INTRODUCTION For over 40 years, both experimental and field studies have been conducted to determine the effects of media violence on aggressive behavior in children. Although many may argue that the data supporting a positive correlation is still inconclusive (Freedman, 1984), research findings discrediting the correlational theory are relatively few. Most of the data seems to point in one direction and that is: that media violence is significantly related to increased aggression in children. It is certainly undeniable that other factors such as socioeconomic status, parental involvement, and violence in the home play an active role in attitude formation. The amount and intensity of television viewing, extent of violence portrayed in programs watched, and children’s perception of program content also need to be taken into account. However, research findings are clear that exposure to media violence is a major contributing factor to aggressive behavior.
Alarmingly, it has been estimated that by the age of 18, the average young person will have viewed about 200, 000 acts of violence on television alone (Huston, Donner stein, Fairchild, 1992).
Given the fact that children spend a large portion of their time in front of the television set on a daily basis, establishing whether or not there is a causal relation demands serious attention. Bandura, Ross, and Ross (1961, 1963) conducted some of the most renowned studies on childhood aggression. In their famous Bobo doll studies, in which nursery school aged children aggressed a blown-up doll through imitation of aggressive models, and a following study on imitation of film-mediated aggressive models, Bandura’s theory of social modeling was substantiated. In these two studies, children tended to imitate the aggressive behavior they observed from the experimental models, both in live situations and film-mediated instances. In addition to the impact of social models, the extent of violence portrayed in popular television programs has also been investigated.
... media particularly media violence on our nation's youth. Children who are heavy viewer of television are more aggressive and more pessimistic ... such an extensive back ground in the development and study of morals and ethics that affect our social surroundings ... same extent as a live model (Levine, 1996). The sophistication of children's attitudes towards television content changes dramatically over time ...
Eron’s (1963) study based on the relationship of television viewing habits and aggressive behavior in children indicated a positive relationship between the violence ratings of favorite programs as reported by the children’s parents and aggressive behavior, particularly in boys, as rated by their peers. In a meta-analysis review of the experimental effects of media violence on viewers’ aggression in unstructured social interaction, children and adolescents who were exposed to violent or control presentations indicated that exposure to media violence significantly enhanced aggressive behavior in both groups during social interactions in a natural setting (Wood, Wong, & Chachere, 1991).
Having examined studies that support the social modeling theory and the correlational effects of exposure to violence portrayed in popular television programs on children, one area of media violence that has not been given much research attention seems to call out for further investigation. This is why the focus of this study is rap music and its relation to violent behavior. The hypothesis of this research is that this genre of music promotes antisocial behavior in children and predisposes them to the development of delinquency later on during adolescence. Factors that will be examined include parenting and attachment styles, role models, peer interaction, and social and moral attitudes.
METHODS PARTICIPANTS This study will be based on results gathered from two separate samples, each comprised of 90 subjects. The overall number of subjects will be 180. Each individual sample group will further be divided into 3 subgroups that will be restricted to male subjects. The first sample will consist of a) low socioeconomic males (9-12 years of age) with a preference for Rap music, b) middle class males (9-12 years of age) with a musical preference for Rap music, and c) low socioeconomic and middle class males (9-12 years of age) with a preference for contemporary Pop music lacking violent and profane content. The second sample will consist of a) low socioeconomic adolescent males (15-18 years of age) with a preference for Rap music, b) middles class adolescent males (15-18 years of age) with a preference for Rap music, and c) low socio-economic and middle class adolescent males (15-18 years of age) with a preference for contemporary Pop music without violent and profane content. The samples will be taken from various public schools located throughout the Greater Miami area of South Florida.
... cohesive element that keeps a musical group together is also an interesting contrast. In Classical music, the conductor uses a baton ... cohesive element that keeps a musical group together is also an interesting contrast. In Classical music, the conductor uses a baton ... cohesive element that keeps a musical group together is also an interesting contrast. In Classical music, the conductor uses a baton ...
In order to determine which individuals will fit the criteria required for this study, a short essay questionnaire regarding popular music artists and musical interest will be given to the population of students during class time. Subjects that will comprise the exposure group will be selected according to their preference for Rap artists like Java Felony, Ludacris, Snoop Dogg, Dr. Dre and Rap groups such as Bone Thugs and Harmony, Three 6 Mafia, and N. W.
A. Control subjects will be selected based on their preference for popular Pop artists like Britney Spears, Mariah Carey, Nick Cannon and groups like 98 Degrees, N’sync and Dream. After the subject pool meeting the criteria is narrowed down to 30 subjects per subgroup, parents will be issued a packet including a consent form and written statements of the study’s protocols and procedures. Parents will be told that the study is meant to determine the current musical preferences of school-age children. The subject sessions are to be held in designated classrooms at the end of the school day and parental interviews will be held at the respondent’s homes.
