27 September 2010
John Bunyan © 2005
Christian – The central character of the book and hero of the pilgrimage. Christian has a simple personality; he is not complicated or conflicted. Christian presents one profound aspect of human life, the search for religious truth. He is faith. Christian’s motivation, the search for salvation clearly defines him.
Apollyon – Wants to thwart Christian. Apollyon has a physical irregularity that displays his evil. Apollyon is hybrid, being part dragon, bear, human, and fish. He represents the opposite spiritual freedom that Christian expresses.
Christiana – Introduced in the first part of the book as Christian’s wife. She does not agree to accompany her husband on his journey to the Celestial City. She develops a deep appreciation for pilgrimage. Christiana demonstrates an attunement to more worldly matters, grasping more about the everyday workings of the social world.
Great-Heart – Acts as a loyal companion and protector to Christiana on her pilgrimage. He fulfills a vital function in part 2 providing physical defense as well as spiritual guidance. A compassionate protector of weak pilgrims. He insist that his obligation as a spiritual guide is to protect and serve those weaker than he.
Minor Characters: Part 1
Evangelist – The messenger carrying the Gospel, or word of Christ, to Christian. Evangelist spurs Christian on his journey to the Celestial City.
... still have my own spiritual doubts and questions about life and about being a Christian. I also consider ... become more disciplined and responsible in discovering the spiritual aspect of my life. I do not ... students to become full-pledged or devout Christians is what attracts me most in the ... fitting university which can cater my needs for spiritual development. The fact that George Pepperdine did ...
Obstina – A neighbor of Christian’s in the City of Destruction who refuses to accompany him.
Pliable – A neighbor of Christian’s who accompanies him for a while. After falling in the Slough of Despond, Pliable is discouraged and returns home, only to be mocked by the townsfolk
Help – Fellow pilgrim who helps pull Christian from the Slough of Despond.
Wiseman – A reasonable and practical man whom Christian encounters early in his journey.
Formalist – A traveler whom Christian meets along the wall of Salvation.
Discretion – One of the four mistresses of the Palace Beautiful. Discretion takes Christian in and feeds him.
Piety, Prudence, Charity – One of the four mistresses of the Palace Beautiful.
The Interpreter – Spiritual guide who shelters Christian.
Shining Ones – Three celestial creatures who clothe Christian with new garments and give him the certificate.
Faithful – Fellow pilgrim from Christian’s hometown who reports on the city they both left behind.
Talkative – Fellow pilgrim who travels alongside Christian and Faithful for a while.
Mr. By-ends – A user of religion for personal ends and social profit.
Hopeful – Pilgrim who replaces Faithful as Christian’s travel companion and confidant after leaving Vanity, all the way to the Celestial City.
Giant Despair – Master of the Doubting Castle.
Diffidence – Giant Despair’s wife.
Demas – Gentlemanly figure who tries to entice Christian and Hopeful with silver and dreams of wealth.
Temporary – A would-be pilgrim whom Christian speaks of in a cautionary way, warning of Temporary’s backsliding before his spiritual progress was complete.
Sagacity – An elderly man who visits the narrator in his dream.
Christiana – Christian’s wife and the titular pilgrim in Part II.
Mercy – Christiana’s neighbor employed by her as a servant on her pilgrimage.
... without God is a far less complex affair than Christian counseling. The secular counselor can be safely utilitarian ... -abiding. But our problem arises, both as Christians and as counselors, when we are forced to ... -sufficiency (cf. 35-40ff) is another specifically Christian idea when coupled with the important idea of Grace ... of repentance and the fact that a spiritual giant like David can be so flawed. I ...
Matthew – Christiana’s eldest son, who eventually marries Mercy.
Joseph, Samuel – A son of Christiana.
James – Christiana’s youngest son.
Three-Favored Ones – Two strangers who attempt to harm Christiana and Mercy.
Reliever – Fellow pilgrim who rescues Christiana and Mercy from the two three-Favored Ones.
Watchful – Porter of the House Beautiful.
Grim – Master of the lions, who threatens Christiana and Mercy on their way to the House Beautiful.
Maul – A giant killed by Great-heart. He accuses Great-heart of kidnapping the pilgrims.
Mr. Brisk – Mercy’s suitor.
Old Honest – An elderly pilgrim.
Mr. Fearing – A pilgrim who accompanies Honest for some time.
Gaius – A homeowner and host who welcomes Christiana and her group.
Giant Good-Slay – A giant slain by Gaius, Great-heart, and others.
Heedless – A pilgrim who falls asleep near the end of his pilgrimage and talks in his sleep, showing his basic failure to understand pilgrimage.
Too-bold – Heedless’s cohort.
Madam Bubble – A tall, attractive, dark-skinned temptress.
Standfast – The last pilgrim met by Christiana.
Mr. Feeble-Mind – A mentally slow pilgrim captured and nearly killed by the giant Good-Slay.
