refers to a generic term for cakes, pastries, gateaux, tor ten, fancy etc. normally used in a bakery, but excluding bread. Craft Refers to art or dexterity Dust Refers to sprinkling of flour or sieving of icing sugar.
Food safety practices and procedures Refer to good manufacturing practices, monitoring critical control points, HACCP’s, practices against food contamination and personal hygiene. Glaze Refers to iced, glossy or lustrous. Protective clothing / gear Refers to clothing that safeguards the person and the product. Pipe Refers to mixtures that are extruded through a plain or fancy piping tube to form a shape. Standard operating procedures Refer to company procedures, prescribed procedures from the manufacturer, personal and food safety procedures, good manufacturing practices, best practices, applicable legislation, time frames, recipes and specifications. Whisk Refers to the method used to aerate egg and sugar batters.
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Introduction baked flour confectionery products What products are produced in your workplace? Your workplace is part of the confectionery sector within the food processing industry. The products produced in the confectionery sector can generally be divided into two broad groups: sugar and chocolate. The food industry is one of the largest industries in South Africa and is the largest employer in the manufacturing sector. The food processing and beverages industry is divided into different manufacturing sectors, for example: Aerated waters Baking, biscuit making and pastry Brewing Confectionery Dairy Edible oils and fat processing Fruit and vegetable processing General food products Meat Milling (flour and stock feed) Nut foods Pharmaceutical Poultry Seafood processing Sugar milling Tea and coffee Wine What is confectionery? Although technically the word ‘confectionery’ only refers to sugar-based confection, it is often used as a general term to cover both sugar and chocolate-based products.
The industry produces a wide range of product types. Some of the main ones are listed in the table below: Categories of confectionery Confectionery types Description Examples Solid and enrobed chocolates Chocolate is made from cocoa-products. There are two chocolate-type products: chocolate and compound chocolate. The main difference is that chocolate is made from cocoa liquor and cocoa butter.
Compound chocolate is made from powder and vegetable fats. Block chocolates, chocolate bars, hard and soft centred chocolates High boils High boiled sweets typically give a hard glassy appearance. The main ingredients are sugar and glucose syrup. Suckers, candy, soft centred sweets, medicated confectionery Low boils Low boiled sweets are similar to high boil sweets but usually contain fats and milk products.
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Cooking at lower temperatures give a chewy of soft texture. Caramels, toffees, fudge Gums and jellies Gums and jellies can be hard or soft and are made from sugar, glucose syrup and varying types of gelling agents. Hard and soft gums, Turkish delight, pastilles, jelly beans, jelly babies, etc. Aerated products Aerated products are whipped or beaten so that air adds to the bulk and texture of the product.
Honeycomb, nougat, chews, marshmallows Fondant and creams Fondant and cream are sugar products where the sugar is crystallised in the beating process. Marshmallows, base for caramels Compressed tablets Tables are hard and brittle. They are made from granulated ingredients which typically include base, favours, lubricants, binders and sweeteners. The ingredients are compressed to form a tablet. Pressed mints, fruit tablets Lozenges Lozenges are hard, brittle confection Strong mints, medicated lozenges Panned goods Panned goods are those covered in chocolate or sugar coating.
The coating may be hard or soft. Chocolate almonds, sugar coated chocolate, sugared almonds, jelly beans, chewing gum, mints What does the customer want and expect? Just as there are many product types, there are usually several producers of the same or similar product. Product success depends on whether a product appeals to customers and whether they are prepared to buy it. Often a single company will produce a number of similar product that appeal to different types of customers. The following table outline some factors customers consider when buying products. Your facilitator will outline what customers look for in products produced by your workplace.
What customers look for… Main factors Details Packaging Company brand stands out Correctly sealed Stands out on shelf Clear use-by information Packaging out-of-register Broken product Irregular shape Product appearance Gloss or shine Product finishing Snap Price / Value for money Weight versus price Presentation Quality versus price Ingredients Compound versus chocolate Description of typical allergens Cleary provided, e. g. nut statementActivityYour facilitator will outline the structure of the confectionery industry and will provide a general overview of how your company and its products are positioned in the market. Identify the main products produced by your company and in your workplace and list them. How are your company’s products currently positioned in the market-place? Your facilitator will select a product produced by your company.
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Go to a supermarket or local product outlet to compare your company’s product with other similar products. Find out: Are there similar products available on the market? What do these types of products contain (refer to ingredient listing)? How are the products presented? How are they packaged? How do products compare in price? Select a product produced by your company and list the factors you would think would influence a customer to buy your company’s product. What influences you as a consumer? Choose an example of a competitor’s product and list its strengths and weaknesses compared to the product produced in your workplace. Discuss the results with your facilitator. What requirements must the product meet? The requirements for products are outlined in specifications. Products need to appeal to customers.
Companies research what customers want and use this information to describe what the final product should be like. This description is usually known as a final product specification. A specification also includes any legal requirements the product must meet. Many items found in specifications are things that can be measured, for example: Item Measure Weight The weight of the final product is measured in grams.
The final product must meet the net weight as stated on the packaging. Organoleptic characteristics This can include smell, appearance (including colour), taste and feel. These features can be measured by sensory testing panels. Size and volume measurements Measured by weight, height and visual inspection. Other items you would expect to find in a specification include date codes, packaging type, and ingredient content and nutritional advice. A number of specified requirements are also legal requirements.
Products must conform to any description of the product provided on packaging. Examples of legal requirements are that the product matches the ingredients and other product details such as weight and the manufacturer’s name and address are provided. A fundamental legal requirement is that all products are safe for the consumer. Activity 1. Your facilitator will explain how a final product specification defines the required standard or quality of a product. He / she will show you a written final product specification.
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If no written specification exists, your facilitator will explain the product characteristics that are required. 1. What items are detailed in the specification? Why is each item so important? 2. What specified items are required by law? 3. Discuss the specification with your facilitator. For example, how clear are the requirements? How detailed is the specification? 2.
Select a particular product that is produced in your workplace. Note the key specifications for the product and the reason for each of them. 3. Your facilitator will outline what could happen if legal and customer expectations are not met or if contaminated product reaches a customer.
