Peace and Development*
Peace and satisfaction can be achieved if nations in the world can proceed towards their tar
gets, if they can develop.
Hence, development in its broad sense is the key to peace.
author gives an insight why crisis management should be changed for crisis prevention and
how experiences of developed nations could be used for the benefit of less developed nations.
Key words: conflict management, peace, development, United Nations.
1. Introduction (Peace)
tions and regions will better know each other and if
they will come to understand each others problems
Although even not so long ago many considered
and conditions, hostility will give its place to mutual
the UN as unable to act resolutely in crisis situa
understanding and help. In this process a vital ele
tions and some even wanted to dissolve the UN as a
ment is education.
useless and moneyconsuming institution, the war in
Peace and education, knowledge are closely inter
Yugoslavia or the recent war against terrorism
drew again the attention to the important role of
normal human life and activity, without which no
UN in peace activities. Without the active contribu
progress in social, cultural or economic development
tion of UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan it would
In October 1962, the United States spied nuclear missile sites built by the Soviet Union in Cuba, some 90 miles off the coast of Florida, an event that led to what is now known to be the Cuban Missile Crisis. Leaders of both countries have corresponded to peaceful solution the crisis until Nikita Krushchev agreed to withdraw the Soviet nuclear warheads in exchange for the U. S. promise not to ...
can be achieved. Peace is not a passive state, not a
have been impossible to reach an international coor
result of refraining from any activity interfering
dination in settling the Afghan war and in preparing
with other people, nations or countries, but it is the
the plans for Afganistans reconstruction.
result of actively learning more and more about
fore, today probably the most important role of the
each other and of reaching a helping hand to those
UN is to promote peace in the world for which it
in need. Learning and accruing our knowledge is
must enhance its international coordination activi
thus the true essence of peace, which is set as basic
ties, through many channels of communication be
moral precondition also by the main religions1.
Peace is the indispensable condition for
tween various regions and nations, in order to reach
a better mutual understanding world wide. If na
*The text is based on my prizewinning essay at the 18th Eisaku Sato Essay Contest, 2002. Since the contest stipulated
that participants should address the role of the United Nations and the United Nations University (UNU) in education
to solve global issues like peace activities, sustainable development and poverty, in this essay the education and the
learning process are also taken up.
1 Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they do (Jesus says when being crucified, Luke 23:34) Buddha sees
the final reason in learning and selfenlightenment.
Knowledge is essential to avoid harm doing, but also to do benefit for others.
Peace and Development
2. From crisis management to crisis prevention
requires direct and prompt policies for solution,
while the underlying problems ask for specific ap
When a crisis situation arises, it indicates the ex
proaches and for the longer term.
istence of unresolved problems. This is common to
First, the former one, that is the direct crisis
every crisis situation even if a crisis can assume
management should belong to the UN, which is the
In this paper, China’s current problem with talent management –mainly due to lack of qualified university graduates for multinational companies that engage in offshore service operations, the lack of English skills, poor financing of universities, and quality-lacking curriculums– and the ways that China can tackle with this problem by engaging in talent management operations will be discussed. The ...
different forms from latent conflicts between con
most suitable organization for international coordi
cerned parties to aggressive behaviour even war
nation. It also should extend its activity to initiat
against other people or countries. How to solve a
ing (but not undertaking) the investigation and reso
lution of problems of crisis.
Recently a most aggressive form of crisis, ter
In the past the UN
acted more or less in line with such an expectation.
rorism came to the forefront. Many politicians and
In future, however, the UN should be much more
specialists are calling up to a merciless fight against
active and should develop a crisis prevention policy
terrorism, asking death or life sentence for ter
instead of the recent post festa crisis management.
rorists. This is a way of eliminating or eradicating
It should set up crisis study groups for locating and
A titfortat ap
signaling latent crisis spots. Further, it should
proach, however, would further aggravate hostility
draw up a scenario for the crisiss development and
and lead to broadening warfare.
Would not have
should indicate the point at which the UNs inter
been negotiations with terrorists of hijacked air
mediatory role should be activated in order to pre
planes, those would have been blown up and lives of
vent the outbreak of crisis. For that, the UN itself
innocent passengers could not have been saved. It
must learn! The UN University (UNU) should pro
seems therefore probably more appropriate to use
vide such a targeted education for UN officials, tak
the term crisis management implying the attempt
ing up and analysing past crisis situations, what
to solve a crisis in its complexity and mainly to
could have been done in order to avoid those crises.
achieve the most humanistic outcome.
