Which social structure do you think has been significant in Australia in the last twelve months and which social structure do you think will be significant in the next twelve months? Has its importance been consistent historically? – Gender
Social structures are what defines us within society, it is the definition of who we are, and the path we are influenced to follow. This essay will focus on how the social structure: gender, has been significant in Australia, throughout history and in the previous 12 months. This is then compared to its current status and its future expectations. The study will be done through examining new laws and government funding and exploring recent literature focussed on gender, and then comparing that to history’s perception of gender and how that has evolved.
Gender was the chosen social structure due to its importance within society, regardless of other social factors influence. Gender is the first social structure given to us the moment we are born and typically stays the same throughout life. Gender is a learnt behaviour which dictates how we respond to others, conduct ourselves, analyse information and how we present ourselves to the world (Jureidini & Poole 2003, pg. 158).
A common misconception is that sex and gender are the same; sex is the “classification based on anatomical, chromosomal and hormonal differences in people” while gender is “based on physiological, cultural and psychological factors” (Jureidini & Poole 2003, pg.159).
Although the United States is one of the richest countries in the world many of it's people sleep in the streets, dig through garbage cans to find food, and carry all that they own in this world on their backs or in shopping carts. These people are known as the homeless. Recently I had the opportunity of helping, and at the same time being educated by one of the members of this unfortunate group. ...
Throughout a lifetime, many of the specifics of belonging to particular gender are decided through culture, ethnicity and historical periods (Macionis & Plummer 2012, pg.390).
One of the characteristics that have prevailed through time for gender is that females are the caring and nurturing species due to being the child rearing gender, and males are the provider, leader and generally the superior gender (Holmes, Hughes and Julian 2003, pg. 130).
This is not always true to every culture and individual but still stands with a relatively high majority. There has long been the debate about which contributions to the definition of gender are determined by society or biological sex, which leads to the much noted nature vs. nurture segment (Jureidini & Poole 2003, pg. 161).
With this topic still being of interest in modern times, it makes gender a priority in today’s social structures.
The study of gender was derived from the previous sociology study of ‘sex roles’ developed by Margaret Mead, from the 1940’s to the 1960’s (Jureidini & Poole 2003, pg. 158).
‘Sex roles’ accurately described the norms, rules and responsibilities of both men and women but failed to explain domestic violence, power distribution and inequality (Jureidini & Poole 2003, pg.158).
Gender was created in the 1970’s, in sociology literature after feminists criticised the sex role theory. Back in 1775 a women’s legal existence was based purely on the status of her husband, where all of her possessions would automatically become his (Lieberman 1999, pg.1).
During the 1800’s women were not considered individuals in a legal sense, meaning they could not be sued or be entitled to their own wages or property if divorced (Lieberman 1999, pg.2).
A significant development in gender was the women’s movement, also known as the first wave of feminism, led by the liberal feminists during the American War on Independence of 1776 and the 1789 French Revolution (Jureidini & Poole 2003, pg 164-166).
In 1791, the Declaration of Rights of Women and Female Citizen was published, which stated the need for education, ownership of property, freedom of speech and political and government participation for women Jureidini & Poole 2003, pg. 165).
Where did all those romantic fellas go? With all that can be, all that is within us, romance lives forever! So why not take advantage of it. Did you ever look around and wonder why a woman will chose another man over you? Maybe you are more handsome, intelligent, richer and so much more than that other plain fellow what's his name. But he's romantic and obviously knows how to treat a woman and ...
Education was a main priority for feminists, and that without it and participation in the public life, women would stay subordinate to men, stated in the study by Mary Wollstonecraft. In 1848 the first convention on women’s rights was held in New York, where a new modified version on the American Declaration of Independence was issued (Jureidini & Poole 2003, 165).
In Australia, males have dominated since settlement due simply to population numbers of imported convicts (Lieberman 1999, pg.1).
Australian men live in potentially one of the most male dominated countries, since all of its institutions were “created by men and therefor reflect a male attitude and mentality” (Lieberman 1999, pg.1).
Second wave feminism arose during the 1960’s and 1970’s, where liberal feminists encouraged the removal of barriers for women in the workforce and throughout education, supporting equal pay and anti-discrimination laws (Jureidini & Poole 2003, pg.167).
This included the uprising of radical feminism and Marxist/ socialist feminism (Macionis & Plummer 2012, pg. 408).
Although the specifics demanded from each group varied, the overall request was for equal opportunities and respect. In 1975 the Commonwealth Conciliation and Arbitration Commission ruled that “equal pay for work of equal value”, which did not stop the sexual division of labour but helped make female jobs less inferior (Holmes, Hughes & Julian 2003, pg. 140).
The work of these females has been greatly significant for women’s rights, although emphasise needs to be made on how much still needs to be done. Throughout the last decade, much literature has been devoted to gender and its offspring issues, which throughout time has shown the progression in gender and its ever changing dynamics. For example, in 2002 a study was released by Janeen Baxter discussing the amount both women and men spend on housework and how that has been affecting gender, compared to a 1992 study by Dempsey which looked at why men were superior to women in rural Australia. More studies have been released in previous years, trying to identify and analyse aspects of gender such as university participation (Lafferty & Fleming 2000, pg. 257-267), gender coping strategies (Frydenberg & Ramon 1993, pg. 253-266), sexual harassment (Broderick 2010) and fertility (ABS 2007, pg. 1-5).
