Reality Therapy Reality Therapy was developed in the mid-sixties by William Glasser MD, an American Psychiatrist, and its techniques, theory and wider applications continue to evolve at his hands. Reality Therapy is a method of counseling which teaches people how to direct their own lives, make more effective choices, and how to develop the strength to handle the stresses and problems of life. The core of Reality Therapy is the idea that regardless of what has “happened” in our lives, or what we have done in the past, we can choose behaviours that will help us meet our needs more effectively in the future. THE PRACTICE OF REALITY THERAPY The practice of Reality Therapy is an ongoing process made up of two major components: 1.
Creating a trusting environment; and 2. Using techniques, which help a person discover what they really want, reflect on what they are doing now, and create a new plan for fulfilling that ‘want’ more effectively in the future. WHAT IS CHOICE THEORY? In the 1980’s Dr. Glasser found in the ideas of control theory an explanation of the underlying processes of human behaviour and the procedures of therapy and management. Control Theory is a biological theory, which explains both the psychological and physiological behaviour of all living creatures. Recently Dr Glasser has decided to use the term CHOICE THEORY in preference to CONTROL THEORY since he has adjusted the original theory so much by incorporating the ideas of basic needs, quality world and creativity amongst others.
... the actions of other organisms, and the vagrant reality of materialism (On the Origin of Species, 59 ... lies which perpetuate in the human psyche. Darwinian Theory presents man in the most material form – man ... the author will explore the relationship of Darwinian Theory with the core concepts in the novel. These ... Darwinian Theory may be used to explain Yann Martel’s novel ‘Life of Pi. ’ While the novel ...
Choice Theory explains in precise detail how we make our choices as we attempt to balance our needs and has a very broad area of possible applications. Choice Theory contends that all we do is behave, and, in contrast to external control theory which claims that all of our behaviour is externally motivated, this theory explains that all behaviour is internally motivated. Specifically, all of our behaviour is our best attempt to satisfy one or more of five basic needs built into our genetic structure. Glasser identifies these basic needs as Love/Belonging, Freedom, Fun, Power and Survival. Choice Theory contends that the only person’s behaviour we can control is our own. By using Choice Theory, counselors help people learn that what we do is not determined by external causes, but by what goes on inside of us.
Followers and practitioners of Reality Therapy comment frequently on the clear structures it gives to their counseling. It respects the client emphasizing his or her responsibility. From the clients’ point of view, Reality Therapy is self-empowering. It does not delve into a client’s past failures but looks forward towards a change of behavior.
Very often the clients would tell himself or herself the one great line: ” I’m not going to let them effect me.” To me, it’s a means to control one’s own emotions rather than letting them flow at times of distress and disappointments. The underlying school of thoughts is to make one’s own choices in reacting to adverse situations. The Basic Tenets of Reality Therapy The counselor who wishes to use Reality Therapy successfully will do these things: o Focus on the present and avoid discussing the past because almost all human difficulties are rooted in current relationship problems. o Avoid discussing symptoms and complaints as much as possible since these are ineffective ways counselees choose to deal with current relationship problems. o Understand the concept of total behavior, which means focus on what counselees can directly control -their actions and thoughts.
... of orienting its members regarding proper and improper behavior (Jensen, 2003). The social control theory also believes that there are numerous motives behind ... theory and the social control theory are two explanations behind the concept of deviance. Both blame society for deviant people and behavior. However, both theories ...
Spend less time on what they cannot control directly – their feelings and physiology. Feelings and physiology can be changed, but only if there is a change in the acting and thinking. o Avoid criticizing, blaming and / or complaining and help counselees to do the same. By doing this, they learn to avoid these extremely harmful external control behaviors that encumber the development of healthy relationships. o Remain non-judgmental and non-coercive, but encourage people to evaluate all they are doing by the Reality Therapy axiom: “Is what I am doing getting me closer to the people I need? o If their choice of behaviors is not helping them with current relationships, then help them find new behaviors that foster better relationships.
o Teach counselees that legitimate or not, excuses stand directly in the way of helping them maintain need satisfying relationships with other people. o Focus on specifics. Find out about their current relationships and work to help them come to terms with all need frustrating relationships in their life. If they are completely disconnected from people, focus on helping them find new connections. o Help counselees make specific, workable plans to improve the relationships they currently have or establish new relationships, and then follow through on what was planned by helping them evaluate their progress. Based on their experience, counselors may suggest plans, but should not give the message that there is only one plan.