Learning from the past means to manage our fu
terrorism in absolute
As crises are originating from problems, crisis
ture, this should be better observed both by the
management cannot be successful without going to
Using material from item A and elsewhere assess the usefulness of modernization theory as an explanation for differences in the levels of development of different societies. Modernization theory first arose after world war two, when western countries like the US, Britain and France all believed that capitalism was the only way to modernize countries in Eastern Europe. The different communist and ...
UN and the UNU.
the root of problems. Such problems can be pover
progressing towards conflict prevention and pree
ty and isolation of certain nations or regions, the
Recently, researchers are
lack of technology for development, low level of edu
Second, for solving the problems at the core of
cation. Quite interestingly, after the September 11
crisis, the immense knowledge resource of the UNU
events not only military retaliation was sought but a
should be actively used.
wave of learning emerged to know more about the
solving, of course, would remain in the competence
of specific helping or developing organizations
fully, the reconstruction plan for Afghanistan will
(NGOs, the World Bank etc.), but the UNU should
help to overcome the isolation of that region and
provide for them a theoretical and conceptual
will soon start an economic and social development.
guidance. Thus, the UNU would help channeling
It can be seen, then, that crisis in its direct form
knowledge toward practical application. In order to
origins of terrorism and to find
The concrete problem
the field of morals and law, B. Leisers view is well representing this line. According to him, claims of terrorists are
unsatiable hence nonnegotiable and they should be put to death. (Liberty, Justice and Morals: Contemporary Value
Conflicts, New York, Macmillan 1979).
3 On the initiative of K. Annan the volume has been compiled: Crossing the Divide, Dialogue among Civilizations (ed. G.
Picco), School of Diplomacy and International Relations, Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ, 2001.
4 For example, in the voluminous book: From Reaction to Conflict Prevention: Opportunities for the UN System (Fen Os
ler Hampson and David M. Malone, eds.) 431p., Lynne Rienner, 2002.
fulfil this mission, however, the UNU itself too must
should not cause harm to the environment. Both
improve its knowledge resources.
approaches are, however, too narrow to cover de
Introduction to social media Social media refers to the means of interactions among people in which they create, share, exchange and comment contents among themselves in virtual communities and networks. Social media or “social networking” has almost become part of our daily lives and being tossed around over the past few years. It is like any other media such as newspaper, radio and ...
research reports often are of a too abstract aca
velopment issues, especially if we want to get closer
demic level, or often go in the direction of pure po
to crisis prevention.
litical discussions, both of them being inapplicable to
For our purpose the classification of development
On the other hand, there are
into the field of economy and technology on the one
empirical reports at the other organizations being
hand, and in the field of social structures on the
involved in aid or development projects. But again,
other, would seem more appropriate.
these remain on a reportingmonitoring level, and
proach would better reflect the pattern of develop
cannot, following from their nature, level up to scho
ment and its effect, consequences for the society.
larly generalizations of the findings, whereby a
Needless to say that not every development is satis
treasure of valuable experiences remains unused.
fying the people of a given society (nation, region,
From now on, the UNU should become an active
country), only that one which considers the given
bridge between the knowledge base and problem
conditions of the society. Only in this case can we
solving in member countries in general, and espe
say that the development is sustainable.
cially recently in the field of crisis prevention. In
fore, a development which is acceptable or desirable
this the word active means a really active role of
for the society, is much wider than environment
the UNU in scholarly generalizing earlier ex
protection, it would be better to call it balanced de
periences and in forwarding the essential findings,
providing conceptual guidance to the respective or
established development policy, considering a sound
balance between industry and environment, and be
It would include a considerate, well
tween economy (technology) and society in a broad
3. From sustainable development to balanced de
The Essay on Engage In Personal Development In Health, Social Care Or Children’s And Young People’s Settings
Engage in personal development in health, social care Or children’s and young people’s settings. 1.1- My current role is a learning assistant support practitioner within a secondary education setting. This involves working with vulnerable children and young adults on a daily basis. This includes children on the autistic spectrum, children with physical disabilities, and children with other ...
sense to avoid unbalances which easily could lead to
social dissatisfaction and crisis.