MEASURES AND PROCEDURES SAMPLE 1- (male subjects 9 through 12 years of age) During the first half of the assessment, children in the exposure groups will individually undergo a 10-item face-to-face open-ended interview in which they will be asked about their favorite rap artists. The interview will consist of the following questions: 1. Who is your favorite Rap singer? 2. What do you like most about your favorite Rap singer? 3. What do you like most about Rap music? 4.
... David Samuels holds to be true, that rap music can endure the influence of groups other than its creators and still survive and ... and around Miami which played R&B records. Some favorite R&B artists were Fats Domino, Amos Melburn, Louis ... ;. They said, “Mr. Rhodes, we just do whatever we feel like doing.” This may be the case, but if ...
What do you like most about Rap videos? 5. What is your favorite video by your favorite Rap singer? 6. What song do you most remember by your favorite Rap artist? During the second half, subjects will then be given an additional 50-item self-report questionnaire that will include illustrations depicting the content of each item to facilitate comprehension. The items of the questionnaire will measure conflict resolution style and sensitivity to violence. Exposure groups and control group will be assessed in different classrooms. The same format and procedures will be administered to the control group with the omission of the term Rap in the open-ended interview.
Instead, subjects in the control group will be asked about their favorite pop artists and music. A nominal rating scale consisting of 4 choices (1. Hit, 2. Yell, 3. Ignore, or 4. Tell a grown up) will be used to answer the first section of the self-report questionnaire.
The first section is intended to measure conflict resolution style and will include items such as: 1. If you want to ride a swing but someone is on it, what would you do? 2. If another kid pushed you, what would you do? 3. If another kid tried to take your bike from you, what would you do? 4. If another kid screamed at you, what would you do? 5.
If another kid took your lunch money, what would you do? 6. If another kid tried to take your toy, what would you do? 7. If a group of your friends are beating up on another boy, what would you do? 8. If your friends are beating up on a girl, what would you do? 9. If your friend got angry at you and called you stupid, what would you do? 10. If a group of your friends would play a joke on you and then laugh at you, what would you do? The latter half of the questionnaire, which focuses on assessing subjects’s ensitivity to violence, will consist of different choices (1.
Angry, 2. Sad, 3. Happy, 4. Don’t care.
) and will included items such as: 1. If you see someone else being hurt, how would that make you feel? 2. If you see an animal getting hurt, how would that make you feel? 3. If you saw someone getting hit by a car, how would that make you feel? 4. If your see your best friend hitting another playmate, how would you feel? 5. If you see a girl getting hit by a boy, how would you feel? 6.
... from us and got together with a group of Juniors who claimed themselves rap apostles.Rap music in the media gives several important themes ... lyrics and or at concerts, we see it from our favorite music artists.This may influence children to go out and try ... ideas on how and why people are affected by music and others feel that music does not influence a persons actions what so ...
If you see someone playing with a gun, how would that make you feel? 7. If you saw your teacher fall down and get hurt, how would that make you feel? 8. If someone called you a thief, how would you feel? 9. If someone said you were mean, how would you feel? 10. If someone told you that rap music is dumb, how would you feel? SAMPLE 2- (male subject 15-18 years of age) Adolescents will be informed that the purpose of the study is to determine the extent that music depicts real life situations of modern day youths. They will also be told that the way teenagers respond to these situations would be of interest.
The first half of the assessment will consist of a 50-item open-ended questionnaire, in which the subjects will be able to answer written questions in their own words. It will measure a) identification with rap stars b) linkage of rap music and videos to real life, and b) perceived learning of aggression. Items that measure criterion variables will include: 1. Name your favorite rap star? 2. What do you like most about your favorite rap star? 3. What do you like most about rap music? 4.
What do you like most about rap videos? 5. Which are your favorite videos by the rap star you mentioned? 6. What song do you most remember by your favorite rap star? Write down your favorite lyrics. 7. Do you think that rap music explains well how life really is for the average teenager? 8. Do you think rap music similarly explains how life is in your neighborhood? 9.
Do you think rap music similarly explains how life is for you? 10. Do you think rap music similarly explains how life is for your friends? 11. Do you think drugs, hustling, and violence are just as much a part of real life as they are in music videos? 12. How does rap music make you feel when you are listening to it? 13. Do you find out about the latest clothing fads and language trends through rap music? 14.
