Mexico has many different climates, Mexico has deserts and tropical rainforests almost neighboring each other. Mexico also has sun scorched savannahs, mile high table lands, dry and arid canyons, winding jungle rivers, orchids filled with bromeliads, plains of cacti, meadows of alpine flowers, lush valleys rich with mangoes, papaya, melons, and sugarcane. Although they provide a lot of crops and fruit, most of Mexico is desert which makes farming difficult. Only a little over ten percent of Mexico’s land is actually good land for farming. Most of this ten percent comes from the Yucatan Peninsula because this is where almost all of Mexico’s plains come from. Only fifteen percent of Mexico is actually flat. Nearly three fourths of the country is above an elevation of 2,000 feet. Three almost impenetrable mountain ranges divide the country. In the west there is the Sierra Madre Occidental, Sonora lies in the North Central Plains of Mexico and in the east there is the Sierra Madre de Ser. These three mountain ranges create a Y-shape through the country. The nature of Mexico’s land does not make it easy to overcome, although the landscape is extraordinary and beautiful in many ways, it is also benign and forbidding. It is still unknown why man came to such a harsh landscape to conquer in the first place (Johnson 25; Gritzer 21).
The rich still ruled Mexico, so little was done to help the conditions for the common people after they got independence from Spain. Porfirio Diaz was elected president in 1876 and remained president until 1910. During his time as president foreign investment grew and a thriving middle class emerged. Things were not all good in Mexico during Diaz’s presidency though, under Diaz peasants and workers still lacked basic human rights (Irizarry 42; 53).
The Great Divide University of California-Berkley geographer and author Michael Johns argues in his novel, The City of Mexico in the Age of Diaz, that the central Zocalo of Mexico City does more than geographically segregate the East from the West, but Mexico's national mentality as well. During the years of Diaz's democratic facade, the upper classes thrived upon plantation exports, feudalist ...
This led to the Mexican Revolution of 1910 to 1920. During the Mexican Revolution the sufferings of the poor became even worse and lasted until the early 1930’s which is when socialist values became national policy. Mexicans have credited the origins of their government to this revolution. (Irizarry 43; Internet Source 5)
Mexico’s constitution gives the citizens of Mexico many rights, some of these are the right to organize, eight hour work day, protection of women and minors in the workplace, a minimum wage which is sufficient enough to live off of, equal pay for equal work no matter what the person’s gender or race is and it gives all Mexicans over the age of eighteen the right to vote. Although the constitution gave people many rights it did leave a lot of rights to the government and restricted some rights. One of the restrictions was on religion. This comes as no surprise considering the Spaniards forced religion on them. Religious groups cannot participate in any kind of political activity and are excluded from public education. They are also not allowed to conduct service outside of church or wear clerical dress in public. Some rights the government has is the national ownership of natural resources and has the right to expropriate private property in public interest and to redistribute land (Internet Source 6; 5; Camp 449).
Mexico’s government is a federal republic. Mexico has thirty-one states and one federal district. Every state has an elected governor and legislature. The federal district is governed by the elected mayor of Mexico City. Much like the United States, Mexico is divided into three separate branches of government; executive, legislature and judicial branches.
The executive branch of government is the decision making branch. The executive branch establishes government policies, proposes laws and controls the distribution of federal tax revenues. They can also veto bills passed by the legislative branch either as a whole or by item. The executive branch is headed by the president. The president of Mexico is elected to a six year term and can only serve one term. If the president does not finish the term, the legislature chooses a temporary president to serve until special or regular election is held. The president has a lot of influence over the government. All major political figures in the executive branch depend directly on the president. The president is the one who introduces pieces of legislation. Presidents often use constitutional amendments to support government policies. Only the president can officially pass a law as a law. Similar to the United States, the president appoints a cabinet that directs government operations. Some important cabinet members are the secretary of government and the secretary of finance and public credit (Camp 449; Internet Source 6).
Nicaragua Most Nicaraguans are mestizos. That is that they have white and Indian ancestors. There way of life is somewhat similar to that of Spanish Americans in other Central American countries. Most people belong to the Roman Catholic Church and speak Spanish. Most of Nicaragua's people are poor farmers. Many of those in the Pacific Region are peasants who work on their own farms, cooperatives, ...
Since the late 1920’s one political party has dominated Mexican politics. The party is the PRI, which stands for Institutional Party of the Revolution (Internet Source 5).
The PRI was founded in 1929 and has been in power since it was founded (Irizarry 43).
The PRI is often called the “official” party of Mexico because of how it has dominated Mexican politics. Since the 1920’s Mexico’s politics have went along with corporatist ideals as a way to contain social conflicts. The corporatist system worked for many years, but during the financial crisis of the 1980’s the corporatist system of government began to breakdown. Due to the corporatist government beginning to fail, the PRI struggled as well. In 1994 the PRI was nearly defeated, but managed to pull out a victory because of the assassination of the primary candidate for the opposing political party. In the mid 1990s was said to be in an advanced state of decay (Internet Source 5) During the elections of 2000 the unbelievable happened. Mexico had elected a candidate who was not a member of the PRI. This was the first time that a PRI member was not president since the 1920s. Mexico also managed to peacefully change political parties in a peaceful way. This was the first time that had happened in the nation’s history. (Gritzer 91)
History of the Reform Party In 1992, with Americans disappointed in the policy options and candidate choices offered by the two traditional parties, a self-made Texas billionaire named Ross Perot spent over $60, 000, 000 of his own money to run for President as an independent. Much of that money was spent by his organization, "United We Stand America," to get Perot's name on the ballots in all 50 ...