Sources of Renaissance Ideas 1. Trade flourished and made cities richer— Trade led to growth of large city-states in northern Italy. These places became urban. In these cities people often exchanged ideas and from this bred intellectual revolution. Merchants helped create the economic system of capitalism. 2. Bubonic Plague— The bubonic plague that killed half of the population brought upon a change in the economy. When there were few laborers, they could demand high wages. Thus, there were fewer opportunities to expand business. Merchants then begun to pursue other interest, such as art. . Reviving Greece and Roman Art— Renaissance scholars returned to the learning of the Greeks and Romans. Firstly, artists and scholars of Italy drew inspiration from the ruins of Rome that surrounded them. Second, Western scholars studied ancient Latin manuscripts that had been preserved in monasteries. Christian scholars in Constantinople fled to Rome with Greek manuscripts. Humanism The study of classical texts led to humanism. Humanists studied ancient texts to understand Greek values. They influenced artist and architects to carry on classical traditions.
They also popularized the study of subjects common to classical education. Individualism Individualism is the belief in the primary importance of the individual and in the virtues of self-reliance and personal independence. Examples of Individualism Patrons— By patronage and having their portraits painted or by donating art to the city to place in public squares, this demonstrated their own importance. Universal/Renaissance Man Renaissance writers introduced the idea that all educated people were expected to create art. The ideal individual strove to master almost every area of study.
... -Graves Western Civilization 10/29/00 Roman Art Vs. Greek Art Throughout history art has consistently reflected the cultural values and ... characteristics of this art and incorporate it into their own. Roman artists began to use the Greek ideas of detailed ... . Aesthetics arguably represented the highest intellectual point in Greek art and continued to influence philosophers and artists throughout the ...
In Baldassare Castiglione’s The Courtier, it stated that a young man should be charming, witty, and well educated in the classics. He should dance, sing, play music, and write poetry. In addition, he should be a skilled rider, wrestler, and swordsman. For Renaissance women, they should expect to seek fame. They were expected to inspire art, but rarely create it. Renaissance Values VS Middle Ages Values Medieval| Renaissance| Suffer on Earth for reward in heaven. | Worldly pleasure | For the glory of god| For fame and glory| | Humanism| | | The Medieval mind VS Renaissance mind Medieval| Renaissance|
Medieval scholars tried to make classical texts agree with Christian teachings| Studied ancient texts to understand Greek values. | People demonstrated piety by wearing rough clothing and eating plain foods. | Humanists suggested that a person might enjoy life without offending God. During the Renaissance, the wealthy enjoyed material luxuries, good music, and fine foods. | Renaissance Art VS Middle Ages Art Medieval| Renaissance| Medieval artists used religious subjects to convey a spiritual ideal. | Renaissance artist often portrayed religious subjects, but with a realistic style copied from classical models. | Art drew on techniques and styles of classical Greece and Rome| | Paintings and sculptures portrayed individuals and nature in more realistic and lifelike ways. | | Artists created works that were secular as well as those that were religious. | | Writers began to use vernacular languages to express their ideas. | Artists kept themselves anonymous. | The arts praised individual achievements. | Plain back ground, no perspective, very flat, no facial expression, not realistic| | Renaissance Education VS Middle Ages Education Medieval| Renaissance|
Education was religious| Education was more concerned with worldly things (history, math, science ect. )| Education is usually for nobles. | | | | | | Terms Intellect (n)— The faculty of reasoning and understanding objectively. Capitalism (n)— A system based upon wages and private ownership. Secular (adj. )— Worldly things; denoting attitudes, activities or other things that have no religious or spiritual basis. Patrons (n) — A person who gives financial support to a person, organization, cause. (During the Renaissance, the Patrons gave financial support to artists).
... provoking a religious reaction of the viewer. Painters were not interested in making a picture look realistic. During the Renaissance, all ... of symbols. Medieval art persistently used symbols to comment on or explain the meaning of a painting. In Renaissance painting, symbols ... . In short, subject matter of art in the Renaissance became much more advanced and realistic. In order to evolve artistically, ...