Development patterns should be thoroughly ana
In recent UNjargon the sustainable develop
lysed and evaluated in particular with respect to
ment is mostly used for general economic develop
their social implications and crisiscreating poten
ment, but in fact the expression is nothing else than
tialities. Even now, after socialism had disappeared
a desirable requirement set to industry developers
10 years ago, within the universal free market
driven and democratic order there are several pat
and thus it is more related to environment protec
terns of economic and social development. The free
The UNUs thematic approach divides de
market model, probably in its classical form is to be
velopment into three separate fields: development
found in the USA which also has its problems not
(globalization, growth, urbanization), science and
only in the field of economic regulation and coordi
technology, environment (resource management,
nation, for example to ensure a continuous growth,
but in social fields as well like unemployment, par
to preserve the integrity of natural
sustainable industry, water
ble is better placed within environment and related
tial poverty or discrimination.
to industry, suggesting that industrial develoment
economy pattern of development (soziale Marktwirt
The social market
is fundamentally different from the passively formulated Key Roles of the UNU (A bridge between the UN and
the international academic community, and A thinktank for the UN systems).
If the bridge from the academics
does not lead to some really beneficial use, or if a thinktank is confined to UN systems, knowledge will remain in the
academys ivory tower.
6 About the origins see The Earth Conference, Brasil 1992.
7 UNU, Thematic Orientation (http://www.unu.edu).
1. What is the business-government-society (BGS) field and what is its importance? 2. Explain the Four basic models of the BGS relationship Introduction: Business, government and society are fundamental in this world. Business satisfies human’s needs by providing them products and services in exchange for profit. Government is a structure and process in society that with authority makes and ...
Peace and Development
schaft) is traditionally practiced in Germany, which
tries and they will be able to answer new
recognizes the deficiencies of market and attempts
to smooth out its negative and irritating social ef
fects. Thus, on the one hand the stimulative forces
4. Development: basic needs and technology
of the market can work to achieve efficient develop
ment, but its differentiating effects are being kept
Human society was never free of conflicts, how
within limits acceptable for the society. The social
ever their graveness is depending on the material
coordination factor is playing still a stronger role in
development possibilities of the society, its social
the welfare model of the Nordic countries like
strata and the individual.
Sweden, Norway and other countries.
standard or the level of wealth in absolute terms
there is the transitional model of the postcommun
is the conditioning factor but the possibility and the
ist countries in Central Eastern Europe, where the
expectation to get from a certain point to another
free market and democracy are being (re) intro
higher point. If real development will meet expec
duced causing both new social unequalities and
tations, the members of a society will enjoy the
fruits of their efforts with satisfaction, otherwise
Also, in the developing world
there are several patterns as to the beginnings of
Here not the living
conflicts will flare up.
an independent economic and social policy making.
Saying that, however, leveldifferences between
The international aspect of development is globaliza
countries do matter for international peace, espe
tion with its positive as well as negative impacts.
cially when the rift between rich and poor countries
When advising a country what development pat
is widening. Recently globalization is leading to a
tern to follow, the conditions of that country must
polarized world community with a deeply embit
be very carefully considered. It is natural that cer
tered and marginalized majority.8 Today …with 20
tain development models are only applicable at a
percent of the worlds population earning 75 percent
given economic and social, cultural level, for exam
of the income and 25 percent earning less than 2
ple the Swedish welfare model would be inconsis
percent, 31 percent illiterate, 80 percent living in
tent in a country with a GDP level of US $ 20 per
substandard housing, more than a billion people liv
capita. However, it is not the model itself which is
ing on less than a dollar a day and nearly a billion
important, but the ways and policies through which
and a half people without access to clean water, the
a country finally arrived at the welfare and social
state of the world is far from encouraging. (Cross
democracy. It is then, the development paths and
ing the Divide, ibid.)
policies of highly developed countries should be
Nations, except for the highly industrialized coun
tries, usually face two key development problems.