4. How do you react if you are not happy with a product you buy? The production of baked flour confectionery products The proportions of the ingredients (mass and volume) that are used will determine the properties of the baked product. For example, the quantity of liquid will determine the viscosity of the unbaked mixture. The ingredients should be used in a specific proportion to ensure a product is of high quality. The flour and egg proteins form a framework through the confectionery mixture.
The shortening and sugar tend to weaken this framework. If the amounts of shortening and sugar are increased, it may be balanced by adding extra eggs. The shortening, sugar, liquid and flour are used in specific proportions in the various flour mixtures. These proportions depend on the properties the baked product should have. For example, the proportions of ingredients used for muffins and a butter mixture will differ and therefore the mixing method should be changed.
Factors the determine the properties of the final product The quality of the ingredients The proportions of the ingredients used The flavour ing agents included The method of mixing The baking environment The treatment of the product after is has been baked Ingredients in baked productsFlourCake flour is the most suitable for cakes. It is made from soft wheat with a low protein and thus low gluten content. The flour is very fine and white in comparison to bread flour which has a cream colour and a coarser texture. When water is added to the flour a structural framework called gluten is formed. In order for the gluten to form the flour must be hydrated. It must also be kneaded to develop the gluten from a sticky mass to a stretchable, smooth and satin dough.
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The gluten can be separated from the dough by washing it with cold water. This removes the starch. Gluten consists of two proteins gliadin and gluten in. Gliadin gives elasticity and gluten in strength to the gluten.
Starch granules become embedded in the gluten framework during the mixing process and gives structure to the dough. As the gas cells are produced by the raising agent, the starch granules become parallel to the gluten films that surround the cells. When heat is applied the gas cells expand and the elastic network stretches accordingly. Water absorbed by the gluten is now available for the starch granules which absorb the water and partially gelatinize. The starch stays flexible enough to stretch with the gluten. The gluten structure is now dehydrated and becomes semi-rigid until it is coagulated by heat.
The correct proportion of flour is recommended for a high quality end product. Too much flour with result in pale, coarse products with a dry hard structure. Tunnels may develop if the batter is stirred too much in order to mix in the excess dry flour. The cake will form a point or crack because the batter sets too quickly along the sides of the baking tin.
All the raising has to take place in the soft part of the mixture in the centre. Therefore the product rises with a point. If too little flour is used the cake will collapse because the amount of protein is too small to support the structure. Eggs Functions Eggs supply structural proteins to baked products and will ensure a firm and rigid structure. The optimum amount of eggs used for a product will give a fine texture, thin cell walls and a large volume. Too many eggs will give a sticky, rubbery crumb.
If the amount of eggs is increased, the softening ingredients (sugar and shortening) must also be increased to balance the eggs. Air is included into the mixtures by means of stiffly beaten egg whites. The egg protein coagulates when it is heated and supports the cell walls which incorporate the air cells. The lips-proteins in egg yolk have excellent emulsifying properties and help in the formation of an emulsion in the cake mixture thus improving the texture. The addition of whole eggs or egg yolks improves the colour of the product.
The choice of eggs for mixtures For best results, eggs should be at least two days old because they then have the best capacity for attaining air in mixtures. At this time some of the water has evaporated and the albumen is now more concentrated. Freshly laid eggs will beat well, but will have a smaller capacity to entrap the air in the mixture. Frozen eggs may also be used with success. The yolks will however become thicker and need more mixing. The whites remain unchanged.
The size of the egg will influence the amount of liquid used in the mixture. The larger the eggs the smaller amount of liquid needs to be added. The addition of eggs to doughs and batters Add a whole unbeaten eggs one-by-one and beat well after each addition to ensure a fine texture Beat the whole egg and add it slowly to the mixture to prevent it from curdling The while and yolk can be separated. Add the yolks to the creamed shortening and sugar. To give a very light texture, the stiffly beaten egg whites are folded into the mixture after the mixing process has been completed. Liquid Although fresh milk is usually used, sour milk, powdered milk and water, butter milk, cream, water, coffee, fruit juices also give good results in confectionery mixtures.
Preferably milk is added because it contributes to the nutritional value, flavour and browning of the product. Milk contains 13% solids and therefore more milk than water can be used in a flour mixture. Functions of liquids It serves as a solvent for sugar, salt and proteins The chemical reaction between the acid and the alkali is only possible in the presence of a liquid The liquid aids the dispersion of shortening and flour The liquid hydrates the protein and starch in the flour. The typical structure of the mixture is impossible without the hydration of the proteins and starch. Flour with high gluten content will need more liquid. The more water the flour can absorb, the longer the storage life of the product will be.
If too little liquid is used, the mixture will have a stiff consistency which will result in a dry and heavy texture. Too much liquid will cause the mixture to run over the sides of the baking tin. The product will collapse and the texture will be sticky. Sugar Functions of sugar It is used as a sweetening agent in certain flour mixtures Sugar elevates the coagulation temperature of eggs which plays an important role in the making of sponge cake In large amounts sugar seems to interfere with the development of gluten. The sugar competes with the wheat protein for the water present.
This decreases the rate of hydration of the gluten, thus softening it. This contributes to the good texture of shortened cakes. If too much sugar is added the gluten is softened too much and the structure of the cake collapses during baking. To prevent the sugar from decreasing the gluten hydration, the mixing time may be increased. This will allow maximum dough development. Sugar contributes to the texture, flavour and browning of the outer surfaces by caramelizing on exposure to dry heat.
Products with higher sugar content retain moisture longer during storage. The products are also relatively most at the end of the baking period because in increased rate of browning lessens the chance of over baking. Volatile flavour ing components retain their flavour much better in the presence of sugar. When shortening and sugar are creamed together, the fat globules are broken up and the sugar is partially dissolved. The sugar and shortening form an emulsion which is able to trap air. Types of sugar available and their effects on baked products The finer the sugar, the quicker the mixture will turn white during the creaming process.
