Amanda Libbie Kelebit
Lecturer Miss Indra Mohini
3rd August 2009
Men and Women Serving Together in Military Units:
Men and women should not serving together in military units
Physical differences, leadership and sexual assault are the factors contribute to the issue regarding men and women serving together in military units. The statement regarding men and women serving together in military units is meant that two different entities work as one in armed forces. The main point at the mean time is about the factors of men and women involve together in military units. Some would support this statement; some would rather on the opposition side. Men and women were classified as a group called gender. Men are subjected as masculine entities whereas women are subjected as feminine entities.
According to Wikipedia, the word gender comes from Middle English word “gendre” which means ‘kind’, ‘type’ or ‘sort’. It comprises that there is a range of differences between men and women, extending from the biological to the social level. As a verb, it means breed in the King James Bible: 1616 “Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind” – Leviticus 19:19. But in the first edition of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED1, Volume 4, 1900) notes the original meaning of gender as ‘kind’ had already become obsolete. So, it means that men and women are no longer two different entities but more as same level of human being. So, what does this related to military units? Military units are easily defined as involvement of men or women or both in the combat and armed forces during preparatory or war time. It implicate that both men and women have the freedom in choosing themselves whether serving together in military units is the right choice or not.
Sexual harassment is any kind of sexual behavior that is unwelcome and/ or inappropriate for the work place. (http; // web pg 1) There are four examples of sexual harassment: making sexual advances, making solicitations, making sexual requests, and making demands for sexual compliance. This includes verbal harassment and visual harassment such as posters, cartoons, and drawings. Sexual harassment ...
Furthermore, military is related with war and war is related with renaissance. According to Castiglione, being too tall or too short can hinder the development of a man’s athletic skills (p. 34).
The Renaissance man is also literally well-rounded: he should be agile and strong, with “shapely” limbs (Castiglione, p. 30, line 26).
Renaissance women must also fulfil specific requirements. Though they should develop their bodies as well as their minds, Renaissance women should not undertake strenuous activities, as even dancing too energetically can impede her “womanly sweetness,” (Castiglione, p. 35, line 192).
Neither men nor women should take sport–or anything else–too seriously because being well-rounded is more important than being a specialist. In simpler term, Castiglione stated that men and women have his or her own roles in the world.
The main question is that whether men and women that have physical differences can serve together in military units. As a general, men have better physical strength compared to women, whereas women are prone to injury. “Army doctors found that eight times as many women as men were being discharged during basic training […]. Differences in strength, bone mass, stride length and lower body bone structure caused women to suffer disproportionately from Achilles tendon problems, knee, back and leg pain, and fractures of the tibia, foot, and hip.” (Qtd. in Army- GIBT 4).
Prof. Charles Moskos, a respected military sociologist and member of the Congressional Commission, wrote in the panel’s Final Report:
“I am particularly perturbed by the high physical injury rate of women trainees compared to men. Likewise, I am put off by the double-talk in training standards that often obscures physical strength differences between men and women. The extraordinarily high dropout rate of women in IET cannot be overlooked (nor should the fact that females are more than twice as likely to be non-deployable than are male service members).
Women are still treated differently in everyday life in many aspects such as physical strength, emotions and stamina. Women’s rights activists have helped throughout the years to gain equality and evidence shows that there are no differences between both sexes (as cited in Kirkwood 2013) claims "the profound physiological differences between the sexes proved that to be false, and it also showed ...
The bottom line must be what improves military readiness.” (2).
Apart from that, women were plainly viewed to be less productive than men in most situations especially in military units. “This might have been due to lack of physical strength, lack of initiative, family responsibilities, more sick days, etc., and jobs were correspondingly divided into those suitable for each sex, such as light work for women and heavy for men.” (T. Petersen, V. Snartland and E.M.M. Milgrom 16)
But this does not mean that women cannot serve in military, it just that the field that these women serve maybe not as broad as men in military units. “[E]stablished boundaries: “Women may be assigned to all units except those with a high probability of engaging in ground combat, direct exposure to enemy fire, or direct physical contact with the enemy.” (Vogel).
Women should be allowed to play a full role in military units in spite of being discriminate by the world view. “The erasure of distinctions between the sexes is not only the most striking issue of our time, it may be the most profound the race has ever confronted.” (U.S. News and World Report).
In April 1993, President Clinton’s newly appointed Secretary of Defense, Les Aspin, issued an order. It contained new historic words. “The services shall permit women to compete for assignments in aircraft, including aircraft engaged in combat missions.” (Vogel).
On the other hand, a leadership factor is a vital role in military units. So, how do men and women react in this significant role? Well, different gender of men and women do have their own role to play. Nevertheless, according to Leadership Effectiveness and Gender, there is still a substantial absence in top military leadership by female officers. “Leadership is —the process of influencing an organized group toward accomplishing its goals. –Roach & Behling, 1984”. (Qtd. in Gedney 7).
Women and Men Communicate Differently The process of neo-Liberal dogmas, such as celebration of diversity and elimination of sexism, being showed up peoples throats, brought about a situation, when employment policies correspond less and less to the objective reality of interaction between genders at workplace. Men and women are expected to execute their professional duties with the same ...
So as long as the person would strive for the target in during mission in military units, he or she is regard as a leader. However, a leader should have these kind of characteristics in her or in him; which is self-reliant, independent, assertive, risk taker, dominant, ambitious, and self-sufficient. “Research has demonstrated that there are far more similarities than differences in the leadership behaviors of women and men, and that they are equally effective.” (10).