The UNU should undertake this task. It should
Those nations with very low GDPlevel, the poor
compile a set of development models, the paths and
countries, are struggling with elementary problems
policies of how respective countries achieved their
of drought, food shortage, starvation etc.
present position and these modelscenarios should
physically ensure human existence. Another group
be introduced into the UNUs education plan.
of nations have overcome basic needs problems, but
Thus, policy makers and officials, professionals from
are unable to start a stable development path. In
other countries taking courses at the UNU could
the following these two groups will be discussed.
become familiar with various development scenarios,
In the case of poor countries the first task is to
during discussions they could relate the respective
secure basic needs, like food and water supply, basic
policies to the present problems in their own coun
education for literacy and health service. It is not
Globalization and World Politics (A. Hurrel, N. Woods eds.) Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1999.
just poverty as it figures on the UN agenda of
needs projects the basic education should be start
global issues, but it is development, the develop
ment at the level of basic needs. Poverty can tem
lack of proper teachers, therefore basic education
porarily be alleviated by food aid packages but
programs (in the first years, at least) should run
poverty will reoccur unless local people will be edu
with the help of more advanced countries, also in
cated and taught how to grow food for themselves.
The dissemination and implementation of basic food
jects, scenarios for basic needs, should include
programs is of highest priority in these countries.
simultaneously basic education and should act to
The UNU should work out models for basic food
gether with respective UN organizations in realizing
and nutrition programs in poor countries strongly
This will be not an easy task because of the
The UNU, when conceiving pro
using the experience of postwar development poli
In the group of starter countries basic needs
cies in countries like Japan, where production reco
are satisfied but countries cannot start the takeoff
vered from ashes, and more recent policies of some
development stage and are stagnating at a minimum
countries in Asia and Africa, which managed to se
or slightly medium level. Here mainly two policies
cure self sufficiency. Not only the specific models
are necessary to start growth. First, to develop the
should be worked out, but also the scenarios of how
infrastructure, network of roads, railways, communi
these models have been implemented so that politi
cation, energy system etc., and second, to introduce
cians and specialists of countries in need could easi
an adequate technology. As the two are or should
ly follow the idea to its realization. Considering the
be realized at the same time, this development poli
conditions of their own countries they could even
cy is probably more difficult due to its complexity
tually modify some parts of the models or scenarios.
than that aimed at the basic needs.
They would not be compelled to start from zero, but
In starter countries, technology deserves special
could use the international knowledge for their
own benefit. For this purpose the UNU would be
need not the latest technology, but that one which
better than, for example the World Bank or other
suits the best their development needs, e.g. a
financial organizations, because these latter ones are
laborintensive technology where masses of free
mostly preoccupied with structural, financial and
labor should be absorbed. Sophisticated technology
monitoring issues, while the UNU has a wider scope
should also be avoided because low level of technical
and an adequate academic networking potential.
proficiency would result in defective products and
However, when a development scenario comes to
would cause frustration in the recipient country.
realization, cooperation is desirable between the
This is because these countries, in fact,
The UNU should focus more on viable scenarios
given country, the financial institution and the
of technology transfer to these countries.
UNU, whereby the UNU could provide consultation
UNU being positioned in Tokyo, has a unique op
and support in preparing the credit application.
portunity to explore the Japanese way of postwar
Together with basic needs (food etc.) also basic
modernization, how new technologies were intro
education should be started in poor countries. It is
duced and adjusted to the local conditions in Japan
true though, that people in these countries do not
and how a country poor in natural resources could
need high education in order to grow basic food for
achieve an unprecedented technological and econom
themselves, even without literacy it would be feasi
ic progress so that it is now ranking among the
ble. Yet, as basic needs will soon be satisfied, the
most advanced countries of the world.
country will be faced with the next development
Also, Japanese foreign direct investments (FDI)
stage for which technical knowledge and skill will be
have a spillover effect in the recipient countries,
required. And since education brings fruits in the
mainly because Japanese companies expanding to
longer run, already at the same time with basic
another country, are taking with themselves their
Peace and Development
cooperationnetwork (subcontractingsystem or shita
Thus, a strong jobcreating (in cooperating
The special position of the UNU means that 1) it
local companies many new jobs open) and technolo
is an institution of the UN, and that 2) it is located
gy spillover effect is at work which is quite differ
in Japans capital, Tokyo.
ent from the usual Western style when the Western
The first circumstance implies that the UNU has
company just settles down in the other country and
a direct access to not only the UN organizations but
operates a simple assembly factory using imported
to the international stream of politics, and coordina
tion activities, moreover via the UN to the member
It is, of course, the companies themselves, which
countries. Potentially, the UNU could use academ
are the carriers of technology, and which will bring
ic and policymaking resources worldwide, and to
development into the starter countries, but it does
exert an influence or coordination to member coun
in no way mean that the country should passively
tries. It seems however, that the UNU is unable to
wait up until these companies would appear.