Fine granules give a much better texture than the coarser ones. A sponge cake does not need fine sugar, as the eggs provide enough liquid to dissolve the granulated sugar easily. Icing sugar should not be used because it contains corn flour and may result in the formation of lumps giving the baked products a heavy texture. Brown sugar adds flavour and colour and is used for making gingerbread and fruit cakes. These products tend to remain moist longer than those made with granulated sugar. Syrup or honey may be used to replace sugar.
The volume is the same as that of the sugar used but the liquid must be reduced by 25%. These mixtures must be baked at a lower temperature. The effect of too much sugar A high proportion of sugar gives a softer texture than a low proportion. An excess is responsible for a tough texture and a sugary crust.
Flour mixtures become too soft and may run over the edges of the cake tins. Cake mixtures containing large amounts of sugar easily collapse if not mixed well. Excess, undissolved granules of sugar appear as white, sugary spots on the surface of the baked product. Salt Fine table salt is used. The quantity is determined by the salt content of the shortening used.
If the salt content of the shortening is very low, 2. 5 ml of salt is used for 250 ml of flour. Salt improves the flavour and the taste. To distribute salt evenly throughout the mixture, it should be sieved together with the dry ingredients. Shortening Fats are added to flour mixtures mainly for their shortening or tenderizing effects. Shortening inhibits the development of gluten and mixtures can be beaten a lot more without decreasing the quality of the texture.
The shortening coats the flour particles and forms layers that physically separate the different parts of the dough structure. The fat is insoluble in the other ingredients of the mixture. To shorten well, a fat must have the capacity to: Coat or spread well Be rolled or pressed into thin layers Adhere well to flour particles in order not to be pressed or squeezed out of a flour mixture Factors that influence the effect of shortening in confectionery mixtures The way in which a shortening is distributed in a mixture The extent of distribution The presence or absence of emulsifying agents in the mixture The type of mixture The method and extent of mixing Fats are emulsified in mixtures to ensure good texture. These emulsifying properties of fat are of great importance and methods have been developed to improve the emulsification of fats. Emulsifiers may be added to fats. This results in cakes with larger volumes, finer grains and improved texture and tenderness.
Plastic fats have greater shortening power and are used for cakes with a fine delicate texture. The higher the fats content of commercially prepared fats, the greater the shortening power, this is important to remember when one fat is substituted with another. Butter and margarine contain approximately 80% fat and are sometimes described as moisture containing fats. Lard, hydrogenated fats and oil contain about 100% fat. If an equal mass of fat of a higher concentration is used instead of one of a lower concentration, the texture of the product will be affected. The choice of shortening Butter is ideal for fine flavour ed baking especially where large amounts are used.
Baked products stay fresh longer than when a firm vegetable fat is used. Margarine has replaced butter to a large extent. It is also cheaper and readily available. Although a successful shortening agent it lacks the delicate flavour ing of butter. Hard fats consist of 100% fat and less water than butter and margarine. Use about 20% less of these to replace butter or margarine.
It does, however, not give the same pleasant taste to the baked product. Cooking oils replace melted butter or margarine successfully. More eggs should however be used. Cream can be used instead of butter or margarine in scones and short crust pastry. No rubbing or cutting in is necessary. It is simply mixed into other ingredients.
The effects of too little and too much shortening If the amount of shortening is increased, the baked product will be softer. Too much shortening will result in a fatty, crumbly cake which is very soft and will fall apart. Too little shortening causes a coarse, sticky product which will develop a stale taste very quickly. A large excess of shortening will ooze out of the product during baking. The mixture will flow over the sides of the cake tin.
Too much shortening will weaken the protein structure which surrounds the gas bubbles. The gas will escape and will result in a product with a small volume. Leavening agents leavening agent is an ingredient that enables a flour mixture to rise. It forms gas bubbles which expand during baking to make baked products light and porous. There are three basic leavening agents: air, steam and carbon dioxide which are included into the flour mixture according the following two methods: Fermentation method During fermentation a biological agent breaks down some constituent of the mixture thus forming a leavening gas. Yeast ferments sugar present in flour to form carbon dioxide and alcohol.
Sugar is added to the yeast mixture to speed up the action. Non-fermentation methods The incorporation of air The formation of steam in a mixture The formation of gas by the interaction of ingredients present in the mixture The formation of gas by simply heating some ingredients The addition of volatile substances Basic leavening agentsAirAir can be incorporated into flour mixtures by: Beating the eggs thoroughly Folding and rolling doughs Folding and beating doughs Creaming shortening and sugar Sifting the dry ingredients Beating battersSteamSteam has excellent leavening powers. One volume of water increases to more than 1 600 volumes of steam when heated. The water that is converted into steam can be obtained from the added liquid or may be part of other ingredients like eggs. Most flour mixtures are partially leavened by steam. In chou x pastry steam is however, the only leavening agent.
Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide may be formed by the chemical action of bicarbonate of soda. When bicarbonate of soda is heated, carbon dioxide and sodium carbonate (washing soda) are formed. The carbon dioxide acts as a raising agent. The sodium carbonate gives the baked product a brown colour and an unpleasant taste. An excess of bicarbonate of soda will react with the fat and result in a product with a soapy taste. To counteract the formation of sodium carbonate an acid is always used together with bicarbonate of soda.
Sour milk, vinegar, jams with a high acid content, honey, lemon juice, syrup and cream of tartar may be used. The salt which is now formed does not have an unpleasant flavour. Baking PowderCompositionBaking powders consist of specific quantities of dry bicarbonate of soda plus an acid salt. Maize na is used to stabilize the mixture.
It keeps the product dry and prevents the reaction of the acid and the alkali in the tin. Types There are three main types of baking powder that can be classified according to the acid used in combination with bicarbonate of soda. The essential differences between the baking powders are: The taste and colour of the salt that is formed The speed at which the gas is formed Tartrate baking powder Cream of tartar or a mixture of cream of tartar and tartaric acid is used as an acid. The residue is neutral and will not affect the colour or the flavour of the baked product. A tartrate baking powder reacts fast at room temperature and releases all its gas.
