Modernization theory In this paper I want to discuss my attitude to modernization theory. I will compare it with the dependency theory. This comparison will be used as obvious example of my opinion. As for the beginning I want to clarify the meanings and historical origin of modernization and dependency theories. Modernization theory is a socio-economic theory, which received wide popularity in 1950s years, and as well as dependency theory is a part of the wider theme of theories in sociology, known as sociocultural revolution. It is also known (or being compassed within) development theory. The main idea of the modernization theory is based on the positive role of developed world in modernizing and facilitating sustainable development in underdeveloped nations.
During the 1950s, its initial focus was placed on the mass media as a modernizing force in the Underdeveloped World. Economically, the mass media was viewed as integral to the diffusion of modern forms of social organizations and technology over traditional economies, with literacy playing an especial cultural role in this. Modernization theorists also maintained that this would serve to promote a diffusion of liberal-democratic political ideals within less developed countries. (Modernization theory) Several branches of this theory successfully exists nowadays. They are applied in the situations when it is necessary to support through the acculturation of the modern policies and values of the Western world economic, political, cultural and demographical development of the countries of the third and second world. Theories of modernization, developed and popularized in 1950s-1690s, combined practical experiences and empirical research from the decolonization era with theories of sociocultural evolution. The theory of modetnization states: Western world countries are the most developed, and rest of the world (mostly former colonies) are on the earlier stages of development, and will eventually reach the same level as the Western world Development stages go from the traditional societies to developed ones Third World countries have fallen behind with their social progress and need to be directed on their way to becoming more advanced. (Modernization theory) Dependency theory is opposed to the modernization theory and states that wealthy countries need a peripheral group of poorer nation in order to stay wealthy.
ROSTOV STATE UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMICS INTERNATIONAL TOURISM, PROSPECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT Nowadays, international tourism is the biggest and fastest developing industry in the world... Tourism has been identified by more than half of the world's poorest countries as an effective mean taking part in the global economy and reduce poverty. The issue includes statistical investigations and prospects of ...
Immanuel Wallerstein developed one of the earliest and most critical branches of dependency theory. He stated that ‘periphery’ (the semi-periphery and periphery, both between and within countries) localities are, in fact, exploited and kept in a state of backwardness by the developed core; a core which profits from the peripheries’ cheap, unskilled labour and raw materials (i.e. from those nations’ lack of a skilled workforce and industries that can process raw materials locally).
(Modernization theory) Dependency theory was presented in 1950s and stated: Poor nations provide natural resources, cheap labor, a destination for obsolete technology, and markets to the wealthy nations, without which they could not have the standard of living they enjoy. First World nations actively, but not necessarily consciously, perpetuate a state of dependency through various policies and initiatives. This state of dependency is multifaceted, involving economics, media control, politics, banking and finance, education, sport and all aspects of human resource development.
Any attempt by the dependent nations to resist the influences of dependency will result in economic sanctions and/or military invasion and control. This is very rare, however, and dependency is enforced far more by the wealthy nations setting the rules of international trade and commerce. (Dependency theory) As you see, dependency theory is based on the colonialist approach to second and third world countries. The methods and ideas if dependency theory is pretty simple and clear: keep in awe, use as you wish, punish brutally in case of insubordination. While modernization theory was developed from classical social evolutionism theories and accentuate the modernization factor, dependency theory was based on the rule Wealth of rich countries tended to increase while the wealth of poor nation decreased Modernization theory states Many societies are simply trying (or need to) emulate the most successful societies and cultures. It is possible to do so, thus supporting the concepts of social engineering and that the developed countries can and should help those less developed, directly or indirectly.
Explain how theories, such as Dependency Theory and World Systems Theory, can contribute to an understanding of changing patterns of global power. (15) Dependency theory was developed by a man named A.G. Frank. He stated that there is both massive economic disparity in the world and that there is a developed economic core and an underdeveloped core in the world. The developed areas maintain their ...
(Modernization theory) Dependency theory, on other hand, proposed to use such tools of expansion as import limitations, forbidding foreign investment, nationalization and promotion of domestic industry. As for me dependency theory is purealy barbaric and reamain me some remnant of feudal era. To accept such theories as a plan of social development means undersigning for own inconsistency to normal social democratic development. But dependancy theorists argues against modernization theory The problems of underdevelopment are not internal to Third World countries but are determined by external factors and the way former colonies were integrated into the world economy. It forcefully stated that the problems of the underdeveloped world are political rather than the result of the lack of information. What kept Third World countries underdeveloped are social and economic factors, namely the dominated position that those countries have in the global order. Underdevelopment is the flip side and the consequence of the development of the Western world.