maintain contacts even with the institutions of the
starter country should actively form a policy creat
ing attractive business conditions for inviting for
periences are accumulated and the UNU should
eign companies.10 The UNU through other UN or
them scholarly evaluate and prepare development
ganizations could actively help the policy forming
scenarios, schemes of crisis prevention, conflict
resolution etc. in order to help member countries
This is the more important be
In these institutions tons of valuable ex
cause other international development institutions,
in need. To help, this should be the specific
e.g. the World Bank or the IMF, are following nar
motto of the UNU, distinguishing it from a usual
row approaches and are proposing only one stan
universitys educational and thinktank function.
dard policy, ignoring the specific conditions for its
Not only to educate just to spread intelligence and
The UNU has
culture, and not just to pool excellent brains, but to
the academic background to work out more feasible
use both for helping the nations to solve their
problems! This turn toward an active engagement
application in the given
is, what the UNU would need.
5. The UNU
Second, the location in Tokyo is a unique chance
to use first hand experiences of a highly developed
The UNU in Tokyo is a unique university for
economy and society. Especially the spectacular
several reasons, and it should use this advantage
postwar development from zero deserves attention.
much better than at present.
The main problem
The creation of new industry, the application of
with the UNU is that it has no vision; it resembles
technology, the research and development (particu
at first glance a usual university although it is not.
larly the management of applied research), the
First we will discuss the UNUs special position and
agricultural reform, the developmentoriented mone
then we will try to give some ideas as to its vision
tary policy, the almost zero inflation for decades
good example is the Suzuki car company with Maruti in India, or Hungary. In India Suzuki established the whole
production culture and could bring up technological level and quality level almost to the Japanese one, including that
the engine is also made in India. In Hungary, Suzukis main assembly factory employs 1100 people, but it created al
together 15000 new jobs in the subcontracting local companies. Suzuki is satisfied with local quality and has decided to
double production capacities so that to supply whole Europe from its Hungarian factory.
10 It is informative to look at the experience of the transforming countries in Central Europe, particularly Hungary, the
Czech Republic, Poland, as they consciously formed their policy after 1990 to create a suitable business environment for
11 There are several countries where IMF proposals failed, again some countries declined the IMFs advices like Singa
pore or recently Malaysia.
giving consumers the feeling of social safety, and
nation in the world wants to develop, and the UNU
recently the shift from industrybased society to
through its international position is predestined to
knowledge (and service)based society, all these
provide help for countries to their development.
can show the way to other countries for solving
Development issues should be assessed with a
their own development problems. This is true even
strong orientation to poor, developing and medium
if the Japanese way is motivated by its special cul
tural traditions, because some countries in Asia suc
scenarios and policies for development, the UNU
cessfully benefitted from Japanese experience and
should use the rich experiences of Japan and other
work management methods are efficient in Central
Asian nations, its location is very advantageous for
Now, let us see some considerations towards a vi
When working out models,
Of the Asian development experiences espe
cially two deserve attention, the technology transfer
and environment protection. Thinking along the
The activity of UNU should be clearly divided be
traditional anglosaxon market economy, one would
tween actual and main or strategic topics. As the
easily expect modern technology and pollution free
UNU has (should have) an involvement in interna
environment from the automatism of free market.
tional developments much stronger than a usual
However, especially the Japanese experiences prove
university, it also should sensitively react on actual
that a strong cooperation between the government
changes, new phenomena on the international arena.
and the business sector is necessary, and it is not
It should scholarly assess these new phenomena and
by chance that today in the US and EU science and
should give a response using its international aca
technology are among the central priorities of
government policy making.
Such an actual task became re
cently the fight against terrorism. The analysis of
Finally, about the working method of the UNU.
actual problems is usually a short term, almost
To fulfil a mission together with intensive research
operative task (although terrorism may remain here
and education activity would exceed the capacity of
for a few coming years).
the UNU and also the possibilities of a middle size
The main line of the
short term vision should be: crisis and conflict
For the simple reason, because peace
the UNU should work as a professional coordina
Following from its position,
is the utmost necessity for normal human existence
tion centre with a strong basic staff of scholars.14
These scholars should be selected in accordance
Working on main or strategic topics, on the other
with the vision of the UNU, as to being highly
hand, would be a task for the longer run. Here the
professional specialists in their fields, plus possess
main line towards a vision should be: development
ing an active organizatory skill. It will be their
in the broad sense, including economic, social and
task to compile models, scenarios and policies using
cultural development, and the resolution of ensuing
international academic cooperation.
problems like environment protection etc.12 The fo
staff of 5080 proper scholars this task is managea
cus should be development, because every and each
ble. However, basic staff scholars should be ap
With a basic
the present Thematic Orientation all topics are enlisted from human security to global climate, however, without any
13 For example, the geothermal research and training in the schedule of UNU will bring no if any benefit for the poor
and developing countries.