Vernacular (n) — The language or dialect spoken by the ordinary people in a particular country or region. Perspective (n) — A technique in art that shows three dimensions on a flat surface. Individuals Michelangelo BuonarrotiUsed a realistic style when depicting the human body. DonatelloMade sculpture more realistic by carving natural postures and expressions that reveal personality. Leonardo da VinciHe was a painter, sculpture, inventor, and scientist. Da Vinci shows the meaning of a true “Renaissance man”. He was often interested in how things worked. He would study different subjects and incorporated his finding in his art.
RaphaelHe was also knows as a Renaissance man. He excelled as a painter, sculptor, architect, and poet. He is most famous for the way he portrayed the human body in painting and sculpture. Influenced by classical art, he created figures that are forceful and show heroic grandeur. He is also famous for his use of perspective. Francesco PetrarchHe was one of the earliest and most influential humanists. Some have called him the father of Renaissance humanism. He was also a great poet who wrote in both Italian and Latin. Giovanni BoccaccioHe was an Italian writer who is best known for the Decameron.
It presents both tragic and comic views of life. Boccaccio uses cutting humor to illustrate the human condition. MachiavelliHe was an important political figure who wrote the book “The Prince. He examines how a ruler can gain power and keep it in spite of his enemies. Williams ShakespeareHe is writer and poet. Shakespeare revered the classics and drew on them for inspiration and plots. In his plays he revealed the souls of men and women through scenes of dramatic conflict. Many of his plays examine human flaws. Johann GutenbergHe was a craftsman who developed a printing ress that incorporated a number of technologies in a new way. He also printed the Gutenberg Bible, that was the first full-sized book printed with movable type. Cosimo de Medici Lorenzo de Medici Baldassare Castiglione Isabella d’Ested’Este was William ShakespeareShakespeare was a famous poet and playwright. After his plays, English was standardized. He also translated the Bible from Latin to English. Shakespeare also expanded the scope of the English vocabulary. Thomas MoreMore was a noted Renaissance Humanist who refused to sign the ‘Act of Supremacy”, imprisoned, and beheaded.
... pope's authority in England was abolished. In 1534 the Act of Supremacy declared Henry himself to be Supreme Head of the Church of England ... English ruler to be educated under the influence of the Renaissance, he was a gifted scholar, linguist, composer, and musician. As ... his policies. In the northern part of the kingdom the people rose in rebellion in behalf of the monks, but the ...
He also wrote the Utopia, which described an ideal city-state, established him as a leading humanist of the Renaissance. Reformation Content Background causes Causes of the Reformation| Social| Political| Economic| Religious| The Renaissance values of humanism and secularism led people to question the Church. | Powerful monarchs challenged the Church as the supreme power in Europe. | European princes and kings were jealous of the Church’s wealth. | Some Church leaders had become worldly and corrupt. | The printing press helped to spread ideas critical of the Church. Many leaders viewed the pope as a foreign ruler and challenged his authority. | Merchants and others resented having to pay taxes to the Church. | Many people found Church practices such as the sale of indulgences unacceptable. | 1. The Church During the Renaissance became corrupted and disordered. * The clergies did not follow the Church’s laws * The Church became involved in politics, and gained wealth. * The Church became worldly (enjoyed luxuries and the clergies lived lavishly).
* The Church wandered away from Jesus’s teachings; lost main goals. They didn’t take their religion seriously. * Church became too rich, too powerful. 2. Critics openly attacked the Church * Two new orders of monks were started to help purify the Church. * Renaissance spirit questioned religion. * The Church took advantage of its rituals and ceremonies to become wealthy. * Laid too much stress son ceremony. * People thought there was too much authority on top. 3. Outside movements weakened the power of the Church * Kings and citizens did not favor the Church dictating their lives. * People did not welcome the rules and command of foreign church men. They didn’t want their Church to become involved with Rome (esp. financially).
* Merchants did not like the Church laws forbidding the lending of money of interest (because if interests were forbid then the people lending the money would not have any income and the merchants could not start their business).
... allegiance of the French Church was withdrawn from the Avignon Pope. The Church then began to organise ... same time, saw the introduction of regular monastic theory by a Scythian from the Bobrudja named John ... were christened the Lollards and even after Henry IV turned against them they still managed ... of an international European law. Also the idea emerged that pilgrims were seen as international and ...