The latter concentrated economic power and political decisions that maintained underdevelopment and dependency. Third world countries are politically and culturally dependent on the West, particularly on the United States. (The Communication Initiative – Dependency Theory) I must admit that to som points such argumentation is reasonable but dependency theorists are inclined to exaggerate weaknesses of modernization theory. For example Modernization theories was driven by behaviorist, positivist and empiricist approaches in the mold of the scientific model that prevailed in U.S. universities and research centers. (The Communication Initiative – Dependency Theory) I accept that moderniztion theory is not perfect and that it cannot work wonders but as for me modernizeted way of development is more than preferable. Yes, moderniztion theory may be at some point too etnocentric, one-sided and concentrated on the Western world and culture.
In the Dystopian fiction of Huxley and Orwell, language is a central function in their critique of utopias: societies formed in subservience to ideology. As ideas have been seen to usurp reality, then language is seen to overcome thought. Thus Dystopian fiction also articulates a very contemporary fear (which developed into Postmodernism) that language, although the very core structure of ...
But, as a purely theoretical approach to global economics dependancy theory still exists, all attempts to use it or to find a practical solution within its framework have failed. Mostly because of: Corruption. State-owned industries tend to have a much higher rate of corruption than privately owned companies. Lack of competition. By subsidizing in-country industries and preventing outside imports, these companies have no incentive to improve their products, to try and become more efficient in their processes, to please customers, or to research new innovations. (Dependency theory) To understand full meanings and goals of modernization and dependency theories implies meticulous reconsideration of social life, policy, etc., during past few past centuries.
The globalization of the market society at the climax of the large systemic contradiction and shifts in power among the Triad have exceeded the grasp of contemporary observers of the world situation. At the same time, along with these developments the more gradual structural changes in the system of development in the postwar era also require a reexamination. At the point of comparison dependency and modernization theories three challenging phenomena attract attention: (1) the continued marginalization of the bulk of what was once called the “Third World”; (2) the backwards development, in civilizational terms, of the “Fourth World”; and (3) the rising parts of the semiperiphery, from which already at least two states (South Korea, Taiwan) are on the verge of acquiring characteristics of core societies. (Beyond Dependency vs. Modernization Theory: Processes of Differentiation in the World Society and Their Explanation) I do not claim that I made meticulous reconsideration all aforementioned phenomena but I am able to make some conclusions after reviewing some facts. I understand that dependency theory and modernization theories influence world-system approach because the antipodal currents of development theory can explain only one aspect of the phenomenon in each case. Dr.
Social action theories are known as micro theories which take a bottom-up approach to studying society; they look at how individuals within society interact with each other. There are many forms of social action theories, the main ones being symbolic interactionism, phenomenology and ethnomethodology. They are all based on the work of Max Weber, a sociologist, who acknowledged that structural ...
V. Bornschier state The dependency-world systems approach brings forth arguments that can explain the continued marginalization, but it cannot explain the backwards development of societies that are not even the most dependent, nor can it explain the ascent to the core of other societies. Modernization theories likewise deny with two of the three phenomena in question. The competition in the global market for state-generated order and protection order is the starting point for the new theory proposed in this project. On the one hand, the work concentrates on a revision of development theory; on the other hand, it focuses on empirical tests, particularly the exceptional cases (e.g., Malaysia).
Of course, in the light of spreading globalization dependency theory may transform in something more acceptable and alluring but even then I will not support it. Why? Because I know what constitutes the theoretical basis of dependency theory.
I choose the way of mutually beneficial collaboration other than colonialism. I hope that modernization theory will find the sphere of realization and it will end the long-termed debates around this theory. Bibliography Prof. Dr. V. Bornschier (Project Leader), Prof. Dr.
B. Trezzini, Beyond Dependency vs. Modernization Theory: Processes of Differentiation in the World Society and Their Explanation, Universitat Zurich, 1. November 2005. Dependency theory, Modernization theory, The Communication Initiative – Dependency Theory, The Communication Initiative site, August 30, 2001. Scott, Catherine V. Gender and development: Rethinking modernization and dependency theory (Rienner Publishers, Boulder, 1995).
The Essay on Compare and contrast Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories of cognitive development in children
This essay will compare Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories of cognitive development in children. Also, show the differences between the two psychologist’s theories. Thus, by showing their similarities like in language and adaptation theories. Further, differences like Piaget’s theory on cognitive developmental stages and the schemas which are build to learn or accommodate new words or things. ...