14 The present structure of the UNU is already reflecting partly this expectation. However, the work of a programme
officer (as it stands in the Major Responsibilities) includes much administrative duties (e.g. writing reports, preparing
Here organizatory work, that is academic coordination should be the main concern, which is fun
damentally different from administrative work.
Peace and Development
pointed at least for 45 years to be able to realize
with respect to their social implications and crisis
longer term visions.
When advising a country what de
Borrowing a term mostly used in economics, the
velopment pattern to follow, the conditions of that
socalled outsourcing should become the main
country must be carefully considered. The focus
working method of the UNU.
It would mean to
should be shifted from sustainable development to
give out research topics or education programs to
balanced development, including all aspects and
member countries. The UNU should work out just
mainly its harmony with social satisfaction.
the initial instructions and exactly formulate the ex
Development should become the main vision,
pectations, and all the detailed organizatory and ad
which all priority tasks on international agenda
ministrative work could be commissioned to the
should be attached to. Fighting poverty, for exam
member country. This would have several advan
ple cannot be a target per se, because it can tem
tages. First, scholars of the region of or around
porarily be alleviated by food aid, but poverty will
that country would be activized and real problems,
reoccur unless local people will be educated and
conditions would be more reflected in research pro
taught how to grow food for themselves. Similarly,
grams. Second, the basic staff in Tokyo would be
for starter countries where basic needs are al
relieved from many organizatory tasks and could fo
ready satisfied but countires cannot start the
cus more on academic issues of the vision. Third,
growth phase, introduction of technology should be
through outsourcing the costs of research and edu
cation would be considerably lower than in Tokyo
latest technologies but those ones which suit the
where prices are the highest in the world.
best their development needs. The UNU should fo
These countries would need not the
cus more on viable scenarios of technology transfer
to these countries.
The UNU being positioned in
Tokyo, has a unique opportunity to explore the
The main principle of both the UN and UNU
Japanese way of postwar modernization, how new
should be peace, because peace is an absolute
technologies were introduced and adjusted to the lo
priority condition for human existence and normal
cal conditions in Japan and how a country poor in
human activity. Peace can be maintained through
natural resources could achieve an unprecedented
accruing knowledge how to avoid causing harm and
technological and economic progress so that it is
how to help others, and here education plays a key
now ranking among the most advanced countries of
role. We must learn how to prevent crisis and how
Development should go together with education.
to help each other.
Recent terrorism drew attention to the impor
In poor countries simultaneously with basic food
tance of preserving peace. For a successful peace
programs elementary education for literacy and in
activity the present crisis management should
developing countries higher level education for as
turn into crisis prevention, which requires the UN
and the UNU to shift their focus to a more active
In order to comply with new challenges, the UNU
role. They should investigate latent crisis spots and
should reform its structure and work.
study the deeper reasons of crises.
become a real centre of scholars helping the world.
solving the problems at the core can we avoid new
A new vision is necessary focusing on crisis preven
tion and development.
The method of outsourc
Peace and satisfaction can be achieved if nations
ing should be boldly applied which would bring
in the world can proceed towards their targets, if
higher efficiency in academic and education activi
they can develop. Hence, development in its broad
ties at lower costs.
sense is the keyword to peace.
terns should be analysed and evaluated in particular
Hampson, Fen Osler and Malone, David M. (eds.):
From Reaction to Conflict Prevention: Opportunities
for the UN System 431p., Lynne Rienner, 2002
Hurrel, Andrew and Woods, Ngaire (eds): Inequality,
Globalization and World Politics, Oxford, Oxford
University Press, 1999
Leiser, Burton M.: Liberty, Justice and Morals: Con
temporary Value Conflicts, New York, Macmillan
Picco, Giandomenico (ed.): Crossing the Divide, Dia
logue among Civilizations, School of Diplomacy and
International Relations, Seton Hall University, South
Orange, NJ, 2001