A tsunami (plural: tsunamis or tsunami; from lit. “harbor wave English pronunciation:, also called a tsunami wave train, and at one time incorrectly referred to as a tidal wave, is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, usually an ocean, though it can occur in Tsunamis are a frequent occurrence in Japan; approximately 195 events have been recorded. Owing to the immense volumes of water and the high energy involved, tsunamis can devastate coastal regions.
and other (including detonations of underwater and other, and other disturbances above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami.
The historian was the first to relate tsunami to but the understanding of a tsunami’s nature remained slim until the 20th century and is the subject of ongoing research. Many early, and texts refer to tsunamis as “seismic sea waves.”
Some conditions, such as deep that cause, can generate a, called a which can raise several metres above normal levels. The displacement comes from low within the centre of the depression. As these reach shore, they may resemble (though are not) tsunamis, inundating vast areas of land.
Etymology and history
The Russians of, with their ships tossed inland by a tsunami, meeting some Japanese in 1779 The term tsunami comes from the Japanese composed of the (tsu) meaning (nami), meaning ” (For the plural, one can either follow two ordinary English practice and add an s, or use an invariable plural as in the Japanese.)
... the picture, we could not infer if the wave is a tsunami or a small wave coming onto shore. Since this painting is ... exactly the same and are wearing the same garments. The water itself has the same repetitive pattern throughout, the stripes of ... is commonly referred to as The Great Wave. Hokusai Katsushika was one of the greatest Japanese printmakers of the 19th century. The ...
Tsunami are sometimes referred to as tidal waves. In recent years, this term has fallen out of favor, especially in the scientific community, because tsunami actually have nothing to do with The once-popular term derives from their most common appearance, which is that of an extraordinarily high. Tsunami and tides both produce waves of water that move inland, but in the case of tsunami the inland movement of water is much greater and lasts for a longer period, giving the impression of an incredibly high tide. Although the meanings of “tidal” include “resembling” or “having the form or character of” the tides, and the term tsunami is no more accurate because tsunami are not limited to harbours, use of the term tidal wave is discouraged.
There are only a few other languages that have an equivalent native word. In the, the word is aazhi peralai. In the it is (Depending on the dialect. Note that in the fellow language of, a major language in the alon means “wave”.) On island, off the western coast of Sumatra in Indonesia, in the the word is smong, while in the it is emong.
The cause, in my opinion, of this phenomenon must be sought in the earthquake. At the point where its shock has been the most violent the sea is driven back, and suddenly recoiling with redoubled force, causes the inundation. Without an earthquake I do not see how such an accident could happen. The Roman historian described the typical sequence of a tsunami, including an incipient earthquake, the sudden retreat of the sea and a following gigantic wave, after the devastated
While Japan may have the longest recorded history of tsunamis, the sheer destruction caused by the and tsunami event mark it as the most devastating of its kind in modern times, killing around 230,000 people. The Sumatran region is not unused to tsunamis either, with earthquakes of varying magnitudes regularly occurring off the coast of the island
... greatest strength of the tsunami waves was in the east-west direction. The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea earthquake that occurred at ... of the seismic tidal waves in the different part of the world was that people saw sea water disappearing away from the ... beaches in the minutes before the giant wave lashed back with infernal ...
The principal generation mechanism (or cause) of a tsunami is the displacement of a substantial volume of water or perturbation of the sea This displacement of water is usually attributed to either earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, or more rarely by meteorites and nuclear tests. The waves formed in this way are then sustained by gravity. Tides do not play any part in the generation of tsunamis.
Tsunami generated by seismicity
• Tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. Tectonic earthquakes are a particular kind of earthquake that are associated with the Earth’s crustal deformation; when these earthquakes occur beneath the sea, the water above the deformed area is displaced from its equilibrium position. More specifically, a tsunami can be generated when associated with or destructive move abruptly, resulting in water displacement, owing to the vertical component of movement involved. Movement on normal faults will also cause displacement of the seabed, but the size of the largest of such events is normally too small to give rise to a significant tsunami.
The energy released produces tsunami waves.
Tsunamis have a small (wave height) offshore, and a very long (often hundreds of kilometers long, whereas normal ocean waves have a wavelength of only 30 or 40 metres which is why they generally pass unnoticed at sea, forming only a slight swell usually about 300 millimetres (12 in) above the normal sea surface. They grow in height when they reach shallower water, in a process described below. A tsunami can occur in any tidal state and even at low tide can still inundate coastal areas.
When the wave enters shallow water, it slows down and its amplitude (height) increases.
The wave further slows and amplifies as it hits land. Only the largest waves crest.
Tsunamis cause damage by two mechanisms: the smashing force of a wall of water travelling at high speed, and the destructive power of a large volume of water draining off the land and carrying all with it, even if the wave did not look large.
While everyday have a (from crest to crest) of about 100 metres (330 ft) and a height of roughly 2 metres (6.6 ft), a tsunami in the deep ocean has a wavelength of about 200 kilometres (120 mi).
... items. First, the composition water: water is odorless, tasteless and a transparent liquid. Though in large quantities water appears to have a bluish ... officer. Because of the widespread destruction and death to the sea bearing animals, the Exxon company forfeited over one billion ... nesting along the shore were killed, along with several thousand sea mammals. The captain of this tanker soon lost his ...
Such a wave travels at well over 800 kilometres per hour (500 mph), but owing to the enormous wavelength the wave oscillation at any given point takes 20 or 30 minutes to complete a cycle and has an amplitude of only about 1 metre (3.3 ft This makes tsunamis difficult to detect over deep water. Ships rarely notice their passage.
As the tsunami approaches the coast and the waters become shallow, compresses the wave and its velocity slows below 80 kilometres per hour (50 mph).
Its wavelength diminishes to less than 20 kilometres (12 mi) and its amplitude grows enormously. Since the wave still has the same very long the tsunami may take minutes to reach full height. Except for the very largest tsunamis, the approaching wave does not but rather appears like a fast-moving Open bays and coastlines adjacent to very deep water may shape the tsunami further into a step-like wave with a steep-breaking front.
When the tsunami’s wave peak reaches the shore, the resulting temporary rise in sea level is termed run up. Run up is measured in metres above a reference sea level. A large tsunami may feature multiple waves arriving over a period of hours, with significant time between the wave crests. The first wave to reach the shore may not have the highest run upAbout 80% of tsunamis occur in the Pacific Ocean, but they are possible wherever there are large bodies of water, including lakes. They are caused by earthquakes, landslides, volcanic explosions.