3c Properties of rocks
* Igneous rocks are formed from the crystallization of magma.
* Extrusive igneous rocks are fined grain rocks that cool quickly on earth’s surface.
* Intrusive igneous rocks are coarse grained rocks the cool slowly beneath earth’s surface.
* Main chemical/mineral composition of igneous rocks – mix of molten rock, rock, gases, mineral crystals.
* Sedimentary rocks are formed when weathering and erosion produce sediments
* Most common type of sedimentary rocks = clastic sedimentary
* Metamorphic rocks form when high temp and pressure combine to alter the texture.
* 3 types of volcanoes are shield volcanoes, cinder-cone volcanoes, and composite volcanoes.
* Shield volcanoes form at the Hawaiian Islands.
* Shield volcanoes have gently sloping sides and a circular base.
* Shield volcanoes have basaltic lava = less explosive than other eruptions.
* Cinder cone volcanoes have steep sides and are generally small.
* There magma is more viscous than the shield volcanoes = more explosive.
* Composite volcanoes are much larger than cinder cone volcanoes.
* Composite volcanoes’ magma has large amounts of silica, water and gases.
* Composite volcanoes eruptions are violently explosive.
* Hot spots are unusually hot regions of earth’s mantle where high temp. Plumes of mantle material rise toward the surface.
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2012) Geologic provinces of the world (USGS) Shield Platform Orogen Basin Large igneous province Extended crust Oceanic crust: 0–20 Ma 20–65 Ma >65 Ma Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis ...
* Hot spots are usually formed and located far from plate boundaries.
4b Incoming solar radiation
* While earth is absorbing solar radiation, it’s also sending energy back into space.
* Most solar energy travels through the earth’s atmosphere in short wavelengths.
* Much of the solar radiation passes through the atmosphere & is absorbed by earth’s surface
* The energy radiated by earth’s surface does not go back through the atmosphere.
* Its absorbed by the atmosphere and warms the air through conduction and convection.
* The atmosphere reflects 6% of the sun.
* 25% is reflected from clouds.
* 4% is reflected from earth’s surface.
* 15% is absorbed by the atmosphere.
* 50% is directly or indirectly absorbed by earth’s surface.
5c Effects of temperature Inversion.
* temperature inversion is an increase in temperature with height in an atmospheric layer.
* Temperature inversion occurs when the lower layers of the atmosphere are no receiving heat from earth’s surface.
* As a result, the lower layers of air become cooler than the air above them, so that temp. increases with height = temperature inversion.
* The effect of temp. inversion = worsen in air pollution.
6c Earth’s climate
* An example of long-term climate changes is ice ages.
* Ice ages are periods of extensive glacial coverage.
* Ice ages last many thousand years.
* An example of short-term climate changes is seasons.
* Unlike ice ages, seasons last 3 months.
* Seasons are short-term periods of climatic change.
* Natural changes are caused by natural events such as changes in earth’s tilt.
* Global warming is the rise in global temperature.
* Global warming can cause polar ice caps to melt and it can cause sea level to rise.
7a Carbon and Nitrogen cycle
* The continuous recycling of earth’s carbon is called the global carbon cycle.
1. Assume that you have 100 years of continuous temperature records from your local weather service office. Discuss some of the difficulties you might have trying to determine whether average temperatures have increased during this period. According to our book, it is difficult to measure an average temperature change over a specified period because it is possible that the weather station has ...
* The process that moves the greatest amount of carbon is photosynthesis.
* Through photosynthesis, plants remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, combine carbon dioxide & water and release energy.
* Nitrogen is essential for life because it is a key component of proteins.
* The role of bacteria is converting atmospheric nitrogen to form of nitrogen that can be used by plants.
* The nitrogen cycle starts when animals cannot use nitrogen in this form.
* Certain bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen to a form of nitrogen that can be used by plants.
* When an organism eats a plant, the nitrogen goes in the structures in its body.
* After an organism dies, decomposers convert the nitrogen in elemental nitrogen and the cycle repeats.
7c Earth’s sources of energy
* Water is important because as it continually moves between the atmospheres, it nourishes living things.
* The water cycle receives its energy from the sun.
* The sun is main source of energy.
9a Mineral and natural resources
* Sand and gravel is California’s most valuable mineral resources product.
* California’s second most valuable mineral resource products is cement.
* Some of California’s energy resources are fossil fuels and geothermal energy.
* The sun is the energy source of fossil fuels.
* Geothermal energy is earth’s internal thermal energy released to the surface all round the world.
* Using geothermal to produce electricity is considered more environmentally friendly than burning fossils fuels because it’s renewable.
Standards Review Project
May 9, 2012
* 3c Properties of rocks (pg. 1)
* 3e Volcanoes (pg. 1)
* 4b Incoming solar radiation (pg. 2)
* 5c Effects of temperature inversion (pg. 2)
* 6c Earth’s climate (pg. 3)
* 7a Carbon and Nitrogen cycle (pg. 3)
There two main types of energy these are: 1. Potential energy 2. Kinetic energy Potential energy Potential energy is energy stored due to position. The following are some example in which potential energy can be found. 1. Wound-up spring When a spring of a dock work toy car unwinds, the stored energy in the spring drives the wheels and the car moves. The wound-up spring is said to posse potential ...
* 7c Earth’s sources of energy (pg. 4)
* 9a Mineral and Natural resources (pg. 4)