Pakistan’s Need for Water Reservoirs
Pakistan has been blessed with a rich water resource which has helped the economic development of the country mainly through agriculture. Pakistan has a long and proud history of the development of water resources and the infrastructure for delivering water to where it is needed, including the vast Indus Plain, constituting the largest contiguous irrigation system in the world.
The total land area of Pakistan is 310,322 square miles or 88 million hectares of land out of which 20 million hectares are used for agriculture. Farming produces about one-quarter of all of the nation’s wealth (GDP) and employs half of its workforce. This is a triumph, for Pakistan is a naturally dry and largely infertile country. Only about one-quarter of the land is suitable for farming, and three-quarters of that is only fertile because of intensive irrigation. The river system of Indus and its tributaries provide Pakistan with some of the most fertile land in the subcontinent. The water availability in our rivers is, however, highly erratic and unreliable. The highest annual water availability in the recorded history from 1922 to date was 186.79MAF in 1959-1960 and minimum of 95.99MAF in 2001-2002. The annual flow of water in Pakistan’s rivers is 83 per cent in Kharif season while it is just 17 in Rabi season, whereas, we need 60 per cent of water in Kharif and 40 per cent in Rabi.
The hypothesis developed for water quality of Grand River is to test whether urbanization affects the quality of water in Grand River. The hypothesis is based on the effects of urbanization on the Grand River water quality, with focus on Lansing section. 2. What concerns does this section of the Grand River face? How does increased urbanization impact water quality of freshwater systems like the ...
Pakistan, with its economy dependent on natural resources, faces the daunting challenge of the growing imbalance between an increasing population and the availability of natural resources to meet the basic needs of the people. As the population continues to grow the country is approaching the utilization limits of its water resources and Pakistan is becoming a water scarce country. As never before, there is now a strong and growing need to manage this precious resource more carefully and efficiently to ensure water for all on a sustainable basis. private sector can be used as a way out of this situation.
The private sector can be attracted in the first phase by investing in water utility such that they are responsible for both water supply and sewerage system of certain allocated areas. Private sector will be willing to invest in urban water supply projects which have concentrated consumer base and consumer demand. Since sewerage is relatively more expensive, it is necessary to combine the two systems as a package deal for the private sector. Otherwise, sewerage systems will be left in the public sector. Effective policies need to be framed for attracting private sector investment which will relieve the government with certain responsibilities and financial burden.
PPIB (Private Power and Infrastructure Board) is working to attract and facilitate FDI in Pakistan’s power sector. A number of foreign investors have expressed interest in setting up power generation projects that would exploit our indigenous resources including hydel, wind, natural gas, and coal. Their proposals have been evaluated and the prospective investors facilitated and encouraged to come up with power projects focusing on maximum utilization of available local resources.
An effective water management plan cannot be implemented without the education and awareness of the community regarding benefits and limitations. The community has to be involved in planning, developing of the strategy and then actually implementing in the project area to transfer the ownership. Project planning should include stakeholder meetings which is also a part of the EIA procedure. It is recommended that EIAs should be conducted in a manner to incorporate stakeholder concerns at all levels.
Question: Water is an increasingly valuable resource, but people continue to waste a lot of it. Some governments want to impose permanent water restrictions on domestic and agricultural use. Others feel we should put more effort into recycling water. Discuss these views and give your opinion. Although we have thought about the sustainability of the water for a long time, it remains many arguments ...
Another technique to improve water management and avoid water logging is rain harvesting which helps channel rainwater from rooftops through drain pipes into a pit. The area around is clopped so that water from the environs also flows easily into the pit. The pit has layers of, sand, pebbles and broken bricks good filtration. While this in itself will improve the ground water table, open wells may be sunk, into which a PVC pipe can conduct water from the pit. The terraces and roofs of houses and building complexes can be converted into catchments areas for rain water by this simple technique. Rain harvesting can also be introduced in public and community wells situated near slums and in villages, draining water from nearby rooftops and streets into them. Connecting storm water drain lines to tanks and rivers can greatly the water position of a city with little effort and maintenance.
