The Causes And The Effects Of Overpopulated Prisons. The society has to strengthen the penal system to protect the citizens against the law violations. The correction establishments such as prisons have existed since the ancient times in all countries. The society has to protect the basic rights and freedoms of its members by isolating those who do not want to live according to the laws of the civilized countries. The penal system has been the problem of the society in all the times and countries. On one hand people who break the law should serve their punishment in the conditions which are different from those in free society, but on the other hand these conditions should not humiliate the human dignity.
What is more the tax payers who could be the victims of those sentenced to prison punishment should pay to support the prisons. The problem of the prisons and their financing is very complicated all over the world. The question is that why tax payers should pay a considerable share of the state budget to support prisons if these funds could be invested into education, health care, culture etc. The question is very simple to resolve if society takes the people sentenced to imprisonment as the co-citizens and not as the derelicts. The overcrowded prisons are the problem all over the world. The problem of the overpopulated prisons becomes more alarming because of the fact that in the developed countries the growth of a number of people kept in the penal institutions has been as high as 40% during the 90s.1 Unfortunately such problems as overcrowded prisons do not exist as they are, i.e. alone but they cause the chain of the problems.
Good Country People is one of the most sought after works of Flannery O’ Connor. It is said to be the biography of O’Connor but she never claimed it to be such. The novel Good Country People seems to reflect the current situation and emotional status of O’ Connor while she was writing the novel, and if it is not in fact her biography, her emotion at that time has influenced the novel greatly. ...
It is very well known that though the institutions are called the correctional ones, they have never corrected anybody. Sometimes they play the role of the criminal high schools. Jammed prisons are characterized by the poor sanitary, the health care is difficult to manage, the violence takes place among the prisoners as well as directed against the officers. Roy Walmsley, Consultant to the European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control, affiliated with the United Nations (HEUNI) and Associate of the International Centre for Prison Studies (King’s College, University of London) noted that an imprisonment is an expensive way of making bad people worse.2 It is really so. The inmates kept in the correction institution pass there their universities of crime. It is noted that the length of the term of imprisonment does not affect the total criminal situation in the country and what is more, in some countries with rather lengthy sentences the total criminal situation is not getting better at all.
The causes of the prisons overpopulation all over the world are similar. As it was mentioned above the prisons though called the correctional institutions are rather questionable in the matter of correction of the criminals. The society indicates its hypocrisy calling the prisons correctional institutions. In many cases the society isolates the people just to protect itself, just because it is easier than to make the real correction though such correction is rather questionable while speaking of grown ups. Sometimes society compensates the lack of real law education among the juveniles by putting them to prisons. It is obviously the easiest way to show the false activity of fighting the criminality. The issue of the justice miscarriages is very important as well. The accusation against Marta Stewart in insider trading made a big resonance in the USA.
It is obviously that she committed her crime following advice of her broker. But that was the brokers responsibility to give his client the correct advice. Dr. MacKenzie indicates that the model of the criminal punishment should turn towards the rehabilitation model.3 If it is assumed even that the prison is the correctional institution its impacts on the lives of people sentenced to imprisonment is very high. Adults in jail or prison are out of the regular workforce, and once released, they are viewed less positively by employers than persons without a criminal record.4 The incarceration leads to the loss of the professional skills by the people sentenced to imprisonment. Thus it is possible to make a conclusion that the incarceration produces the economic effect on those who serve their imprisonment.
Criteria 3. 2 and 3. 3 In order to meet Criteria 3. 2 and 3. 3, complete the table to explain the importance of providing some risk within the play. |Why is it important to provide challenging activities for |How will this support the children developmental needs? | |children? | | |Challenging activities is essential to development because it |Activities help to support children in personal, ...
The overpopulated prisons make great impact on the health of incarcerated. As it was mentioned above the prison is the place aimed to correct the criminals, but at the same time no punishment can deprive people of their basic rights and the right to medical care is among them. Sometimes people are not only deprived of freedom but exposed to the poor hygienic conditions. Many of them are infected with the various diseases and there is a real threat for other inmates to get infected. The rapid development of a serious tuberculosis epidemic and the HIV epidemics in prisons  represents a major threat to prison populations and to society in general. It is imperative that these new threats be managed effectively.5 One of the most dangerous impacts on the prisons inmates is that connected with the health of incarcerated.
First of all, poor sanitary conditions may cause the spread of such diseases as tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS etc. Such diseases may get out of control and spread outside the correctional institutions. Most of the people imprisoned are in the poor health conditions and the imprisonment may worsen their health state. The population of the prisons is characterized by the vulnerability. A lot of people in prisons are in poor health conditions due to the alcohol and drugs addiction. Overpopulation may only worsen the epidemical threat. The mental state of the inmates is also a big trouble in the prisons. People are social human beings and restricted isolation from the society is not the natural state for them.