* Merchants wanted the luxuries of the Church. 4. The printing press caused a revolution. * Writers criticized the corruption of the Renaissance Popes. * Books encouraged popular piety. * There were different interpretations of the Bible. * New ideas spread more quickly. Martin Luther’s role
Martin Luther wrote a response known as the 95 Theses attacking the “pardon-mercahnts”. He then posted these statements on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg and invited other scholars to debate him. Someone copied Luther’s words and took them to a printer. He then became known all over Germany. This action began the Reformation, a movement for religious reform. It led to the founding of Christian churches that did not accept the pope’s authority. Results—Church Divisions When Luther returned to Wittenberg in 1522, he discovered that many of his ideas were being put into practice.
Instead of continue seeking the reform, he separated himself into a group called the Lutherans. Charles V went to war against the Protestant princes, and defeated them in 1547 but failed to force them back into the Catholic Church. He then called for an assembly in the city of Augsburg. The princes agreed that each ruler would decide the religion of his state. This famous settlement was known as the Peace of Augsburg. Reformation in England and Life of Henry VIII Henry VIII wanted a male heir because he feared that without a successor a civil war could break out after he died.
But he only had one daughter called Mary with his wife, Catherine of Aragon. Henry wanted to divorce and take a younger queen but the Church did not allow divorce. However the pope could annul his marriage if there was proof that it had never been legal in the first place. In 1527, Henry asked the pope to annul his marriage but the pope refused. The pope did not want to offend Catherine’s powerful nephew, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Henry then called for Parliament in 1529 and asked it to pass a set of laws to end the pope’s power in England. This Parliament was known as the Reformation Parliament.
He secretly married Anne Boleyn then later legalized his divorce with Catherine. In 1534, Henry’s break with the pope was completed when Parliament voted to approve the Act of Supremacy. This called on people to take an oath recognizing the divorce and accepting Henry, not the pope, as the official head of England’s Church. Changes in England After Henry’s death in 1547, Edward VI became king at only 9 years old. After reigning for s After Henry’s death in 1547, Edward VI became king at only 9 years old. After reigning for only six years Mary, daughter of Catherine of Aragon took the throne.
... province’s (P.E.I) statutes. Willian Henry Pope died October 7, 1879, in St. Eleanor, P ... Henry Pope was born in Bedeque, P.E.I on May 29,1825. The elder son of James Pope ... in 1851. – Father MacDonald and William Pope had clashed in public concerning the temporal powers ... the differences between the Protestants and the Catholics, Pope became involved with the attempts in reconciling their ...
She was a Catholic and returned the English Church to the rule of the pope. But when Mary died, Elizabeth inherited the throne. Elizabeth was determined to return the kingdom to Protestantism. In 1559, Parliament followed Elizabeth’s wishes and set up the Church of England, or Anglican Church, with Elizabeth at its head. This was to be the only legal church in England. She decided to establish a state church that moderate Catholics and moderate Protestants might both accept. For Protestants, priests in the Church of England were allowed to marry and deliver sermon in English.
For Catholics, the Church of England kept some of the trappings of the Catholic services such as rich robes and church services were revised to be somewhat more acceptable to Catholics. Individuals John Wycliffe of EnglandBoth Wycliffe and Hus denied that the pope had the right to worldly power. They also taught that the Bible had more authority than Church leaders did. Jan Hus of Bohemia (same as Wycliffe) Desiderius Erasmus Thomas More John TetzelTetzel was raising money to rebuild St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome by selling indulgences.
He gave people the impression that by buying indulgences, they could buy their way into heaven. Terms Indulgences (n)— It was a pardon that released a sinner from performing the penalty that a priest imposed for sins. Reformation (n) — Edict of Worms (n) — An imperial order issued by Charles V that declared Luther an outlaw and heretic. No one was to give Luther food or shelter. Heretic (n)— A person believing in or practicing religious heresy. Scientific Revolution During the beginning of the mid-1500s a few scholars published works that challenged the ideas of ancient thinkers and the church.
These scholars replaced old assumption with new theories and launched a change called the Scientific Revolution. The Scientific Revolution was a new way of thinking about the natural world. That way was based upon careful observation and willingness to question accepted beliefs. Individuals and Achievements (Includes Laws, Theories ect. ) Nicolaus Copernicus Copernicus became interested in the old Greek ideas that the sun stood at the center of the universe. After 25 years of studying planetary movements, he reasoned that the stars, the earth and other planets revolved around the sun.
