The accidental crusade: The Spanish American War The Spanish-American War was brief, but it became the beginning of the American overseas empire, formal and informal. For Several centuries Spain remained the World’s empire and its colonies were spread worldwide. But by the end of the nineteenth century only few Spanish possessions remained in the Pacific, Africa and West India. Most part of the former Spanish possessions gained independence or fell into other hands. The remained colonies struggled for freedom. The brief Spanish-American War in 1898 irreversibly ended Spanish worldwide emperial rule helped the United States to gain several new possessions in the Caribbean and the Pacific.
That was the important event that changed the current position of America among the other countries. The result of the Spanish-American War was the final loss of its power by Spain. America assented its position of a world leader and pacifier. America also gained political and military power, great esteem and honor and until now America remains the example of economic and political achievements. For the last several years the colonies were struggling for independence and more and more resells shook the weak remains of the Spanish empire. For several decades Spanish military forces were present in Philippines and Cuba.
It became more and more difficult for Spain to resist the rebels, because the government was lacking money and political power. Spanish army carried out a great number of executions and harshly treated the villages and towns where rebels occurred. Such measures quieted the rebels by the end of the 1890s. The situation quieted for a short period, but the later events showed that Spanish power and authority were irreversibly lost. When the Spanish army fiercely tried to control the rebellions in Cuba, there started the battle for readership between two famous American journalists, Hearst from New York Journal and Pulitzer from the World. Newspapers gained remarkable influence and importance as the source of information and having the chance to feel the power, the journalists used every possible measure to gain the bigger degree of influence and power.
The American Civil War (1861–1865) was a civil war between the United States (the "Union") and the Southern slave states of the newly-formed Confederate States of America under Jefferson Davis. The Union included all of the free states and the five slaveholding border states and was led by Abraham Lincoln and the Republican Party, which opposed the expansion of slavery into territories owned by ...
yellow journalism has always been sensational and sometimes inaccurate. It frequently pandered to prejudice and extreme patriotism in order to gain attention, sell papers, and claim credit for prodding government into action. Competition between the Hearst and Pulitzer could increase the pressure for dramatizing, sensationalizing and printing of unverified rumors in order to portray developments in Victorian age “black and white.” When Hearst, Pulitzer and their follower journalist from another magazines reported Spanish crimes in Cuba, they led the way in the coverage of moral issues which would loom in the coming years. For many years journalistic reports of the situation in Cuba were viewed dismissively and their role in the war was not closely analyzed. But the journalism policy of that time clearly led to the war and at the present time it is reported as an unpleasant point in journalism history. After all it led to the Spanish American War and to American imperialism.
There came the sinking of the Maine. Hearst and Pulitzer used all possible tricks of yellow journalism to outdo each other. Hearst was well known in fueling the America’s consciousness in favor of war. The Spanish army was known for it’s cruelty, but the journalists of Hearst tried various dirty trick for arising sensation and darken the actual situation. Nothing was again the rules for them. For reaching their goal and exceeding the number of readers they even fabricated the stories of Spanish cruelty and massacres of Cuban rebellionsthat made their readers cry in sympathy with Cuban people . The readers were persuaded that only American intervention could stop the tyranny of evil Spaniards in Cuba and bring peace there.
On the 18 July 1936, leading Generals of the Spanish Army led a revolt against the democratically elected Popular Front government of Spain. Within days the country was plunged into civil war with the Republicans fighting the insurgent Nationalists for control of the country. The various democracies of the world turned their backs on Spains plight and even hindered the Republicans by supporting ...
The ugly fabricated illustrations and caricatures describing the cruelty of the Spanish army were posted in every new issue of the magazines. The Journal and the World every time searched for new means of competition. In America during the conflict with Spain appeared many publications and novels devoted to the Spanish-American War. Such publications, for example, Young Glory (the story about a young American hero who battled with the Spaniards and overpowered them) together with the reports of the yellow press were instruments of influencing the minds. The papers for months produce new and new details about horrors in Cuba and Spanish concentration camps organized for Cubans. Newspapers sent hundreds of reporters, artists, and photographers to Cuba for recounting Spanish atrocities.
Spaniards were described as “more pitiless than Kurds”. Usually the correspondents, including such notables as Stephen Crane (the author of the author of the Civil War novel The Red Badge of Courage) and artist Frederick Remington, were sent to Cuba in early 1896 for bringing more information about tortures of Cubans by Spaniards. But they found little to report on, when they arrived to Cuba. The Hearst’s magazine is infamous with it’s quote of the editor’s reply to his illustrator in Havana, who wanted to return home, because found nothing ugly to report of: “Please, Remain. You’ll furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war”. Crane and Remington had first planned to cross on the filibuster VAMOOSE and join the Rebels but, after a month of frustration, they gave up and left for Havana by regular transport on January 9th.