About 60% of the total volume of carbon dioxide is released within the first 2 minutes of the baking process. A large amount of carbon dioxide is lost before the cake is baked. Phosphate baking powder The acid used in this baking powder is mono calcium phosphate. The baking powder reacts quickly and the residue formed does not influence the baked product. 2/3 of the carbon dioxide is released at room temperature and heat is required to release the other one third.
Double acting baking powder Two acid salts are used. These are mono calcium phosphate and sodium aluminium phosphate. They are known as double action of slow-working baking powders. They may be used when a flour mixture has to stand for a while before it is put into the oven. This is very useful for inexperienced workers.
Properties of a good baking powder Small quantities of baking powder should release a large volume of gas. The gas should be released slowly at room temperature and more quickly when it is heated. The residue should be tasteless and safe for humans to use. It should be cheap. The chemicals should not react with one another in a container thus ensuring a long shelf-life.
Mixing Methods The method of combining the ingredients when making baked products is important to ensure a successful baked product. A small deviation from a recommended method may lead to failure. Presently simplified mixing methods are used. This is caused by the trend to use labour-saving methods in the whole operation and by the use of electric mixers. Except for the melting method, the following methods are all deviations or combinations of these basic methods. The emulsion method Sift the dry ingredients together in a mixing bowl.
Beat the eggs and the liquid and melted fat or oil is added to the beaten eggs. Blend the liquid ingredients with the dry ingredients with varying amount of stirring, according to the mixture prepared. For thin mixtures, liquid ingredients should be added gradually to the dry ingredients to prevent lumps forming. Over stirring of thicker batters such as waffles and muffins can be prevented by adding all the liquid ingredients at the same time to the dry ingredients.
Thicker mixtures are stirred only until the dry ingredients are dampened. The emulsion method tends to give poor results. It is recommended only for shortened cakes that are freshly baked. Properties of products using this method The crust is sugary Air cells are large and the crumbs coarse (also depends on stirring amount) The Whisking Method Oil is used as a liquid – the mixture contains a large amount of eggs which give the baked product a very light texture. The whisking method is a combination of two methods i. e.
the sponge cake and emulsion method. Dry ingredients are sifted together in the mixing bowl. A hole is made in the middle of the dry ingredients and the oil, egg yolks, liquid and flavour ing are added. The mixture is whisked until the ingredients are well blended (as for the emulsion method).
The egg whites are stiffly beaten and folded into the mixture. The mixture is now baked in an un greased cake tin in a moderate oven for approximately 60 minutes. The long baking time is due to the large amount of batter baked in one cake tine. When cooling the cake the cake tin should hang upside down to prevent the delicate structure from being squashed. These cakes are not iced. Properties The product is light and well-risen It has a fine, even, spongy texture Air cells should be small with soft walls and a fine crumb It has a good volume and rounded crust The colour is a delicate golden brown The flavour depends on the essence used The Melting Method This is used when large amounts of syrup or honey are included in the recipe.
These ingredients are heavy and need a slow acting raising agent. Bicarbonate of soda is mostly used as a raising agent. When heated an unpleasant flavour may develop. This is however hidden by a strong flavour ing of spices so often used in these mixtures, e. g.
gingerbread. Salt, flour and raising agent are sifted, fruit is added (if in the recipe), butter, sugar and syrup are melted and the hot liquid mixture is stirred in to the dry ingredients. Mixer Method All ingredients are added together in the mixing bowl and beaten until the batter is smooth and well blended. The time of beating varies according to the: Speed of beating Amount of batter Temperature Proportions of the ingredientsPrecautionsThe shortening must be plastic enough to blend well with the other ingredients without forming lumps. Hot or melted shortening is not recommended. All ingredients should be at room temperature.
Baking powder should be added after all the other ingredients have been blended well. The bowl must be frequently scraped at the sides and the bottom to ensure even blending. The Creaming Method The shortening – butter or margarine is a water-in-oil emulsion During the creating process air is included and air-in-shortening foam is formed. Sugar is added and an air-in-shortening sugar-foam is formed. The eggs are oil-in-water emulsions and with the addition of eggs an air-in-shortening-sugar-egg-foam is formed. The mixture is now water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsion.
The oil-in-water emulsion is absorbed by the water-in-oil emulsion. The water-in-oil emulsion is now combined with the air-in-shortening-sugar-egg-foam. With the addition of flour the system is strengthened and stabilized by the under-developed gluten framework and starch granules. The salt, baking powder and sugar dissolve in the liquid. It is important to maintain the water-in-oil emulsion and foam throughout the mixing process.
If the liquid is added too quickly the water-in-oil emulsion will break into two phases of water and oil. The mixture will then curdle. During the baking process the shortening melts. The water-in-oil emulsion of the batter changes to an oil-in-water emulsion in the baked product. General rules for mixing 1. Set the oven at the desired temperature before starting with the mixing.
Use the correct temperature for the type of mixture to be baked. The baking time is determined by the amount of batter and dough as well as the properties of the ingredients used. 2. Suitable baking tins should be chosen. They should be prepared before mixing the batter. 3.
Measure the required ingredients accurately. 4. Choose the correct mixing method. 5.
Work quickly and accurately to ensure the bet results. 6. Bake 7. Cool Activity 1. Why is it important to use the correct mass and volume of ingredients in terms of the final quality of the product? 2. List the food ingredients you use to bake confectionery products in your organisation.
3. What will happen if you don’t use the correct ingredients in terms of quality and quantity? 4. Why is it important to follow the correct mixing procedure? (You can talk about the correct quantities of food ingredients, specific sequence during mixing, correct mixing rate and importance of temperature).
5. Describe how air is incorporated in the whisking method. 6.
What equipment do you use to produce craft flour confectionery products? 7. What food safety practices and procedures do you need to follow for processing? 8. Why is it important to follow standard operating procedures? 9. What is the result of poor practice and methods used during processing according to food and personal safety, productivity, wastage, health and customer relations? Prepare yourself for the processing of craft flour confectionery products using the whisking method Personal preparation Wash hands properly and thoroughly, to prevent contamination of food products and to comply with good hygiene practices. Wear the correct protective clothing, hairnet and gum boots (with toe caps where prescribed) to meet good hygiene practices. Wear the necessary hearing conservation equipment if the noise level is above 86 db to protect your hearing.