Abstract This study examined the opinion of a little group of people in Bangkok about gender equality and focus on should women be equal to men or not? From the books and online data, give two aspects of it (women should be equal or not). The information bring from period time and the present time. Moreover, add supporting this research by comparison of equality between law and social values. It ...
Gender has been important consistently throughout history, and is one of the most important social structures to date, continuing into the present.
In the previous 12 months gender has been primary focus for many articles and literature, with new laws becoming effective in 2012 that significantly impact the lives of many individuals. Gender will always be an important social structure, as seen in modern times in social media (Holmes, Hughes & Julian 2003, pg. 126).
This has been made into a social platform, so that everyone’s opinion on gender and sociology can be displayed, viewed and challenged by the world. In 2012, the Australian Government introduced a legislation to retain and improve Equal Opportunity for Women in the Workplace Agency, renamed Workplace Gender Equality Act 2012 (Australian Government 2012, pg.1).
It was developed for easier online reporting and to set industry-specific minimum standards, influenced by the decision of doubling current funding (Australian Government 2012).
A study was conducted by the Australian Government in 2012 focusing on gender workplace statistics.
Equality was still not achieved; with on average women working full time earning 17.6% less than males doing the equivalent (ABS 2012).
Over a quarter of the companies surveyed by ACID in 2012 did not have a female on their board, with women having a small percentage in leadership roles; 2.5% of chairs, 3.0% of CEO’s, 8.4% of board directors and 8.0% of executive managers (EOWA 2010).
In the Gender Balance on Australian Government Boards Report 2010-2011 a forward by the minister for the status of women, Julie Collins stated that the government’s intention of a minimum of 40% of both genders making up the board by 2015 was in progress, with a high of 35.3% female board members in 2011. The importance of gender balance on boards is apparent, with women having equal positions in only three leadership categories out of eighteen, being general attorney, community services and immigration and citizenship (Australian Government 2011 pg.4) .
'States should not concern themselves with human rights, only with their own security and the preservation of peace.' In concerning themselves with security and the preservation of peace, states must concern themselves with issues such as human rights. The preservation of peace is an extremely important issue, particularly in these times of uncertain international security and must be addressed by ...
The government has taken much initiation in trying to combat issues arising with gender and sex, such as the Equal Opportunity for Women in the Workplace Amendment Bill 2012, The Australian Public Service Commission’s merit and transparency guidelines, The Commonwealth Government Business Enterprise Governance and Oversight Guidelines, Australian Institute of Company Directors, Women in Sport Leadership Register and Sports Leadership Grants and Scholarships for Women, to name a few. Paid maternity leave is still a topic often being brought up in government funding (ABS 2008, pg.1) with only 52.8% of organisations reporting to provide paid maternity leave (EOWA, 2011), an increase from 45% in 2007 (ABS 2008, pg.2).
The average duration is 9.5 weeks, adding to the Federal Governments paid parental leave scheme, which recently became effective (Australian Government 2011, pg. 2).
These statistics demonstrate the importance of gender and indicate that much interest will be paid to gender in the future. Recently, a situation which has arisen for gender is when the biological sex does not concur with the gender. This is apparent in transsexuals; an individual whose “gender identity is different from the anatomical characteristics of their body” (Jureidini & Poole 2003, pg. 160).
This phenomenon argues against the theories of gender. Another controversial issue is the study of intersex, recently brought into the spotlight in 2009 due to the athlete Caster Semenya.
Interest was shown due to her masculine looks (Macionis & Plummer 2012, pg. 391), and after much ridicule and threatening of disqualification, tests were conducted which revealed she has internal male testes and no womb or ovaries, the cause for her high testosterone levels (Hurst 2009).
She recently came back into the public eye after pictures were released showing her more feminine body in 2012. The whole idea of a hermaphrodite challenges the principle of sex and gender, and what it means to be masculine or feminine.
Gender is, and will continue to be, a crucial social structure. Its relevance is never-ceasing as the public will always have a craving for further information and a deeper understanding of what it means to belong to a gender. Our views and opinions are forever changing, the definitions of gender and sex along with it. Gender will continue to be a significant social structure if it follows a similar path as its history. Progress has been made in improving work conditions, equal opportunities and society rights for women over the last century.
Greenpeace is an independent organization campaigning to ensure a just, peaceful, sustainable environment for future generations. It began in Canada in 1971 and today has a presence in more than 40 countries with 2. 4 million supporters worldwide. Greenpeace Australia was founded in 1977 and today we have more than 75, 000 supporters. Prevent dangerous climate change by phasing out fossil fuels ( ...
Just in the previous 12 months, several studies have focussed on the data surrounding females and enquiries into what else can be done. With equality still being a cause for concern, gender will continue to affect possible new laws and future literature. The more advanced our society becomes; the deeper we can dwell into gender and all its attributes. The effects of transsexuals having sex change operations, hermaphrodites having an unchosen gender, IVF, sex trafficking, child sex abuse, DNA modification, patriarchy and future medical phenomena’s are sure to change and develop our understanding of gender.
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How the Australian Gold rush changed Australia The gold rushes in the second half of the 19th century would completely change the way Australia would look at its self and how other nations and people would look at it. Before 1851, Australia’s combined recorded white population was approximately 77,000. Most of these where convicts, slaved and war captives who had been inhabiting Australia for the ...
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