Who would you consider to be stronger, someone who is battling cancer or depression? There is no definite way of telling who is stronger. Most people would say the patient battling cancer because they are suffering from a physical condition and cancer patients are often perceived as hero’s where as people with a mental illness are labeled as being “crazy”. No illness of any kind should be looked ...
The prison life undermines the mental health of the inmates.6 The people when they are sentenced to incarceration are punished by the isolation from the society and additional punishment by depriving them of basic human rights is not appropriate at all. Violence which is common among the inmates may be the cause of various physical and mental damages. The causes of the violence in prison are a broad topic for the investigation. There can be some factors which may cause the violence in prisons. First of all it is ethnical and racial issue. People of the same ethnical group try to dominate over the other groups.
Such struggle for domination is going on with the violence. The inter gang conflicts cause the violence. The overpopulation of the prison may accelerate such conflicts. In some countries the conflicts may be caused by the criminal hierarchy. Such situation is observed in the prisons of the NIS. These phenomena go back to the Stalins times when authorities tried to oppose the criminals to the political prisoners thus encouraging such hierarchy. The international community recognizes the necessity of observing the human rights in prisons.
A number of the international legal acts aimed to provide the human rights in prisons have been adopted. The basic principle is that as soon as the inmates do not have opportunities to take care of their medical protection themselves it is the concern of authorities to provide the healthy environment in prisons. It is understandable that such environment could not be provided in the overpopulated prisons. Another problem which is supposed to be faced by the people after serving their incarceration is the rehabilitation to the civil life after the prison. People should leave the prison adapted to the freedom and its realities. The administration of the prison takes care of the inmates.
On the other hand people loose their professional skills while being in prison. The program of the rehabilitation of the inmates should be started during their imprisonment. Many prisons conduct such activity. The Oklahoma Department of Corrections provides several programs aimed to rehabilitate inmate women. While speaking about the imprisoned women it is worth mentioning that the violence is not in the females nature. Most of the women serving their terms in prisons were the victims of the violence, sexual abuse and other crimes. Thus the society faces several challenges while dealing with the womens crimes.
The aim of this essay is to explore how society shapes people’s lives. The meaning of the word “shaping” in this context means to “influence or affect” (The Open University, 2013, YO32 p 29). This essay will focus on Childhood: Body image and stress related eating disorders, from Block 4, Unit 3 and Psychology: Social influence, happiness and natural and synthetic happiness from Unit 5. Society ...
First of all women are weaker than the men psychologically. They require serious adaptation programs involving psychologists, doctors etc. The Oklahoma Department of Corrections offered educational, vocational, and psychological programs, as well as work assignments and access to religious services. Space in those programs, however, was generally limited to only a few at a time. Only about 20% of inmates, for instance, could participate in vocational programming at any given time. One of the main problems of the inmates is their mental health. The relations between the inmates may be rather complicated and it is the duty of the correctional officers to provide the basic rights for the people serving their sentences in prison. A lot of inmates in American prisons suffer from the mental disorder.
These disorders could be caused by the drugs, alcohol and permanent mental stress. The role of correction officers in the treatment of such inmates is very high. There are special treatment teams in the prisons dealing with the inmates. Such teams are functioning successfully in collaboration with the correctional officers.8 According to The US Department of Justice ten to fifteen percent of the prisoners have serious mental disorders9. The role of the correctional officer in such situation is very high. They collaborate with the teams dealing with the inmates mental diseases. Correctional officers are people who spend most of their time with the inmates.
Though the correctional staff and medical staff have different tasks and priorities they cooperate successfully. If, say treatment teams do not deal with the correctional staff tasks, namely security, regime etc., the correctional staff participates in such activities of the medical staff as the observation over the prisoners, orientation and training etc10. Though such activities are not the main tasks of the correctional staff they serve the final aim of the whole system, to return a healthy, able to contribute to the society citizen. One of the aims of the correctional institution is to adapt the citizen to the future loyal life in the society. The correctional officers play the key role in fulfilling this task. The authorities realize the importance of the mental health care at the correctional institutions and gradually increase the mental health care financing. The officials assume that the main aim of the state correctional institution is not only providing the execution of the courts sentence but find ways to help them (offenders) succeed outside prison.11 The plan calls for adding custody and mental health staff at Garner, which is expected to cost about $2.3 million.
Counseling has a major emphasis on prevention. Mental health counselors work with individuals and groups to promote optimum mental and emotional health. Counselors may help individuals deal with issues associated with addictions, substance abuse, family, parenting, marital problems, stress management, self-esteem and aging. Mental health counseling brings a unique approach to the mental health ...