Remove all loose objects from pockets, remove all jewellery and wear the hairnet to prevent hair and other objects from falling onto the product. This can contaminate the product and can also cause safety risks if jewellery for example falls into equipment. Prepare the working area, utensils and equipment Wash and clean the work area with the correct chemicals. Prepare the work area according to the SOP and do the necessary pre-start up checks on the equipment you will be using. Ensure the following equipment and utensils are prepared: – mixers- whisks- scrapers- spatulas- piping bags- nozzles Inspect and prepare the equipment e. g.
mixers according to the manufacture’s instructions to ensure proper functioning and production output as per machine capabilities / capacity and safety of the operator. Demarcated areas are kept clean and accessible to enhance production flow and prevent contamination of the product. Confirm and maintain the ingredients according to the recipe you are using and ensure you have the correct quantity and quality. Once you have received your ingredients you need to maintain them in the appropriate way according to the SOP. Any ingredients that don’t conform need to be reported to the relevant supervisor. Ensure you understand how to interpret the work-site documents and recipes.
Work off the mixtures for baking according to the recipe yield for the particular product application and according to the SOP. ‘Worked off’ must include scaling, depositing, piping and spreading. Limit wastage of mixtures Identify and solve problems during the preparation of craft flour confectionery products. Activity Answer the following questions: 1. Why should you wash the working area with the necessary chemicals? 2. Explain how you prepare the working area and equipment.
3. How do you know when you have enough ingredients? 4. How do you know if your ingredients are quality released? 5. Why do you need to inspect and prepare the mixing equipment? 6. To whom do you report non-conforming ingredients? 7. Explain what is meant by scaling, depositing, piping and spreading.
8. Why is it important to limit wastage of mixtures? 9. What problems might you need to identify and solve during the preparation of craft flour confectionery products? Bake flour confectionery products – Sponge cakes, Meringues and Swiss RollsMeringuesThe term meringue covers all forms of beaten egg whites and sugar, almost irrespective of the proportions used the additions and any combinations. They can be subdivided into three headings: 1. Cold 2. Hot 3.
Boiled (Italian) Each can again be subdivided into heavy or light meringue according to the proportion of sugar to egg whites used. The greatest care must be taken to keep all equipment and materials free from grease. No trace of egg yolk should be allowed in the whites. Grease will shorten the protein strands and prevent the inclusion of air. Methods Cold Meringue The egg whites and the ream of tartar (if used) are placed into the machine and whisked until a stiff ‘snow’ is produced. With the whisking continuing on medium speed, half the sugar is added a little at a time until a stiff meringue is formed.
Any colour and flavour is now added and mixed in. the balance of the sugar is added either by folding in with a spatula or by the continued use of the machine. Hot Meringue Proceed as for cold meringue in the first stage. Make the sugar hot and run it into the whites while the machine is at medium speed. Continue whisking until a firm meringue is formed. Any colour and flavour is then added.
Boiled (Italian) Meringue Place the sugar and water in a boiling pan and after the sugar is dissolved, heat to 107 oC. Remove any scum and wash the sides of the pan with a brush dipped in clean water. Remove the spatula and run in the cream of tartar, dispersed in a little water, or the warmed glucose. The addition will mix by the actions of the current set up by boiling. Function of the ingredients Egg white, moistening, protein structure, aerating potential, dissolving medium. Only high quality egg white should be used for meringue goods.
Weak water egg whites will cause excessive sugar dissolving, high flow, low volume foam, poor shape and harsh eating qualities. Some trade authorities maintain that egg white should be left in a draught for a period of time to partially evaporate a degree of moisture. This practice gives a slightly greater concentration of egg white protein. A further advantage is considered in slightly ageing egg white to effect a slight change to natural pH.
The effect of this practice is to lower the pH and attain improved foam and foam stability. Egg white – dried / powdered Ease of use, regular reconstruction, known qualities, excellent foam potential and stability during piping generally shorten baking periods. Egg white is marketed in a number of forms, the more common being crystal and powdered. Both must be recon structured according to set direction and used according to producers instructions. In general, the more fine and regular the particle, the less time is given to reconstruction. For example, very fine powder-like egg albumen may only require a few minutes stand-by prior use.
In contract, large irregular shaped crystal albumen may require some hours for softening and moisture absorption. Water Water dissolving, dispersing, moistening, promotes regular structure, boiling process and its use enables production of varieties. Not in common use for cold method meringue formulate, may be used to advantage with higher sugar ratio. Care must be taken to ensure correct quantity or product faults may occur.
Water is an essential formulae ingredient to be boiled when using this method to make meringues it enables both sugar dissolving and sugar concentration in the resultant boiled syrup. A general guide being that approximately one third of required sugar is taken through the egg albumen foam. The remainder is included in the boiling process and taken to preferred temperature according to degree of sugar concentration. Sugar varieties Assist foam aeration, sweeten, extend shelf life, contribute to variety, effect required, dryness, influence structure.
Sugar type and crystal size will have a distinct effect on product qualities. Certain trade book authors stress the use of coarse type sugar varieties, however, in local industry, castor sugar is often used. Local can sugar is of regular high quality and has not been known to be the cause of product faults or imperfections. Use of fine sugars gives a more close structure than that of coarse sugar varieties when used in certain cold method formulae. Problems become apparent in high ratio sugar formula due to potentially low sugar dissolving and resultant degree of residual sugar crystals. Glucose Impart soft moist product qualities; assist sugar stability during the boiling process.
Because of the hygroscopic qualities of glucose, its frequent use is not evidence in numerous trade publications on meringue formulae. Its prime use would e in soft marshmallow type meringue common to dessert goods. Acid Phosphate Reduce potential sugar crystallization in boiled method. Its use in cold method would be to slightly strengthen egg albumen. Excess must be avoided or meringue foam will be influenced by excess acidity. Salt Salt is used for flavour, however, it is rarely used because it contracts produce sweetness.
