19 September 2011
Chapter 11 outline : Reconstruction
civil rights: rights of citizenship
segregation: the forced separation of races in public places
amnesty: general pardon
literacy test: states required potential voters to pass . Really difficult even well educated hardly passed
grandfather clause: clause exempted citizens whose ancestors had voted before january 1 1867. applied only to white since no blacks could vote in that time frame
tenant farming: farmers would pay a share of their crop as rent instead of cash
sharecropping: looked promising to both black and white landless farmer for being able to buy land in the future but instead brought debt
debt peonage: what sharecropping life led to. System that debtors were forced to work for the person they owed money to until they paid off their debt
Black Codes: laws enacted in 1855 and 1856 in the former Confederate states to restrict freedom and the opportunites for African Americans
Enforcement Acts: The Enforcement Acts in the United States from 1870 to 1871 were meant to protect rights of southern blacks following ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution as part of Reconstruction.
Fifteeth Amendment: a constitutional change ratified in 1870 granting black males the right to vote
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Fourteenth Amendment: a constitutional change ratified in 1868 granting citizenship to all former slaves by declaring that anyone born in the US is a citizen; it also extended to blacks the rights of due process of law and equal protection under the law
Freedmen’s Bureau: a federal agency established in 1865, at the end of the Civil War, to help and protect the 4 million newly freed black Americans as they transitioned out of enslavement
Jim Crow Laws: any of the laws legalizing racial segregation of blacks and whites that were enacted in Southern states beginning in the 1880s and enforced through the 1950s
Ku Klux Klan: established in 1866, a secret, white supremacist terrorist group that resisted Reconstruction by tormenting black Americans
legalized segregation: “separate but equal” as defined in Plessy vs. Ferguson
poll tax: states passed laws that required citizens to pay a ‘tax’ in order to vote; the tax typically was set high enough to make voting, like schooling, a luxury most blacks could not afford
Radical Republican: during and after the Civil War, a member of the Republican Party who believed in and fought for the emancipation of slaves and later, the equal rights of American blacks
Reconstruction Amendments: three amendments added to constitution: 13 = outlaw slavery, 14 = made former slaves citizens, 15 = gave black men the right to vote
Congressional reconstruction: Congress took control of reconstruction in 1867. Federal troops were sent to the South to oversee the establishment of state governments were more democratic.
Presidential reconstruction: in 1865, president johnson allowed the southern states to reconstruct themselves. Most enacted black codes that severely restricted the rights of former slaves
reconstruction governments: the souths first bicameral state governments established a public school system and outlawed racial segregation. But these governments were bitterly opposed by white terrorist groups like the kkk.
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lynched: killed by hanging
Thirteenth Amendment: a constitutional change ratified in 1865 abolishing slavery in the US
The reconstruction era lasted from 1865 to 1877. During these years, biracial governments were established across the South. These governments expanded the rights and opportunities of former slaves. But when reconstruction ended, the South returned to the “white mans rule”.