Crane was the golden boy among New York writers and journalists, possessing romantic good looks and the courtly manners of an Eastern Aristocrat. Remington, the famous Western artist, was a rougher type, but his illustrations were always in demand for the popular magazines. Remington was soon bored and returned to the States, but he did take back a portfolio of pictures. Crane remained in Cuba, writing a series of articles for different magazines detailing the excesses of the Spanish under the command of Captain-General Weyler. But his most sensational dispatch was sent from Tampa on February 10th, immediately after his return to the States. It was published in the Journal on the 12th under a screaming series of headlines. Newspapers and magazines went very far to have their correspondents in Cuba.
The Spanish-American War of 1898 marked a turning point in American history. Within a few years of the war's end, the United States established itself as a world power, exercising control or influence over islands in the Caribbean Sea, the mid-Pacific Ocean and close to the Asian mainland. The conflict has sometimes been called "The Newspaper War," largely because the influence of a sensationalist ...
The hired yachts and boats to deliver them to the camps. Sometimes magazines tried to steal information from each other. Hearst even once caught Pulitzer’s magazine in stealth. Many interests clashed in that war. Cuba, situated not far from Florida shore, appeared to be a very attractive target. The great degree of Cuban economy was already in hands of the American investors and most of politicians felt that joining Cuba to American jurisdiction was a rightful step. Tensions were raised on February 9, when Hearst’s New York Journal published a letter from the Spanish minister to the United States that described McKinley weak and catering to the rabble, and besides a low politician who desires to leave a door open to me and to stand well with the jingoes of his party. The Maine had arrived in Cuba on Jan.
25, 1898 and its visit had largely been without incident, save for a few Spanish complaints. On February 15, 1898 the American Battleship Maine with 260 sailors on board was blown up and sank under mysterious circumstances in Cuba’s Havana Harbor. The twisted, burnt wreckage of the Maines stern and bridge was still above water in the morning. It remained there for years. All evidences of the explosion were very vague and contradictory. Many specialists insisted that the reason for explosion of the Maine was explosion of fuel.
At the present time many tests and researches were made that confirmed that theory. But here stepped into the battle already infamous journalists Hearst and Pulitzer. Journalists, that were sent by various magazines, made their way to the dock to discover that the Maine was a wreck; they also made sure America knew about it in the morning. On February 17 the Hearst magazine claimed that Maine was blown by the torpedo. The Journal stated the clamed openly, the World was only hinting. As the scandal, surrounding the explosion of Maines grew, some people were taking notice of the role of yellow papers in this situation. The leading journalist, Edwin L.
From the early days of slavery, African Americans have contributed or participated in some form of the business world (whether it was being traded off or picking crop for the next season). African Americans were not greatly accepted in white corporate America. However, African Americans have started to vertically climb up the corporate ladder by becoming a part of what was once known as a racist ( ...
Godkin of the Nation accused both Heart’s Journal and Pulitzer’s World. “Nothing so disgraceful as the behavior of … these newspapers in the past week has been known in the history of American journalism.” Secretary Long of the Navy noted, “Underneath there is an intense excitement. The slightest spark is liable to result in war with Spain” (John Baker, “Effects of the Press on Spanish-American Relations in 1898”).
The explosion of Maine was described as a crime against this nation not yet fully realized; but gradually the civilized world is being awakened to a sense of the appalling deed (Jess Giessel, “Black, White and Yellow”).
It was insisted, that no citizen of the European Country could see act with indifference without compromising his own national honor. Spain attacked the another Christian civilization and must pay for the offence.
Two hundred and twenty-five white Americans and thirty-three Afro-Americans have been wantonly murdered. The colored men of America have immense interests at stake. As a citizen and patriot, let him make common cause with the people and again prove himself an element of strength and power in vindicating the honor and claims of his country in the hour of the nation’s peril. The cause of this government is our cause. If die we must, let us die defending a just cause (Jess Giessel, “Black, White and Yellow”).
Gradually for all newspapers and magazines the decision was inevitable.
They all agreed that Maine was exploded by mine or torpedo. Some magazines offered the pictures of Spanish military bases and plans for mining fields. The American press had now doubts about who was responsible for the death of the American Battleship. These two journalists insisted on proclaiming that the explosion of the Maine was organized by the Spanish Army to show their power. The magazines insisted that ….