Rabbit-Proof Fence: An Example of New English Literature
— Capital: Canberra
— Largest city: Sydney
— Government: Federal parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy
Monarch: Elizabeth II
Governor-General: Quentin Bryce
Prime Minister: Julia Gillard
2011 estimate 22,611,726
2006 census 19,855,288
— Indigenous Australians & White Migrations:
1) Indigenous Australians
a) Between 42,000 and 48,000 years ago, possibly with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia.
b) During the late 18th century, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers, with a complex oral culture and spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime.
a) Before Colonisation: n/a
b) After Colonisation: estimated at 350,000 at the time of European settlement.
c) Today: indigenous people make up 2.4 per cent of the total Australian population (about 460,000 out of 22 million people).
2) White Migrations
The First Colony:
The manner in which the indigenous population in the so called the aboriginal community are represented in the criminal justice system is bringing a lot of questions according to the Heather and Braithwaite1. The Aboriginal community is increasingly overrepresented and at the same time families are experiencing high levels of violence. Heather and Braithwaite argue that finding a solution of these ...
New South Wales was settled as a penal colony—a place where Britain could send convicted criminals because her prisons were overcrowded. Many convicts had grown up in poverty and committed only minor offences, such as the theft of a loaf of bread. Conditions in the new colony were little better than at home—it took many years for British settlers to understand the different environment of the new colony, and disease and malnutrition were widespread during the first decades of settlement.
Convicts formed the majority of the colony’s population for the first few decades of settlement. Convicts continued being sent to New South Wales until 1823, although as time went by, convicts were increasingly seen as a source of labour to build the colony, rather than just being sent away from Britain as punishment for their crimes.
The first wave of migrants to Australia included men of capital who were attracted by the colony’s agricultural prospects and the availability of convict labour. Their enthusiasm, together with the Gold Rushes era of the mid-nineteenth century, pushed out the boundaries of the new settlement and by the end of the 1850s there were six separate Australian colonies:
a) New South Wales
b) Tasmania (originally settled in 1803, but separated from New South Wales in 1825)
c) Western Australia (established in 1829)
d) South Australia, including the Northern Territory (established in 1834)
e) Victoria (detached from New South Wales in 1851)
f) Queensland (detached from New South Wales in 1859)
Settlers living in Australia in the nineteenth century lived at the frontier of not only a new land, but of a new society.
3) The stolen generations
a) “A policy to breed out indigenous people and make them culturally white.”
b) The Stolen Generations (also known as Stolen children) is a term used to describe the children of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent who were removed from their families by the Australian Federal and State government agencies and church missions, under acts of their respective parliaments.
... When talk began of federation South Australia was not in favor. South Australia valued its freedom from convict transportation, its tidy system ... of Federation. Many children were born and died hearing many proposals to federate the colonies before the dream ... 1880's South Australia became a member of the Federal Council of Australasia. This also failed immensely because New South Wales refused ...
c) Motivations evident include child protection, beliefs that given their catastrophic population decline after white contact that black people would “die out”, a fear of miscegenation by full blooded aboriginal people.
d) Time & Policy:
□ The removals occurred in the period between approximately 1869 and 1969, although in some places children were still being taken in the 1970s.
□ The earliest introduction of child removal to legislation is recorded in the Victorian Aboriginal Protection Act 1869.
□ By 1950, similar policies and legislation had been adopted by other states and territories.
e) Brief consequence:
There were genocide debates on whether the policy could “die out” the black people. Yet, in the long run, the answer comes clearly that it is impossible. Thus, the finally the Prime Minister apologised on 13 Feb. 2008.
f) Australian federal parliament apology: On 27 January 2008, Kevin Rudd announced that the apology would be made on or soon after the first day of parliament in Canberra, on 12 February. The date was later set to 13 February, when it was ultimately issued.
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