... , Luther looked to spread his ideas around to the common man. One of his ideas that the Church considered to be radical was his theory ... that there was no need for a priest. Luther also believed ... Bible professed, but was entirely against the idea of the Church. Luther and Erasmus had ideas that were very similar to each other. They ...
In his theory he also stated that the orbits were circular (which is actually false).
Tycho Brahe Brahe carefully recorded the movements of the planets for many years. Left his observations to his followers to make mathematical sense of them. Johannes Kepler Kepler was Brahe’s assistant and a brilliant mathematician. He concluded that the planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits not circles. Galileo Galilei Galileo developed lens into his own telescope and used it to study the heavens. After studying, he announced that Jupiter had four moons and the sun had dark spots.
He also noted the earth’s moon had rough, uneven surface. He faced conflict with the Church because if the Church was wrong on one thing that people could question the teachings as well. Galileo was then summoned to stand before court and confess that Copernicus’s ideas were false. Francis Bacon Bacon was an English statesman and writer who had a passionate interest in science. He urged scientist to experiment and then draw conclusions. This approach is called empiricism, or the experimental method. Rene Descartes Descartes developed analytical geometry, which linked algebra and geometry.
This provided an important tool in scientific research. Descartes relied on mathematics and logic. He believed that everything should be doubted until proved by reason. Isaac Newton Newton studied Mathematics and physics, and by the time he was 26, was certain that the same forces affected all physical objects equally. Newton’s great discovery was that the same force ruled motion of the planets and all matter on earth and in space. The key idea that linked motion in the heavens with motion on the earth was the law of universal gravitation. According to this law every object in the universe attracts every other object.
The degree of attraction depends on the mass of the objects and the distance between them. Scientific Method The scientific method is a logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas. It begins with a problem or question arising from an observation. Scientists then form a hypothesis and test an experiment or on the basis of data. Finally they analyze and interpret their data to reach a new conclusion. The conclusion either confirms or disproves the hypothesis. Terms Geocentric Theory (n)— The theory that the earth is the center with the other planets orbiting around it.
Scientific Revolution (n) — A period that a new way of thinking about the natural world immerged. That way was based upon careful observation and willingness to question accepted beliefs. Heliocentric Theory (n)— The theory that the sun was the center with the other planets orbiting around it. Theory (n)— A supposition or system of ideas intended to explain something (esp. one based on general principles independent of the thing to be explained).
*Supposition (n)— An uncertain belief. Scientific Method Empiricism (n)— The theory that all knowledge is derived from sense-experience. *Not important terms
Annul To annul is to declare something as invalid. King Henry VIII wanted an heir to his thrown, but since Catherine of Aragon couldn’t bear him any more children he wanted to divorce her. But the Pope refused to annul his marriage because he feared it would cause conflict with Catherine’s nephew, Charles V. Alliance An alliance is a union formed for mutual benefit. Catherine of Aragon’s marriage to King Henry VIII was an alliance between Spain and England. Catherine was actually set to marry Henry’s brother, Arthur but he died. Civil War A civil war was a war between citizens of the same country.
Henry VIII was persistent in wanting a male heir because he feared a civil war would break out if he did not have a successor once he died. His kingdom would not be stable. Heir An heir was a successor of the throne. Henry VIII wanted and heir because he feared a civil war would break out if he did not have a successor once he died. This event happened after his father died, and he did not want it to be repeated. Pious To be pious is to be devoutly religious. The people during the Medieval times often lived their lives piously. For example, they would wear rough clothing and eating plain food. Heretic
A heretic is a person who does not believe in God. In the Edict of Worms, Martin Luther was declared a heretic and outlaw. No one was allowed to give him food or shelter and it was made legal to kill Luther. Recant To take back something you said. After the Church learned about Luther’s ideas and the 95 Theses, they summoned him before the Diet of Worms. He was supposed to recant, but he refused and then was excommunicated from the Church. Excommunicate To be excluded from the sacraments and participation of the Church. Martin Luther was excommunicated from the Church when he would not recant.