As elsewhere, urban population has been growing in Pakistan too. Almost 33 percent of the population resides in the urban areas. Although urbanization is strongly linked with economic growth, it poses severe challenges to Pakistan. Our developing cities are not equipped to deal with this situation. Without adequate planning and control rapid urbanization may lead to various problems, the foremost being energy shortage. According to a conservative estimate, buildings in Pakistan consume more than 40% of the total electricity produced. The demand of this sector is growing at the rate of almost 14% per annum, the highest among all other sectors. Rapid urbanization and resultant construction of buildings and rising standards of living are considered to be the causes of increased demand in this sector.
However, a critical evaluation would reveal that most of tie current buildings are not designed keeping in view local climatic conditions. Excessive use of concrete and glass, high levels of illumination and heavy reliance on space conditioning equipment are a common feature of our buildings. These buildings need extra energy to be made comfortable for their occupants.
Pakistan’s Energy Crisis EconomySouth AsiaPakistan August 31, 2013 By Shabbir H. Kazmi Energy shortages are hobbling the economy and contributing to unrest. But the country has options. Pakistan is in the midst of one of the worst energy crises in its history. This is both slowing the pace of economic activity and causing public unrest with prolonged outages of electricity and gas. Capacity ...
In order to improve Pakistan’s energy conditions, the government needs to review Pakistan’s energy position, problems, and prospects. Supplies of conventional resources need to be examined and inefficiencies in energy provision and consumption need to be identified. There are many ways energy can be provided. For example, coal, oil, natural gas can be used as well as more traditional sources of energy such as wood, biogas, small hydro-electric plants, and solar and wind energy. Energy-caused burdens on Pakistan’s environment should also be considered.
The unavailability of sustained and affordable energy to industry has suppressed economic growth and created a declining tendency for industrial investment in Pakistan. About 20 percent of electricity produced is used in the industry. In the rest of the world, industry being a bulk consumer is charged less than the domestic consumer. Pakistan perhaps is the solitary example where the industrial consumer is charged more than the domestic consumer. Cheaper supply of power to the industry ensures that its products are affordable domestically and competitive in the international market. The industries in the most developed countries of the world pay less for electric power than the industries of Pakistan. In Pakistan it costs the industry 8 cents per unit. In the USA the cost is 4.9 cents; in Britain 5.2 cents; in Germany 4.9 cents; and in Korea 4.7 cents. However, the cost for domestic user is the lowest in Pakistan. It is 6.1 cent here, while in Korea it is 7.4 cents, in the USA 8.7 cents, in Britain, 16.6 cents, and in Germany, 13.6 cents.
Pakistan is adequately gifted with natural gas. For this reason the gas consumer here pays less than any other countries, except those with huge oil and natural gas reserves. Here we are charged $1.15 per MCF for domestic use and $3.01 from industry. In Turkey it is $6.79 and $5.47. In the US it is $7.44 and $3.42. In Britain it is $7.31 and $3.50. In Germany it is $9.41 and $4.74. In Japan it is $32.61 and $11.41.
2010 Relevant Trends, Opportunities, Projections & Resources Presented by the Association of Energy Engineers Profile of Respondents Survey Results Policy & Trends Salary & Experience Levels Job Titles & Resources Copyright AEE 2010 Green Jobs: Survey of the Energy Industry Green Jobs: Survey of the Energy Industry The Association of Energy Engineers (AEE), a nonprofit professional ...
It is abundantly clear that Pakistan is heading towards a major power crisis. If the present trend of rise in crude oil prices continues, it will stymie our development efforts. The secretary-general of OPEC has predicted that the price of crude oil could surge to as high as $80 a barrel within the next two years. The crude oil price is now touching $45 per barrel. Much of our electricity is produced thermally. It is obvious that the cost of producing electricity by burning fossil fuel would go up and makes its price beyond the reach of the majority.