In his book, Women in the Military, Flirting with Disaster, Brian Mitchell talks about his findings regarding women and their attitudes towards military service. For instance, he wrote that,
Women are much more likely to list practical, selfish reasons for joining the services, such as education, travel, and money. Men tend to give other reasons for joining the military, such as patriotism or love of country, but these lofty sentiments usually hide other, less currently respectable reasons. Most are too embarrassed to confess that they derive a profound sense of personal importance from their role as protector. (27).
In other words, it is generally known that a man will be a better leader compared to woman. “Men are marked out from the moment of birth to rule or be ruled. –Aristotle”. (38) But this does not conclude that women cannot serve together with men in military units.
Another factor would be sexual assault toward women regarding the togetherness of both genders in military units. It is undeniable that involvement of women in military units would lead to fraternization, sexual harassment and sexual assault. “Studies show that sexual harassment is most common in non-traditional jobs with low numbers of women. In the military, barriers to assignability have lead to a quota system limiting the number of women at all levels including senior positions.” (Sagawa and Campbell 5).
According to the Israel News that was dated on 2nd Jul. 2009, “Women ought not to serve in the Israel Defense Forces, IDF Chief Rabbi Avichai Ronski said at a conference two weeks ago. […]Ronski also discussed the rabbinic prohibition against physical contact between unmarried men and women, noting that some religious women observed this prohibition while doing their army service, but others did not.”
(Or Thats Just What We Let Them Think) Call me Sybil. I have two personalities. One is the helpless, quivering mass that men like to call vulnerable and female and the other is pure Paige. The latter is in your face, pull the bootstraps up and take the bull by the horns. This duality has occurred by necessity, not by choice. For years men have been allowed to think that they are the dominant ...
Still, women is prevented from involve with men in military units due to some reasons regarding sexual assault. But there are some reasons why women are promoted in military units. From the Women in Combat: A Culture Issues? by Lieutenant Colonel H. Baker II, it stated that:
According to the study, “The fear of unsubstantiated or false sexual harassment charges was prevalent among men surveyed.” RAND also reported that many men felt that there was a double standard in their unit due to “different physical standards” and “a perceived unwillingness of male supervisors to demand as much of women as they do of men.” On the other hand, RAND found some evidence that women may actually be promoting a “more pleasant work environment” by reducing the “inclination of some of the men to become drunk and disorderly in the process of ‘blowing off steam.”
Another article regarding woman in combat is “Women should not serve in military combat.” by Mrs. P. Schlafly, a national leader of the conservative movement. She said that, “Women serve our country admirably, both on the home front and in many positions in the U.S. Armed Forces. But they should not be assigned to military combat or to “combat support” areas where they have the “inherent risk of capture.””.
In brief, the practising of men and women serving together in military units is still going on in the armed forces in the world. Of course, men and women are freely to choose whether they want to be peace-makers or not when involve themselves in military units. The only reasons is that whether these both gender can communicate well and co-operate in military combat by comprising the factors in which decide whether or not, men and women can serve together in military units. These factors are physical differences, leadership factors and sexual assault. As long as the person is physically and mentally able to do his or her job, it would be great if he or she can protect the nation by serve for national defence. But another thinker would said that “war is no place for women”, either directly or in-directly involve in the armed forces. It is clear that both men and women can serve in military units depends on the strength, discipline and thought of that individual. On the contrary, the fact that men and women serving together in military units is not acceptable due to factors of physical differences, leadership factors and sexual assault.
Should Women Participate in Military Combat? Boykin, J. (2013). Women in combat a dangerous experiment. CNN. Retrieved from http://edition. cnn. com/2013/01/25/opinion/boykin-women-in-combat Boykin explains combats including both sexes will not only bring a huge burden on combat officers but also bring sexual tension between both male and female in a dangerous environment. The author however ...
Castiglione. Renaissance man. 3rd Aug. 2009. .
“Gender”. 3rd Jul. 2009.
King James Bible: Leviticus 19:19. 3rd Jul. 2009.
Oxford English Dictionary (OED1, Volume 4, 1900).
3rd Jul. 2009.
Articles and Books (PDF FILES)
Anshel Pfeffer. “IDF chief rabbi says women shouldn’t serve” Israel News dated 2nd Jul. 2009. 1st Aug. 2009.
C.R. Gedney. Leadership Effectiveness and Gender. Air University, April 1999. PDF File.
26th Jul. 2009. /awc/awcgate/acsc/99-061.pdf>
Leroy E. Vogel. Women In Combat: Exploring some issues. PDF File. 26th Jul. 2009.
Lieutenant Colonel H. Baker II. Women in Combat: A Culture Issues? USAWC Strategy
Research Project, 15th Mac 2006. PDF File. 28th Jul. 2009.
P. Schlafly. “Women should not serve in military combat.” 1st Aug 2009.
Secretary of the Army. Army Gender- Integrated Basic Training (GIBT) – Summary of
Relevant Findings and Recommendations: 1993-2002. PDF File. 26th Jul. 2009.
S. Sagawa and N.D. Campbell. Women in Combat. October 30, 1992. PDF File. 26th Jul. 2009.
Term Paper # 94909. “The Renaissance Man and Woman” – 1,162 words ( 4 pages),
2 sources, MLA, 2007. 1st Aug. 2009.
T. Petersen, V. Snartland and E.M.M. Milgrom. “Are female workers less productive than
male workers?” – Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 25 (2007) 13–37.
PDF File. 26th Jul. 2009.