Surfing is the sport of riding a surfboard toward the shore on the crest of a wave. It is an amazing sport to learn and it gives the rider a hell of an adrenaline rush! ! There are three major phases of surfing – paddling, push up and the standing position. This report will give you a full understanding of the correct techniques to use while surfing and it also describes the basic structure and function of the muscular-skeletal and cardio-respiratory systems of the human body. It will also describe the many different energy systems and how they change when surfing. Getting Started Before catching the massive waves it’s a good idea to practise getting used to surfing on the white wash. The white wash is where the waves break and it is the easiest wave to catch.
Strap your leg rope (or leash) to your ankle, and hold the slack so you don’t trip as you enter the water. The first phase in surfing is paddling. To start off you will need to learn how to successfully catch a wave. It’s a good idea to watch other surfers get into the water, and observe the route they use to paddle out. To paddle, you first lie on your surfboard – to do this body weight needs to be positioned along the centre of the board. Your feet need to be raised slightly off the end of the board.
Your body needs to be far enough back to keep the nose of the board about a couple of inches out of the water. If you are too far forward on the board you will notice that the nose of the board keeps dipping underwater making it very difficult to paddle. It will take time to find the most comfortable position. Try to be balanced on the board and paddle at almost the speed of the incoming wave. Raise your head when you paddle with arms bent at the elbow approximately ninety degrees. Reach out with one arm at a time, cupping your hands to make a scoop, stroking your way through the water.
... get through larger breaking waves. Lets find out more about paddling the next Surfing Lesson, #2 - Paddling Paddling On Your Board Paddling, if you do not ... on the board, and how to comfortably paddle around. As you progress with your surfing you will be out in deeper water and will ... body needs to be far enough back to keep the nose of the board about a couple of inches out of the water. ...
You don’t have to dig your arms too deep. Keep the movement of your arms nice and smooth, pulling the board through the water and finish your paddle by flicking your wrist as your arms moves past your hip. Pictures (Above and right): The position of different surfers while paddling How to get over a wave When you are paddling out you will need to learn how to duck dive, turtle roll or bail when you come to breaking waves. Duck Dive – Keep paddling until the wave is about two seconds in front of you in preparation for the duck dive. Grab the sides, or “rails”, of your board just in front of your shoulders. Plant your knees in the middle of the board, raise your torso over your arms and nose dive your board, in one movement, as deep as you can make it go.
Paddle your board with all your strength as soon as you can regain control upon surfacing. Keep up your efforts until you ” re beyond the breakers. Pushing up is surfing’s second phase. It is the most difficult position to learn, and it takes a lot of practice and determination to conquer. To get up, put your hands on the rails (edges) of the board under your chest and do a mighty push up so your entire upper body and hips are clear of the board’s deck.
While your hands are still on the rails, swing your front foot under your upper body and set it in riding position. Your back leg and foot are still extended out behind you. Using your arms and front leg, push straight up off the board and swing your back foot into place on the board. The faster you ” re up, the sooner you will have control of the surfboard. Pictures (above and right): Different ways of pushing up on a surfboard The final stage in surfing is the standing position. After you have pushed up onto your surfboard place your feet firmly on your board, one foot near the tail and one foot just above the midpoint of the board.
The nervous system is composed of two main cell types the neurons and glial cells. Neurons transmit nerve messages and glial cells are in direct contact with neurons and often surround them. The basic function of the nervous system is as follow. They receive sensory input from internal and external environment, the integrate the input a they respond to stimuli. The nervous system also consists of ...
Make sure that you are facing sideways on the board (like picture A below).
Don’t stand up completely, but crouch down for balance and focus your weight on the midpoint of the board. Pictures (above and right): Surfers standing up on their surfboards Your knees should be slightly bent with your arms out and eyes looking forward. One of your hips face towards the nose of the surfboard and the other toward the tail. Your feet should be apart centered in the board. Lean, or step (if necessary) forward or backward, to make the board ride evenly along the water.
As you ” re facing sideways, you can control the turning of your board with your ankles and leaning. Your job now is to lean and move on the board to aim it along the wave. It is the joint action of the skeletal and muscular systems that allows the performance of the whole range of human movement. The musculo-skeletal system is the bony skeleton of the body and the hundreds of muscles attached to it. The major functions of the muscular system are: 1.
To establish movement as skeletal muscles tug on bones, and to allow the body’s growth of strength, endurance, speed and power. 2. To maintain posture through the co-ordinated contraction of suitable muscles and stabilizing ligament structures. 3. To keep bodily functions e. g.
blood circulation by the heart muscle; digestion, controlled by the muscles of the stomach wall and intestines; and breathing initiated by the diaphragm and chest muscles The cardiovascular system provides a ready supply of oxygen and fuel to the body and a mechanism that removes carbon dioxide and other waste products. This is so that cells can help the body maintain life and function effectively. The cardiovascular system is made of 2 parts – circulatory and respiratory systems. The major functions of the respiratory system are: o Deliver oxygen (from atmosphere) to the lung so Provide a method of gaseous exchange within the lungs to let oxygen enter, carbon dioxide to leave the blood and to remove carbon dioxide from the lung so Create speech (air breathed out through vocal cord so Facilitate our sense of smell The circulatory system is where blood is carried to the organs and muscles of the body.