Do you think Rap music teaches you how to stand up for yourself? 15. Do you think rap music and Rap music videos resemble the way you think? 16. How young were you when you started listening to Rap? 17. How many Rap music CDs and tapes do you own? 18. How much is Rap music a part of your life? 19. How much time would you say you spend listening to Rap music or watching music videos? 20.
... her sex life with her husband. What kind of since does that make? Just another person trying to bad mouth rap music for ... -old son killed himself after listening to the controversial rock group Marilyn Manson. Bands like that are noted for explicit lyrics ... a statement that most attacks on the music industry are fueled by politicians and groups such as the Christian Coalition and the ...
What would you do if your parents told you you weren’t allowed to listen to Rap music anymore? During the second half of the measurement process, questionnaires will be collected and a 1979 film entitled “Boulevard Nights” will be shown to the subjects. The film is about two brothers who live in an inner city area of California and who are deeply involved in gang related activity. In the particular scene that the subjects will be exposed to, a group of teenagers come to the home of a rival gang member who earlier accosts them while walking down the street. The teens proceed to damage and destroy the rival member’s vehicle with bats and rocks, while one of them stands on the look out holding a shotgun. The teens finally scatter after an adult comes out shooting a gun and frightens them away. After viewing the film, an additional 50-item self-report measure of aggression questionnaire will be handed out to the subjects.
The open-ended items will assess their reactions to media violence and will fall under three classes: a) generalized aggression, b) behavioral delinquency, and c) conflict resolution. The film will be demonstrated to both the exposure groups and control group who will be evaluated in different classrooms. However, the open-ended questionnaire that will be issued to the control group will be modified and have the term Rap replaced by favorite favorite pop artists and popular music. 1. Do you think a person has to be tough in order to earn the respect of others in your neighborhood? 2. If one is not tough are they likely to get beat up by others? 3.
Do you think the teens in the film you watched had to do what they did in order to get respect from the rival gang? 4. What would have you done if you got pushed around by the rival gang member? 5. How do you usually react when someone pushes you, calls you names, or puts you down? 6. How many times have you been involved in a verbal dispute with someone in the past year (since 2001)? 7.
How many times have you been involved in a fight in the past year? 8. Have you ever stolen a car? If so, how many times have you done so in the past year? 9. How many crimes, for which you have not been caught, have you commited in the past year? 10. How many times have you been put in jail in the past 3 years (since 1998)? 11. If someone would vandalize your car what would you do? 12. Do you believe sometimes you have to get people back in order to make them pay for doing something to you? 13.
... the genial conversation and sharing their pleasure with them. Every time when parents take them to amusement park, help them to prepare ... should do and should not do. In addition, if parents often spend time in staying with their children, adults' good behaviors will ... there are some disadvantages in spending too much time on children. Some parents restrict their children, and give them little freedom ...
If someone were to hit you, would you think it was ok to hit them back? 14. Do you believe you have to do what ever it takes, even if it is illegal, in order to survive? 15. If a policeman was arresting you and you felt like he was wrong would you fight back? 16. Do you think people respect you more when you have a lot of money? 17. Do you think people respect you more when you are tough? 18. What are some of the things that would earn you respect in your neighborhood? 19.
If you were angry enough and someone got in your way, would you hit them with a bat? 20. When you are angry, do you throw or break things? Both exposure groups and control group will be exposed to the film. However, the format of the open-ended questionnaire being issued to the control group during the first half of the assessment process will be modified and have the terms Rap and Rap artist replaced by favorite Pop artists and popular music. Exposure groups and control group are to be evaluated in different classrooms. PARENTS Measures of aggressive behavior will be obtained from a 100-item interview administered to their convenience at the respondent’s home. The parent with the highest involvement in each child’s life will be chosen for the interview.
The interview is designed to assess both physical and verbal aggression in the home. It will also measure variables such as a) parenting style, b) whether or not corporal punishment is employed during disciplining, c) incidents of domestic violence between parents, d) amount of time spent by the parents interacting with child in a family oriented and productive manner, e) the amount of child’s media intake (I. E. time spent watching television programs and music videos, and listening to music) and f) how much effort is made by parent to monitor the child’s media diet. Demographic information such as occupation, religiosity, and ethnicity will also be collected.
The interview for parents of adolescents will follow the same format as with the younger subjects with the exception of a few age appropriate alterations. RESULTS A multivariate strategy will be used to analyze the data for this study. The data will be calculated using a M ANOVA statistical package computer program. The statistical procedures that will be used are frequency distribution, factor analysis, and a form of multiple regression technique called Path Analysis. Berezina, Timothy.
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