Should the Chinese Government Lift the One-Child Policy?
1.2 billion, 21% of the world’s population.
Since 1978, China has been implementing the one-child policy, a law that restricts the number of children married couples are allowed to have in both rural and urban areas. The Chinese government introduced this law to try and alleviate social, economic, and environmental problems. The government claims that this policy has prevented 400 million births, (the equivalent population of Europe) over the past 30 years.
The limit has been strongly enforced in urban areas, but the actual implementation varies from location to location. In most rural areas, families are allowed to apply to have a second child if the first is a girl, has a physical disability, or mental illness, Second children are subject to birth spacing (usually 3 or 4 years).
Additional children will result in large fines. Children born in overseas countries are not counted under the policy if they do not obtain Chinese citizenship. Chinese citizens returning from abroad can have a second child.
The one-child policy has always been a contention in violating human rights, as should the size of one’s family be determined. During the1980’s there were numerous reports of women having forced sterilizations, forced abortions and babies being killed immediately after birth.
... Chinese government came up with an extreme plan of the One Child Policy. This policy allows citizens to pick up the birth before the birth of their child. ... undeveloped areas, unbalance of male and female, preference of bearing only male children and ... Chinese government has taken an important step in giving support to the development of poor areas to alleviate poverty by promoting one-child policy, ...
In 2002, China outlawed the use of physical force to make a woman submit to an abortion or sterilization, but it is not entirely enforced.
The Chinese authorities believe that the one-child policy has had a positive effect on China’s current economic growth; by controlling the population it has proven that there has been less strain on health care, education system and the emergency services. By limiting overpopulation there has been less requirement for housing, less waste production and less
The Chinese authorities thus consider the policy as a great success in helping to implement China’s current economic growth. The reduction in the fertility rate and thus population growth has reduced the severity of problems that come with overpopulation, like epidemics, slums, overwhelmed social services (such as health, education, law enforcement), and strain on the ecosystem from abuse of fertile land and production of high volumes of waste.
Even with the one-child policy in place, China still has one million more births than deaths every five weeks.
Despite the prevention of hundreds of millions of births and the so called success that this law entails, the policy has created various problems for China and perhaps caused irreversible damage to the structure of Population Growth in China: The UN Population Division has projected that by 2050 the elderly population in China (above the age of 60) will be 31% of the total population. By contrast, the proportion of children and young adults (below the age of 20) will only be 21% of the population.
Furthermore, China, like many other Asian countries, has a long tradition of son preference. The commonly accepted explanation for son preference is that sons in rural families are thought to be more helpful in farm work. Both rural and urban populations have economic and traditional incentives, including widespread remnants of Confucianism, to prefer sons over daughters. Sons are preferred as they provide the primary financial support for the parents in their retirement, and a son’s parents are typically better cared for than his wife’s. In addition, Chinese traditionally hold that daughters, on their marriage, become primarily a part of the groom’s family.
In 1950, the world human population numbered 2.5 billion. In 1987, the global human population has doubled since 1950, and for the first time, it has exceeded the 5 billion mark. Furthermore, with the continuation of this growth pattern, estimated by demographic researchers, this number is projected to double once more in about 40 years (Raven 48). The rapidly population has caused many ...
he social pressure exerted by the one-child policy has affected the rate at which parents abandon undesirable children, and many live in state-sponsored orphanages, from which thousands are adopted internationally and by Chinese parents each year. In the 1980s and early 1990s, poor care and high mortality rates in some state institutions generated intense international pressure for reform.
The practice of adopting out unwanted girls is consistent with both the son preference of many Chinese couples and the findings of Zeng et al. (1993) and Anderson and Silver (1995) that under some circumstances families have a preference for girls, in particular when they have already satisfied their goals for sons. Research by Weiguo Zhang (2006) on child adoption in rural China reveals increasing receptivity to adopting girls, including by infertile and childless couples.
In 1992, China instituted its first adoption law. Officially registered adoptions increased from about 2,000 in 1992 to 55,000 in 2001. According to one scholar, these figures “represent a small proportion of adoptions in China because many adopted children were adopted informally without official registrations. International adoption rates climbed dramatically after the early 1990s, increasing to the U.S. alone from about 200 in 1992 to more than 7,900 in 2005.
According to the Los Angeles Times, many babies put up for adoption had not been abandoned by their parents, but confiscated by family planning officials.
Gender-selected abortion, abandonment, and infanticide are illegal in China. Nevertheless, the US State Department, the Parliament of the United Kingdom, and the human rights organization Amnesty International have all declared that China’s family planning programs contribute to infanticide.
On one hand, China is facing the burden of aging population and the decline of its workforce; In order to maintain stable growth and to correct its gender imbalance, China needs to loosen its one-child policy. On the other hand, loosening the one child policy might create more pollution and food shortages.
I watched the video clip presented by Laura A. Cece re entitled, "Saving Girls' Lives: International Adoptions from China." Chinese adoptions help families in many ways. Over the decades, the idea of adoption has changed. Having many children used to be a sign of virtue. The more offspring you have, the more successful you are, because it takes more money. If someone wanted to adopt, the adoption ...