Enriching agents Produce variety, enhance qualities and contributes to customer appeal. Generally ingredients in this group are sifted nuts, spices, crystallised fruits, glace fruits, chocolate, flavour and colour agents that contribute to human nutrition. Required foam / Batter Preparation Egg albumen is most sensitive to even minute fat presence that if in contract, can markedly reduce aeration. It is most essential that at all times when preparing meringue that stringent cleanliness is observed. Scale plates, measuring equipment, utensils, bowls and whisks and sieves need to be spotlessly clean. Likewise, when preparing utensils for the boiled method any item that comes into contact with the syrup must be absolutely clean.
Impurities can cause syrup boil-over and because syrup can become flammable, care must be taken to avoid such potential danger. It is a good practice to ensure that required trays are prepared prior to depositing or organised in such a manner that uninterrupted piping can be effected. Boiled method produced in large quantity in cool climatic conditions require prompt consistent depositing prior to foam firming due to lowering of temperature. However, cold method with relative high sugar ratio has more stability and can retain foam qualities for a longer time span. Best results are always maintained with expedient piping as soon as correct foam is attained. As drawn to attention, cold method requires stable well aerated foam from the initial incorporation of egg albumen and first portion of formula sugar.
If correct foam is not achieved, then sugar dissolving is not attained. This is because a required period of time is essential during whisking to gradually break down the sugar granularity. Excessive whisking can result in a weakening of the egg protein film and eventual foam collapse if left unchecked. Remainder of formula sugar must be gradually mixed through with thorough whisking after each addition. This practice is important to ensure a continued reduction in sugar granularity.
If water is contained as a formula ingredient then this must be slowly whisked through in the last few minutes of mixing after all formula sugar has been incorporated. If acid phosphate is required then this is best added at between half foam to full foam. This practice is to ensure that partial coagulation of egg albumen is avoided. Flavour and colours should be mixed clearly through the foam near completion of the mixing stage. Avoid strong degrees of these materials because they become concentrated during the drying process. Egg albumen for all methods is found to reach more rapid foam if it is between 30-40 oC.
Some trade authors maintain that egg albumen should be whisked to full foam prior to the addition of any formula sugar. Experience will indicate best practice to suit appropriate formula ingredient ratio. Influences and effects on batter tolerance The following variables have an effect on the quality of the resultant foam: Egg white quality Temperature of the egg white Presence of impurities Sugar granularity – addition and degree of dissolving Effectiveness of foam whisking equipment Size of mix to bowl Time of the mixing Mixing process Time lapse during the mixing process Addition of formula ingredients Timing of boiled syrup addition Haste in mixing practice Incorrect type of colours and flavour ing material Machine oil contamination Long stand-by prior to depositing Importance of correct piping techniques Care and attention must be used when piping meringue or most unsightly misshapen appearance will result to produce. Re-piping is not recommended for marked decrease in volume will be noticed and have reflection in profit potential.
Excessive twisting or turning or piping nozzle will also cause volume loss due to rupturing of minute air cells. A clean defined bold shape should be attained. For bulbs, domes, rosettes, etc, the tube should be held vertical. With required pressure meringue is formed to required size. Then with slight pressure release, the nozzle is turned to effect a curved line on rosettes or sharply lifted vertically for domes and bulbs. Fingers should be piped with the base of the tube in contact with the tray and thickness adjusted with pressure on the bag.
They should be drawn across the tray until desired length is made. Cut-off appears best when pressure is gradually released and meringue drawn back over prior piping. Tray cut-offs are not recommended because this leaves points that are readily damaged or rapidly brown during the baking process. Correct size and spacing is essential because piping too close causes poor drying, potential for joining and inferior appearance. Piping to distant will cause excessive tray use, extra tray handling and drying requirements. Further it may cause edge browning due to rapid heat transfer during initial drying.
Tips of piping nozzles must be kept clean to ensure a smooth crisp line. Avoid dry edges because this can cause produce distortion and loss of general appearance. Large piping bags are more commonly used for convenience and are generally half split to become more manageable. Care must be observed at all times during piping of meringue goods because considerable customer appeal is achieved due to interest in clarity of shape and style. Effects of stand-by on product Piped meringue has excellent tolerance to extended periods of standby prior to drying if held in low humidity bakery environments. Formulae low in sugar ratio may require more prompt drying then that of high sugar ratio formulae.
This is because in low sugar ratio formulae contained moisture can continue to dissolve sugar crystal and cause seepage. Insect and pests appear to be a problem because of attraction to meringues causes them to become stuck. After drying of produce, total removal is difficult without damage to the item. Trying to remove insects prior to drying can likewise present problems due to produce damage.
Low humidity can cause problems in that produce moisture is taken into the environment and can cause sugar graining on the outer surface of the item. High humidity can also cause problems in that sugar dissolving can be continued and discoloration of the outer surface due to seepage of colour from decoration materials. Standby periods must be in clean, draught free conditions to reduce the possibility of produce contamination or distortion to shape. Baking / Drying Requirements wide range of conditions may be required due to the varied range of meringue formulae. For example, near equal ratio of egg albumen and sugar may require a high flash heat to just colour but not set a dessert meringue. High sugar ratio formulae will only require a short period of drying due to the rapid release of moisture from the egg albumen.
In general, dampers must be kept in oven, oven temperature must be held below the caramelization point of sugar. Drying times will differ according to the preferred product qualities. Packaging meringue goods must be well dried to reduce potential effects of held moisture on sugar. Soft marshmallow type meringue may only require set and a degree of rigidity. Product faults Considerable potential produce faults have been drawn to your attention in the above notes.
You are required to read through these notes and form a list of produce faults. Further knowledge can be obtained by reading a subject reference text. Activity Produce a meringue using the cold method of boiled method. Pipe a variety of shapes to be dried. Group Grams Ingredient Method 1 200200 Egg white Castor sugar Whisk to a light foam on high speed 2 4001 drop Castor sugar Citric acid Add slowly and continue to whisk until a firm meringue is obtained 800 Total Weight Cake Sponge Making Sponges have been a standard product made by pastry cooks for a number of years. They are best described as a light, soft cake which is the result of whisking eggs and sugar with the addition of soft flour.