It’s responsible for transporting oxygen and nutrients to cells, getting rid of carbon dioxide / waste . The main parts in the system are the blood, the blood vessels and the heart. The energy in carbohydrates, fats and proteins is used to form a chemical compound called ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate).
• What is cellular respiration and what are its three stages? 1. Glycolysis 2. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) 3. Electron Transport Chain Photosynthesis: • What is the overall goal of photosynthesis? In general , the goal of photosynthesis is to gather energy from the sun and keep it in the bonds of the organic molecules (particularly glucose). These organic compounds are utilized by both ...
It represents the source of energy that can be used by the muscle cells to perform work. There are 3 different workings for the production of ATP.
These are called the 3 energy systems: o ATP-CP system o Lactic lactic acid System">acid system Aerobic system Definitions of the three energy systems: ATP-CP System Lactic Acid System Aerobic System Anaerobic – no oxygen required Anaerobic – no oxygen required Aerobic – oxygen involved in reaction Most rapid supply of energy Rapid supply of energy Slow supply of energy Uses chemical fuel – creatine phosphate (CP) Uses food fuel – carbohydrate (glucose) Uses food fuel – glucose, fats and protein Very limited ATP production Limited ATP production – 1 molecule of glucose and 2 molecules of ATP Unlimited ATP production Used for any high power, short duration activity up to 10 seconds Used for activities of 1 to 3 minutes duration Used for long duration endurance activities Muscle stores of ATP and CP are limited Lactic acid produced in the reaction – causes fatigue Only by-products are carbon dioxide and water Energy systems used throughout a surfing session During a surfing lesson there are many different energy systems being used at various stages. Before surfing, the surfer must walk / run out into the ocean (in our case the surfing break is offshore 300 m).
For the first 10 seconds of exercise (running) that the surfer does, the main source of energy is coming from the ATP-CP system. As the surfer continues to run the ATP-CP system is taken over by lactic acid system because it’s the major source of ATP after 30 seconds of exercise.
If the surfer decides to walk out into the ocean then they will be using the Aerobic system. The surfer then proceeds to hop onto their surfboard and paddle out to wait for the perfect wave. As he / she paddles they are using the lactic acid system because they will have to paddle for quite a while. Then when the perfect wave arrives the surfer then paddles furiously, resulting in them using the ATP-CP system with lactic acid slowly building up. When pushing up they use the ATP-CP system as well and when standing they will use the ATP-Cp system with lactic acid building up. Paddling During the paddling phase of surfing the following joints and muscles are used resulting in specific movements being produced.
ATP is the energy unit of cells. Specifically, what biological molecule is it? protein amino acid glycogen nucleotide Chitin is most similar to __________. cholesterol cellulose insulin testosterone Cigarette smoke is said to be carcinogenic because it causes mutations to form in the DNA. If DNA has a mutation, what other molecules will also become mutated? RNA and proteins sugar molecules and ...
Joints involved Specific movements Muscles involved Neck Sideways flexion and rotation of the head Sternomastoid Shoulder Raises and adducts the scapula Trapezius Shoulder Extension, internal rotation and adduction of the arm Latissimus dorsi Shoulder Flexion, internal rotation and adduction of the arm Pectoralis group Vertebral column Flexion and rotation of the trunk Abdominal group Ribs/Sternum Raising and lowering the ribs Intercostals Shoulder Flexion, extension, rotation and abduction of the arm Deltoid Elbow Flexion and supination of the forearm Biceps Elbow Extension of forearm Triceps Wrist inter phalanges Flexion of the fingers and hand Hand and finger flexors Wrist inter phalanges Extension of fingers and hand Hand and finger extensors Hip Extension, external rotation and abduction of the leg Gluteal groupHipKnee Flexion of the leg and extension of the lower leg Quadriceps groupHipKnee Extension of the leg and flexion of the lower leg Hamstring Ankle Dorsiflexion and inversion Tibialis Anterior Ankle Knee Plantar flexion and flexion of the lower leg Gastrocnemius Abdomen Trunk flexion and rotation Abdominal group Pushing Up The joints, muscles and their movements used in pushing up is the same as paddling (see above table).
The only thing that is different is that when pushing up you will not use your hand and finger extensors. Standing Position Joints involved Specific movements Muscles involved Ankle Dorsiflexion and inversion Tibialis interiorAnkleKnee Plantar flexion and flexion of the lower leg GastrocnemiusHipKnee Extension of the leg and flexion of the lower leg Hamstring groupHipKnee Flexion of the leg and extension of the lower leg Quadriceps Neck Sideways flexion and rotation of the head Sternomastoid.