Correction officials say 24 additional clinicians are expected to be hired and four mental health positions moved from Cheshire Correctional Institution, increasing the mental health staff to 82 at Garner.12 Last years there have been a lot of the speculations on issue of the private prisons. Private prisons are rather questionable issues. They were intended to save money for the tax payers, but they fail to do so. At the same time the associations of the correction officers are completely against such institutions. It is obviously that the correctional system should be the concern of the state. Correction system should be modernized. Scientists as well as practitioners understand this. If we study the main purpose of the imprisonment it has the dual nature.
First of all it protects the society and its citizens against the law violations. The society needs such protection. Secondly it serves the correctional aims. When we speak on correction we should take into consideration that it is difficult to realize in such institutions as prisons. Maybe when we discuss the law violations by the teenagers it could be possible. But the grown up people commit the crimes, violate the laws intentionally excluding such violations as for example car accidents etc.
Then the question arises if the long term imprisonment could correct the behavior of the grown up person. It could hardly. Then we come to a conclusion that the whole correctional system needs a certain revision in terms of the modes of punishment. Some scientists and criminologists do not correlate the terms of imprisonment with the total criminal situation in the country. After the WW2 there were very severe laws in the USSR, but the level of criminality was very high in spite of the fact that most of the crimes could cause the death sentence or long term imprisonment, up to 25 years. The state can not and does not need to build the new prisons in greater numbers.
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At the same time it is obviously that the problem of the overcrowded prisons should be resolved. The solution of the problem could be done in several ways. Firstly, the government may build lots of prisons wasting money of the tax payers. The most important in this is how to plan the construction of the new prisons. The situation is that the government and the society are chasing the criminality growth and it could be the endless process until there is a clear understanding where the society is moving to. Another way is to assume that the problem is not in the number of apartments in the correctional institutions, but in a number of the law violators.
If we take such approach then the solution could be a little bit different. First of all the prisons are not the correctional institutions by their nature at all. They may become the criminal universities but not the places where people learn how to respect the laws. Secondly, the civilized society needs to take care of its citizens, but when the society places a person behind the bars it just washes its hands without even realizing that the person placed to a prison for the small law violation is a member of the community and has the same rights as the juryman who sends him to serve the imprisonment. The imprisonment should be applied only in cases when the person is really dangerous for the society. The problem of the overcrowded prisons may be resolved only by the revision of the criminal code. The society should understand that people sentenced to imprisonment can not take care of themselves protecting their own basic rights.
That means that the society should realize that when a person is imprisoned it is a concern of the community to take care of him disregarding the crime he committed. If it is impossible to avoid in some cases the imprisonment the society should create the conditions in the prison in order to get back the loyal citizen but not the criminal. The alternative ways of correction should be introduced. One of them is Community Correction.13 It is defined as the program of alternatives to incarceration program. It consists of a number of measures aimed to prevent the criminal activity in the future. These measures are: Intensive Supervision Program Day Reporting Centers Intensive Parole Drug Program Residential Community Correctional Facilities/Halfway houses All these measures may reduce the criminality considerably if applied properly.
Bibliography World Prison Population: Facts, Trends and Solutions Rapporteur’s Report by Brian Tkachuk, available at http://www.vn.fi/om/heuni/ Harold Watts, Demetra Smith Nightingale, Adding It Up: The Economic Impact of Incarceration on Individuals, Families, and Communities, available at http://www.doc.state.ok.us/DOCS/OCJRC/Ocjrc96/Ocjr c55.htm Austen Davis, General Director, Medecins sans frontieres; Ahmed Othmani Chairperson, Penal Reform International, Cees Goos, Coordinator Health in Prison Project, WHO regional office for Europe, HIV in Prisons, WHO 2001, available at http://www.penalreform.org/download/ouaga/health_i n_prisons_engl.pdf Susan Marcus-Mendoza & Robert Briody Female Inmates in Oklahoma:An Updated Profile and Programming Assessment Kenneth L. Appelbaum, M.D., James M. Hickey, Psy.D. and Ira Packer, Ph.D. The Role of Correctional Officers in Multidisciplinary Mental Health Care in Prisons, available at http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/52 /10/1343#State Prison Used to Increase Treatment of Mentally Ill, Boston.com News, October 18, 2004, available at http://www.boston.com/news/local/connecticut/artic les/2004/10/18/state_prison_used_to_increase_treat ment_of_mentally_ill/ J.S. Claggion BA.,MPA, What is Community Corrections?, available at http://hometown.aol.com/nu3psi96q/Jamaal/index.htm l Citation Brian Tkachuk Ibid Ibid. Harold Watts, Demetra Smith Nightingale Austen Davis Ibid Susan Marcus-Mendoza & Robert Briody Kenneth L. Appelbaum, M.D., James M.
Hickey, Psy.D. and Ira Packer, Ph.D Ibid Ibid Boston.com Ibid.