Mr. Ready-to-Halt – A handicapped pilgrim who joins Christiana’s group on crutches.
Mr. Mnason – Pilgrim with whom Christiana’s group lodges.
Contrite – Friend of Mnason’s, who says that the locals feel a burden of guilt after the unjust execution of Christian’s friend Faithful.
Valiant-for-truth – A strong, sword-wielding pilgrim.
Main Settings: The city of Destruction to the Celestial City. Along the Wall of Salvation
Plot Outline: The narrator falls asleep and dreams of a man named Christian. A spiritual guide named Evangelist visits Christian and urges him to leave the City of Destruction and go to the Celestial City. Christian begs his family to accompany him but his try is unsuccessful. Along his way he falls into a bog called Slough of Despond but he is saved. On his journey Christian befriends Hopeful, a fellow pilgrim. In part 2 Christiana is introduced as Christian’s wife. This part is about Christiana following Christian to the Celestial City and bringing along her four children. Christiana meets Valiant-for –Truth who accompanies them across the Enchanted grounds to meet the Pilgrim’s standfast. The pilgrim’s are welcomed into the Celestial City, Christiana meets her maker and the other pilgrims soon follow.
... partner in the growth of major and secondary world cities. World cities are part of an international global system. They are the centre ... of economic and cultural authority. These world cities are dominated by TNC’s which are part of an international global system, and ... these corporations select regional cities as strategic centres from ...
1. Houses: Pilgrimage means travel and movement, but even in The Pilgrim’s Progress houses are a big part. Many houses in the book are places of imprisonment, places where movement is denied and salvation is rejected. Giant Despair’s Doubting Castle exemplifies thwarting pilgrims’ movement forward by holding them hostage. But houses are necessary to the pilgrims. They give them the opportunity for rest.
2. Gates: Gates test spiritual faith and commitment. To reach the Celestial City Christian and Christiana have to pass through numerous gates. In the book gates are a sign of salvation. Passing the gates got them closer to the Celestial City which was their salvation and destination.
Knowledge Gained through travel: The Pilgrim’s Progress demonstrates that knowledge is gained through travel by portraying Christian and his companions learning from their mistakes on their journey.
The Importance of Reading: The pilgrims who have read and understand the Bible reach salvation and happiness. The pilgrims who have not read the Bible are considered disappointments and are not granted access into the Celestial City.
Diction Pg. 139-140:
“They looked in therefore, and saw that within it was very dark and smoky; they also thought that they heard a rumbling noise, as of fire, and a Cry of some tormented, and that they smelt the scent of brimstone”
Proves that some of the houses along their pilgrimage keep them hostage and do not let them continue on their journey to salvation.
Fig. Language Pg. 187
“While the fact of her gender is certainly significant, Christiana’s role is to symbolize the church”
A church is a big part to the pilgrims’ salvation. The church is where the Bible is from and in order to gain salvation a pilgrim must understand the bible and Christiana being a church she could help with that process.
... today. The Salvo s Down Under The Salvation Army came to Australia when two Christian mission converts met in the Pirie Street ... , training in the Christian lifestyle, promoting emotional health and stimulating creative abilities. In its Social Ministry, The Salvation Army engages in emergency ...
Diction Pg. 228
“Thou are a Ruth”
From the biblical book of Ruth it is leaving your roots for something else. As did Mercy, following Christiana out of her love.
Fig. Language Pg. 50
“So one took the way which is called Danger, which led him into a great Wood, and the other took directly up the way to Destruction, which led him into a wide field, full of dark mountains, where he stumbled and fell, and rose no more”
The signs do not lie. Danger was dangerous and Destrustion literally destroyed him when he took that path. He never came back out of the path.
1. “Here is a poor burdened sinner. I come from the City of Destruction, but am going to Mount Zion, that I may be delivered from the Wrath to come; I would therefore, Sir, since I am informed that by this Gate is the Way thither, know if you are willing to let me in?” Christian introduces himself to the gatekeeper Goodwill in the Second Stage of Part I.
2. “By this I perceive thou art one of my subjects; for all that country is mine, and I am the Prince and God of it. How is it then that thou hast run away from thy King?” Apollyon speaks these menacing words to Christian in the Fourth Stage of Part I, when the monster prince threatens to kidnap Christian and thwart his journey.
3. “Well, said she, my Sons, you transgress, for that fruit is none of ours; but she did not know that they did belong to the Enemy: I’ll warrant you, if she had, she would have been ready to die for fear.” Christiana delivers this reproach to her sons in the Fourth Stage of Part II, when they have been caught pilfering fruit from the devil’s garden.
4. “Apples were they with which we were beguiled. Yet sin, not Apples, hath our souls defiled.” Spoken by the host Gaius to Christiana’s son over dinner in the Sixth Stage of Part II, demonstrates different ways of interpreting even things as simple as apples.