During this module we will focus on two types of sponge making: Conventional Stabilised The main ingredients used for both are: eggs, sugar and soft flour. The conventional sponge ratio of 2: 1: 1 is a basic egg sponge i. e. 2 parts egg, 1 part sugar, 1 part flour. This recipe would need no baking powder. When you change the ratio – reduce the egg content, you must add moisture and baking powder to compensate for the aerating and moistening properties of the egg.
The light texture is obtained by whisking the eggs and sugar together on a high speed, with flour carefully folded in last. A small percentage of baking powder is sometimes added, also melted butter or margarine, although not essential. The sponge is known as conventional or traditional sponge. The more widely used method in industry is the stabilized or emulsified sponge. This differs greatly in mixing technique and handling properties.
Emulsified / Stabilised sponge An all-in method is used with the addition in the recipe of a stabilizer or emulsifier. Unlike the conventional sponge this sponge can be made and stored in the refrigerator then cooked when needed, i. e. the next day. Ingredients in sponge makingFlourSoft flour is best used; hi-ratio, chlorinated flour is most commonly used. Occasionally a percentage of this may be replaced by baker’s flour or corn flour for specific results.
Sugar Castor sugar is best used for its fine grain, which helps in mechanical aeration when whisked. It also dissolves rapidly in short mixing cycles. Eggs Fresh eggs are generally used to give best results in a conventional sponge. Egg pulp is used mainly for stabilized sponges. Baking powder This is used for additional aeration, its effects are for opening the texture of the sponge batter and provided crust colour. Sieve with flour.
Glycerine Improves shelf life of sponges, cakes, etc. attracts moisture therefore keeping the sponges etc, ‘fresh’. Milk powder Skim or full cream can be used, provides crust colour, additional flavour, should be sieved along with flour and baking powder. Emulsifiers / stabilisers These come in powder or paste form and are used to combine ingredients, i.
e. water and eggs, to a stable form. Activity Weigh, assemble and mix two sponge batters from the following recipes. Preparation It is necessary to have all trays, tines, etc ready for depositing of mixed sponge.
Delays following mixing can cause premature reaction to baking powder, particularly in hot weather. Stability can be lost due to delay in processing. Prepare 6 x 17. 5 cm sponge pans, to be checked for absolute cleanliness and then greased.
Grease to be applied with a soft brush in a flowing motion to ensure complete and even coverage of the inside surface of tines. The importance of fat coating is to allow for even expansion in oven and complete release from tins when baked. Recipe Conventional sponge Group Grams Ingredient Method 1 720360 Shell Egg Castor Sugar Aerate egg and sugar to peak consistency 2 360 Soft Flour Sieve the flour and fold in by hand until clear Note: Avoid over mixing when flour is added Caution: Remove whisk from mixing bowl and clean sponge from wires using fingers. Do not bank whisk on bowl as it may damage wiring. Processing Using a clean scale plate place greased sponge tins on scales with appropriate weights and deposit batter by hand, placing carefully into tins.
Even the sponge out by spinning or shaking into place. Do not bang tin on table or tray, handle carefully. When sponges have been weighed and evened out, place into oven at 190 oC for 15-20 minutes. When baked, turn out onto cooling wires covered with a clean cloth. After five minutes, turn sponge over to avoid sweating.
Emulsified sponge, all-in method The use of stabilizing / emulsifying agents allows the normally incompatible ingredients to combine and aerate into a stable, air retaining structure. The advantages of this method Lower ingredient cost, e. g. some of the egg replaced by water Less hands-on skill required Time saving (mixing times shorter) More tolerant to handling / depositing and spreading Batter has longer floor time Baked sheets are less likely to crack, e. g. Swiss roll, etc.
Due to the high ration of liquids, finely milled flour is more suitable for this type of sponge. Smaller grains present a greater surface area to the liquids, thus allowing for greater absorption. Sponge Emulsifiers / Stabilisers Sponge emulsifier’s / stabilizers are almost a necessity today in most bakeries for the production of aerated sponge. The action of the emulsifier is to enable the two normally incompatible substances, fat (in the egg yolk), and water to combine to form an ’emulsion’. The action of the emulsifier is further assisted in the beating process which reduces the particles of egg to the same size as those of water, as a result of which they remain more evenly distributed with them. When a perfect emulsion is obtained no separation takes place and in order to produce such emulsions a third substance known as a ‘stabilizer’ is required.
The first type of machine to be used to produce a sponge batter using an emulsifier was called a Morton Air Whish which aerated all the egg / sugar with a small quantity of emulsifier / stabilizer . Later this was adapted to include all the ingredients for sponge making, i. e. flour, egg, sugar, water, milk powder, baking powder and emulsifier/ stabilizer. Most sponge emulsifier / stabilizers are made from a base of Lecithin and Lac to Albumen.
A ‘stabilizer’ when added allows the product to retain moisture for a much longer period. It is essential at all times to use a fat free mixing bowl when making sponges as the presence of fat could harm the volume of sponges. Using a stabilizer in sponge making cuts down the quantity of eggs as a percentage of these may be replaced by water. In other words the stabilizer aerates the egg and water to stand up where water whisked on its own does nothing. Emulsified sponge mixing Group Grams % Ingredient Method 1 42027060405005001545 845412810010039 EggsWaterGlycerineGel Stabiliser Hi Ratio Flour Castor Sugar Baking Powder Skim Milk Powder Place liquids in a mixing bowl. Add all dry ingredients and blend on low speed.
Aerate on 3 rd speed for 5 minutes. Aerate on 2 nd speed for 3 minutes. 1850 Total WeightProcessingFollow the directions for the previous recipe. You will note that the sponge batter is much smoother in texture and less likely to collapse during handling. Finishing of sponge rounds selection of each type of sponge is to be simply filled and decorated.
