Historians consider India’s modern age to have begun sometime between 1848 and 1885. The appointment in 1848 of Lord Dalhousie as Governor General of the East India Company rule in India set the stage for changes essential to a modern state. These included the consolidation and demarcation of sovereignty, the surveillance of the population, and the education of citizens. Technological changes—among them, railways, canals, and the telegraph—were introduced not long after their introduction in Europe. However, disaffection with the Company also grew during this time, and set off the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Fed by diverse resentments and perceptions, including invasive British-style social reforms, harsh land taxes, and summary treatment of some rich landowners and princes, the rebellion rocked many regions of northern and central India and shook the foundations of Company rule. Although the rebellion was suppressed by 1858, it led to the dissolution of the East India Company and to the direct administration of India by the British government. Proclaiming a unitary state and a gradual but limited British-style parliamentary system, the new rulers also protected princes and landed gentry as a feudal safeguard against future unrest. In the decades following, public life gradually emerged all over India, leading eventually to the founding of the Indian National Congress in 1885.
Jawaharlal Nehru became India’s first prime minister in 1947. Mahatma Gandhi led the independence movement.
The British East India Company was the main source of trade between the east and Britain for more that 200 years. I chose to do my research paper on the British east India Company. The British east India Company was the most important of the various East India companies; this company was a major force in the history of India for more than 200 years. Queen Elizabeth I granted the original charter ...
The rush of technology and the commercialisation of agriculture in the second half of the 19th century was marked by economic setbacks—many small farmers became dependent on the whims of far-away markets. There was an increase in the number of large-scale famines, and, despite the risks of infrastructure development borne by Indian taxpayers, little industrial employment was generated for Indians. There were also salutary effects: commercial cropping, especially in the newly canalled Punjab, led to increased food production for internal consumption. The railway network provided critical famine relief, notably reduced the cost of moving goods, and helped nascent Indian-owned industry. After World War I, in which some one million Indians served, a new period began. It was marked by British reforms but also repressive legislation, by more strident Indian calls for self-rule, and by the beginnings of a non-violent movement of non-cooperation, of which Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi would become the leader and enduring symbol. During the 1930s, slow legislative reform was enacted by the British; the Indian National Congress won victories in the resulting elections. The next decade was beset with crises: Indian participation in World War II, the Congress’s final push for non-cooperation, and an upsurge of Muslim nationalism. All were capped by the advent of independence in 1947, but tempered by the bloody partition of the subcontinent into two states: India and Pakistan.
Vital to India’s self-image as an independent nation was its constitution, completed in 1950, which put in place a sovereign, secular, and democratic republic. In the 60 years since, India has had a mixed bag of successes and failures. It has remained a democracy with civil liberties, an activist Supreme Court, and a largely independent press. Economic liberalisation, which was begun in the 1990s, has created a large urban middle class, transformed India into one of the world’s fastest-growing economies, and increased its geopolitical clout. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture. Yet, India has also been weighed down by seemingly unyielding poverty, both rural and urban; by religious and caste-related violence; by Maoist-inspired Naxalite insurgencies; and by separatism in Jammu and Kashmir. It has unresolved territorial disputes with China, which escalated into the Sino-Indian War of 1962; and with Pakistan, which flared into wars fought in 1947, 1965, 1971, and 1999. The India–Pakistan nuclear rivalry came to a head in 1998. India’s sustained democratic freedoms are unique among the world’s new nations; however, in spite of its recent economic successes, freedom from want for its disadvantaged population remains a goal yet to be achieved.
Indian women gaining economic independence What drives Indian woman towards picking up a job? Do women in India get sufficient support at home and at work to sustain their jobs? Does a job bring equal rewards to woman as it does to man? Do women themselves come in the way of pursuing their careers or does society? The CNN-IBN-CSDS-Indian Express State of the Nation Survey focuses the issue of ...
India after in independence Before independence our country was at the mercy of her foreign rulers. They did whatever they liked for the good of their own country. After independence much has been done to improve the condition of the masses. Some of the important achievements of free India made during the last fifty years are as follows.
In the economic field, unprecedented progress has been made. Our five year plans have been successfully completed. Many Multipurpose projects have been taken in hand. Bhakra Nagal, Hirakud and Damodur valley projects have been completed. Many new factories have been started. Sindri Fertilizers Factory, Haldia Fertilizer Complex, Barauni and Guna Fertilizer Factory etc., are producing chemical fertilizers. Important Steel plants are fulfilling our requirements of steel. The per capita income has been raised. Our exports have been increasing in different spheres. The difficult food problem has been solved. To-day there is enough food for all.
Power –generation has also been increased several folds. A net-work of ordinance factories has been established and most sophisticated weapons for the defense of the country are being produced. In 1989, India successfully fired Agni, a long range missile. Since then ‘Akash’ surface to air long range missile, ‘Trishul’, ‘Nag’ and recently ‘Prithivi’ surface to surface short range missile have been launched. This shows further advance in the growth of the country’s science and technology. Rapid advances have been made in the field of electronics and comprehensive program of computerization is also under way. Thus gradually, but steadily, we are achieving self-sufficiency and stability in the economic field.
