a. Pre 9-11 relatations
b. Post 9-11 relations
After the September 11 attacks in 2001 in the United States, Pakistan became a key ally in the war on terror with the United States. In 2001, US President George W. Bush pressured the government into joining the US war on terror. Pervez Musharraf acknowledges the payments received for captured terrorists in his book:
We’ve captured 689 and handed over 369 to the United States. We’ve earned bounties totaling millions of dollars
—Former President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf
In 2003, the US officially forgave US$1 billion in Pakistani debt in a ceremony in Pakistan as one of the rewards for Pakistan joining the US war on terror. “Today’s signing represents a promise kept and another milestone in our expanding partnership,” US Ambassador Nancy Powell said in a statement, “The forgiveness of $1 billion in bilateral debt is just one piece of a multifaceted, multibillion dollar assistance package.” The new relationship between the United States and Pakistan is not just about September 11,’ Powell said. “It is about the rebirth of a long-term partnership between our two countries.” However Pakistan support of the U.S. and its war has angered many Pakistanis that do not support it.
In October 2005, Condoleezza Rice made a statement where she promised that the United States will support the country’s earthquake relief efforts and help it rebuild” after the Kashmir Earthquake.
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In January 2011, the Raymond Allen Davis incident occurred in which Raymond Davis, an alleged private security contractor, shot dead two Pakistani locals after they attempted to rob him. The action sparked protests in Pakistan and threatened relations between the United States and Pakistan, including aid flows
Osama bin Laden, then head of the militant group al-Qaeda, was killed in Pakistan on May 2, 2011, shortly after 1 a.m. local time by a United States special forces military unit
Pakistan is a major non-NATO ally as part of the War on Terrorism and provides key intelligence and logistical support for the United States. A leading recipient of US military assistance, Pakistan expects to receive approximately $20 billion since 2001 a combination of reimbursement to Pakistan and training programs for the Pakistan counter terrorism units. However, in the aftermath of the Osama Bin Laden raid, Pakistan Army cancelled a $500 million training program and sent all 135 trainers home. The United States showed displeasure at this act and withheld a further $300 million dollars in assistance.
Some politicians in Pakistan argue the war on terror has cost the Pakistani economy $70 billion dollars and U.S. aid costs the country more in the long term, leading to accusations that the US is making Pakistan a client state.
31 May 2012, A conservative senator called for the United States to suspend all aid to Pakistan and grant citizenship to a doctor who was jailed for helping hunt down Osama bin Laden.  A latest Congressional report stated that Pakistan has received $7.9 billion worth of military equipment from the US since 2001, but the low ebb in bilateral ties in recent months has slowed down the pace of American arms sales to the country.
a. nato supply
NATO logistics in the Afghan War refers to the efforts of the NATO International Security Assistance Force to deliver vital fuel, food, hardware and other logistic supplies to Afghanistan in support of the War in Afghanistan (2001-present).
Delivery of supplies is done using a combination of air transport and a series of overland supply routes. There are two routes which pass through Pakistan, and several other routes which pass through Russia and the Central Asian states
... to extend its influence across neighboring countries like Afghanistan and India (Crisis Guide: Pakistan). These groups pollute the minds of the country ... most troubling states in crisis (Crisis Guide: Pakistan).Why can’t Pakistan flourish? What makes Pakistan such a weak state? Internal Antagonism/Intolerance: Pakistan’s ...
There are several different routes included in the Northern Distribution Network. The most commonly used route, though also one of the longest, starts at the port of Riga, Latvia on the Baltic Sea, and continues for 3,212 miles (5,169 km) by train southwards through Russia, using railroads built by Russia in the 1980s for the Soviet war in Afghanistan. The supplies then pass through Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan before reaching Afghanistan’s northern border at Termez. To get to the south of the country, the supplies must be loaded onto trucks and transported through the mountainous Hindu Kush by means of the Salang Tunnel. The Salang Tunnel, which is the main connection between northern and southern Afghanistan, is 1.5 miles long and situated at an altitude of 11,100 feet. It is prone to avalanches and quite dangerous.
Another, more southern route starts at Poti, Georgia on the Black Sea and continues to Baku, Azerbaijan where the goods are transferred to barges and ferried across the Caspian Sea. Supplies land in Turkmenistan and then move by rail through Uzbekistan before arriving at the Afghan border. In 2010, this route carried one third of the NDN’s traffic.
A third route, created in order to avoid going through the often volatile country of Uzbekistan, goes from Khazakstan to Kyrgyzstan and then through Tajikistan before reaching Termez.[
2010 suspention for 1 weak in 2010 for killing 2 slds with in pak border with heli
The incident was repeated on the Pakistan/Afghanistan border on November 26, 2011 with the killing of 24 Pakistani troops. Pakistan blocked both routes and they remain blocked as of 2012. Brigadier General Carsten Jacobson of Germany, however, stated soon afterwards that the coalition has enough supplies stockpiled to continue operations indefinitely despite the closure of the supply line. Following the closure, NATO shifted its focus to the Northern Distribution Network, and by February 2012 85% of coalition fuel supplies were being shipped through the northern routes.
In early 2012, progress was made towards the reopening of the routes, with Pakistan allowing use of its airspace for the transport of perishable food items. After reviewing the U.S.-Pakistan relations and outlining what was needed to repair the bilaterl relation between both countries the Pakistani parliament turned the decision of reopening the NATO supply lines over the government in April 2012. Due to an upcoming general election in Pakistan with widespread anti-American sentiments in the country the Pakistani government is reluctant to reopen the lines and postponed its decision until the United States has responded positively to Pakistani demands outlined in the parliamentary recommendations such as an U.S. apology over for November 2011 NATO strike on Pakistani checkposts, the bringing of those involved in the strike to justice and a stop of the U.S. drone astrikes. Talks between Pakistan and America failed in April 2012 after Pakistan couldn’t not get an unconditional apology from America for an airstrike on Pakistani checkposts along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border. The White House refused to apologize after Taliban attacks in Kabul and other cities in Afghanistan on April 15,2012, which according to U.S. military and intelligence officials came at the direction of the Haqqani network, a group working from a base in North Waziristan in Pakistan’s tribal belt. Pakistani officials said they cannot open the NATO supply routes in Afghanistan without the apology. Pakistan decided to reopen the supply lines after US Secretary of State apologized on July 3, 2012 for the Salala incident. An agreement was signed on 31 July 2012 between U.S and Pakistani officials which will allow NATO supply convoys to cross into Afghanistan from Pakistan upto the end of 2015, one year beyond the deadline for withdrawal of U.S. combat forces.
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Chicago conferess The summit in Chicago discussed the impact of recent events since then, such as the Arab Spring, Libyan civil war, as well as the global financial crisis, and transition for NATO forces in Afghanistan, and a missile shield system for Europe. to seek routes out
Pakistan Reopens NATO Supply after Assurance of $3 Billions
Pakistan has decided to reopen the Ground Lines of Communication (GLOC) for NATO troops fighting in Afghanistan after the United States said “sorry” over the attack on the Salala Check Post last November in which 25 Pakistani soldiers were killed.
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The decision was taken at a meeting of the Defense Committee of the Cabinet (DCC under the chairmanship of Prime Minister Raja Pervaiz Ashraf at the Prime Minister House. That was announced by Information Minister Qamar Zaman Kaira at the conclusion of its meeting. He said the decision had been taken in accordance with a mandate given by parliament and aspirations of people.