These can be finished using a variety of the following: Jam filled Cream filled (fresh or imitation cream) Jam and cream Fudge iced and filled Dusted with icing sugar and filled Fondant iced and filled You can use the following as a guide to finishing: Decoration of sponges: 1 butterfly sponge 1 feathered sponge Requirements: Imitation cream, beaten to piping consistency Jam bag with pipe able jam using fine tube Pink fondant, tempered 37-38 oC Contrast chocolate fondant for feathering Icing sugar for dusting Activity 1. Split sponge near top 2. Divide top in half 3. Pipe spiral jam onto base 4. Pipe cream over base, building up on two opposite sides 5. Place divided top of sponge back on top of cake and shape like wings of a butterfly 6.
Dust top with icing sugar 7. Pipe spiral rope of cream down centre where wings join. 8. Decorate with cut cherries Feathered Fondant Sponge There are three methods for filling and icing sponge. 1. Split and cream sponge.
Replace top and proceed to ice. 2. Split and cream base. Ice top before replacing onto cream base. 3. Ice complete sponge and cut and cream when icing has set.
Piping bags of contrast fondant must be prepared before actual icing starts. Carefully spread fondant onto top surface of sponge to cover with an even coating. Do not spread over edge as crumbs may be picked up and spread onto icing. Do not allow fondant to run off edges of surface. As soon as this is completed, pipe thin lines of contrast and feather with skewer as demonstrated. Activity Evaluation of products Check a sample of baked sponge from each mix and note any variations in volume, skin colour, evenness of colour, surface bubbles or blisters.
Compare softness to touch of each type. Cut one sample of sponge, noting variations in: Cell size Crumb softness / firmness Crumb colour Aroma and taste of crumb Answer the following questions: 1. What is the aeration method used in ‘traditional’s sponge? 2. Name the aeration method used in emulsified sponge. 3.
What is the purpose of using an emulsifier / stabilizer? 4. Why is the shelf life of sponge shorter than that of a ‘cake’ containing fat? 5. Why do sponge products normally stale quickly? 6. What would be the possible result if ‘strong’ flour was used in a sponge mix? 7. Why is it necessary to remove baked sponge from tins or trays as soon as they are removed from the oven? 8. What is the difference between fresh cream, and imitation cream? Cleaning Apply appropriate equipment, utensils and work area cleaning routines.
Swiss Rolls Swiss rolls are emulsified sponges. Activity Possible practical activity The production of Chocolate sponge rounds and rolls, using cocoa powder and chocolate flavour / colour emulsions, added to a basic emulsified sponge formula. The production technique for the sponge rounds is identical to that for plain sponge rounds, the only variation being the batter colour. There may be some variation n the end-product crumb softness. Cocoa tends to dry out the crumb a little, whilst the emulsion, due to its composition, tends to create a moister crumb. Addition of cocoa powder to cake batters Cocoa powder Cocoa is added to many recipes to make a chocolate variety of the same product.
All cocoa powders contain cocoa butter and an average would be 25%, Cocoa powder usually replaces flour in such recipes and therefore the balance of the recipe is affected. For example, in a recipe with 1 000 grams for flour, after substitution there would be 960 grams of flour and 40 grams of cocoa powder. Since cocoa powder has greater water absorbing powder than flour, there would now have to be an increase in the milk / water content by an amount equal to the cocoa powder used. Since the milk content has now been increased, there may also be a need to increase the baking powder slightly to achieve the same degree of aeration. Colour of chocolate cakes The natural colour of chocolate is influenced by the acidity or alkalinity of the batter, the former giving a greyish colour, whilst an alkaline one enhances the attractive rich chocolate colour. It is not unusual therefore to add a slight excess of bicarbonate of soda to achieve this purpose.
Chocolate cakes which lack depth of colour can usually be improved by the addition of some red colour with the chocolate. Emulsions and pastes Modern practice requires a less complex procedure than the use of cocoa powder, so chocolate pastes or emulsions are used a lot. They are usually based on caramel and glycerine, with the addition of chocolate extract. Advantages of this type of flavour / colour Easier incorporation into the mix, in the liquid phase Consistency of colour (cocoa powders vary) A more intense flavour Enhanced keeping quality of products (softening effect of glycerine) Swiss Roll Product identification A thin sheet of soft sponge is spread with an appropriate filling for example, jam, cream, fruit spread, butter cream, fresh or imitation cream. The sheet is then rolled into a tight roll which has no gaps between the layers and it should be round, not oval or misshapen.
The role is then rolled securely in cloth or paper sheet and allowed to firmly set before cutting and presentation. Lengths of roll are usually cut into appropriate sized pieces and may be sold either in that state or be decorated in various ways. Advantages of the use of emulsified sponge for Swiss rolls: Less prone to cracking Finer texture Longer shelf life Softer eating qualityActivityWhite and chocolate roll Emulsified sponge Group Grams Ingredients Method 1 420270404560500155005 mrs Egg pulpWaterEmulsifier / StabiliserS kim Milk PowderGlycerineHi Ratio Cake Flour Baking Powder Castor sugar Vanilla Essence Place liquids in mixing bowl, sieve dry ingredients and add. Whisk on low speed for 1 minutes.
Whisk for 5 minutes on top speed, and a further 3 minutes on low speed. 1855 Total Weight Weigh and mix ingredients to recipe instruction. Tray Preparation Do this while the batter is mixing. Prepare two standard baking trays Ensure that the tray is flat and not prone to buckling in the heat during baking When using greaseproof paper, it may be necessary to grease side edges of trays due to smaller size of paper If using white newsprint, paper may be cut to size to cover tray and come up to sides and allow for turn up on open end Now that the sponge is mixed, remove from machine, remove and clean the whisk, then proceed as follows: 1. Scale 900 g sponge onto one tray and spread evenly using minimum number of strokes of palette knife. 2.
It is important that sponge is spread to an even thickness to avoid over or under baked parts of the sheet. 3. End paper should be carefully folded up and pressed down to prevent run off. 4. Balance of sponge to be coloured chocolate by the addition of.