Below is a free essay on “India” from Anti Essays, your source for free research papers, essays, and term paper examples. 1.What is the climate for doing business in India? Is it supportive of foreign investment? oThe climate for doing business in India is continuously evolving. Today, the Indian economy is characterized by a liberalized foreign investment and trade policy, the ...
Free India has also made rapid advance in the field of science and technology. Atomic energy has been successfully used for power generation. India successfully conducted under ground atomic tests for peaceful purposes. Now India is nuclear power nation. The launching of “Aryabhatta”, “Rohini”, “Apple” INSAT-1 and INSAT-1(D) satellites marks the entry of India in to the space age. Since then many more multi-purpose satellites have been sent in to outer space. India Space Organization had completed four launchers of the Satellite Launch Vehicle-3(SLV-3) for of Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicles (ASLV) and two developmental PSLV. With this India became the fifth nation in the world capable of launching 1000 kg satellite in its intended orbit. Now it is ready to enter the GSLV programme through which India will not only have vastly improved telecommunication capability, but also satellite monitoring capabilities which will be of great value of our security.
Revolutionary changes have also been brought about in the political field. Our country is now sovereign Democratic Republic. All citizens have equal rights in the eyes of law, irrespective of their caste, creed, sex and religion. To bring democracy to the villages, Panchayats have been established and Panchayati Raj has become a reality. The launching of the Jawahar Rozgar Yojna is another revolutionary step to improve the conditions of rural poor. There is a general awakening among the people. They have begun to understand their rights and duties. We may find men in the street discussing various political problems with great interest. Thus, we are enjoying the fruits of freedom. We may hold our heads high due to the success of foreign policy, which has raised the prestige of the country.
Achievements in the social sphere are also clearly visible. The Zamindari system has been abolished. The tiller of the land is now its owner. Untouchability is a legal offence today. To drive out the demon of drink from society, prohibition has been introduced. Socialistic pattern of society is the aim towards which our country is making rapid progress. To reduce the inequalities in the industrial field many industries have been nationalized. To bring about uniformity in weights and measures, the metric system has been introduced. Prostitution, in any form has been made legal offense. These achievements are of great social significance.
Social Issues A social issue (also called a social problem or a social ill) is an issue that relates to society’s perception of people’s personal lives. an issue that negatively affects a person’s state of being in a society. a condition that at least some people in a community view as being undesirable. common to all societies, and they often are latent results from efforts to deal ...
Social security schemes have been introduced in some big industrial towns. The government is busy in clearing slums and constructing new houses for the industrial workers and the weaker sections of society. Lakhs of refugees came to India first from Pakistan, then from Bangladesh, and more recently from Ceylon. But India has successfully solved the refugee problem. This is a mighty achievement. So it becomes clear that no aspect of life has been left untouched.
India has successfully followed the policy of noon alignment. As a result of India’s efforts, the non-alignment movement has become a force in the world affairs. India’s voice now carries weight in international forums. Important laurel won by India recently is the obtaining of the sole right for the exploration of a very large area of the Indian Ocean for its mineral wealth. Similarly, India has established its base in the Antarctica for exploration and research in the difficult region.
But this long list of free India’s achievements should not make us proud. We should not feel satisfied by looking at our achievements. We should keep in mind the problems which are yet to be solved. The masses of country are still poor and backward. Many social evils still prevail. Corruption is widespread. Terrorism is raising its ugly head in several arts of the country. The balance of payment position is difficult and threat sanctions are looming large.
To face various economic problems a comprehensive programme of economic reforms has been undertaken. Economic polices have been liberalized, a number of controls have been removed, and multinationals have now been allowed to operate freely in the country. Private enterprise has also been encouraged, and Indian capitalists have been invited on a large scale to set up industries in various field.
Above all the appeal of democracy has depended over the years. This style of governance has neatly fitted the lifestyle of a majority of Indians. Democracy now cuts across the parties, educational levels, classes, castes, religions, and gender and ethnics divisions. Indeed India democracy today despite all its institutional problems is stronger in the minds of people then it ever was. The social and territorial spread of legitimacy has survived even the sharp decline in the peoples trust in politicians in recent years.
India should stop obsessing about how to become one of the world’s great powers and focus on solving its biggest problems to become a great nation, Sundeep Wasleka, the president of Strategic Foresight Group, writes in this month’s Forbes India. At present, regardless of the hype, India is failing, Wasleka suggests. Politicians and business leaders are always thumping their chests over ...
However with faith in our leaders and our capacity for works, we are sure to overcome our present difficulties. The present difficulties should not discourage us. Free India is destined to become a powerful nation of the world