A plan is always open to revision or rejection by the counselees. o Be patient and supportive, but keep focused on the source of the difficulties: current relationship problems. Counselees with long term unsatisfying relationships will find this difficult to do. They are often so involved in the symptom they are choosing that they have lost sight of the fact that they need more satisfying relationships. Help them to understand that whatever their complaint, better relationships are the best possible solution to their problem.
How can we apply this in school: The 6 Defining Characteristics of a Glasser Quality School: 1. Relationships are based upon trust and respect, and all discipline problems, not incidents, have been eliminated. 2. Total Learning Competency is stressed and an evaluation that is below competence or what is now a “B” has been eliminated. All schooling as defined by Dr. William Glasser has been replaced by useful education.
... volunteer service experiences. Involvement with peers and faculty/staff include those relationships where learning takes place beyond classroom settings: serving as a teaching ... is strong support for school activity programs from parents and the community at large. Students who compete in high school activity programs make higher ...
3. All students do some Quality Work each year that is significantly beyond competence. All such work receives an “A” grade or higher, such as an “A+.” 4. Students and staff are taught to use Choice Theory in their lives and in their work in school. Parents are encouraged to participate in study groups to become familiar with the ideas of Dr.
William Glasser. 5. Students do better on state proficiency tests and college entrance examinations. The importance of these tests is emphasized in the school. 6. Staff, students, parents and administrators view the school as a joyful place.
In the following I would like to try and analysis the school I’m teaching in with the following check list by using Brad Greene’s Rubric for measuring: Brad Greene’s Rubric for Measuring Quality School Progress CRITERIA WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE: School Evaluation (Staff-Students-Parents) WHAT IT DOESN’T LOOK LIKE: 1. Relationships based on trust and respect, helping supporting and encouraging each other in all we do. Students and staff can learn both independently and cooperatively, have strong relationships built on trust and respect, contributing through community service, peer tutoring, mentoring, and various forms of group process. Students will learn to get along in a variety of learning experiences, teams, cooperative learning, classroom meetings. Love and belonging has eliminated fear, threats, and control.
Choice Theory and the seven connecting habits have replaced external control psychology and the seven deadly habits. Relationships between staff, students and parents are continuously improving. Lead management has replaced boss management and the primary belief of the school is that every student can succeed. 1. Not even close because: 2. Have begun the process by: Helping teacher to build up team spirit and the strategies of working in as a team.
Not all staff and students are willing to cooperate with each other, there are some staff who seemed to be self-centered and there are various gangs of different interests. Different gangs are always trying to observe and try and listen to each other’s conversation as to gather more information for further use, this exhibits a low level of trust. Occasionally there is use of blaming and threatening, leading to unhappiness in staff. But the connections between staff and parents have been strong through the work of the PTA. Students and students, staff and students, students and parents, and staff and parents bondage are connected.
... comprehensive array of fiscal and student information, develop the knowledge and's skills of school work teams, and change the reward ... and compensation structure. Each district must also develop high-quality curriculum standards, goals for student ... -old level. Thus, Traub argues, schools are not the final arbiter of student achievement. He contends that a child ...
Lead management and the primary belief that most student can succeed in time has been a general climate in school. 3. In progress because: – 4. Almost there, still need to: – 5. Achieved, we know because: – Students and staff are not willing to cooperate with each other, seem to be self-centered, have relationships that are exclusive of the whole, (i. e.
cliques, gangs) and are publicly critical and demeaning to each other. Discipline problems are the norm and are exhausting everyone involved. Daily use of the seven deadly habits of criticizing, blaming and threatening, lead to unhappiness in staff, students and parents. Disconnections are seen in all relationships, staff and staff, students and students, staff and students, students and parents, and staff and parents.
Boss management is the common practice using external control psychology by threatening and punishing. 2. Measurable continuous improvement through concurrent and self evaluation Through measurable data gathered over time, staff and students can show where improvements in learning have occurred. This data is related to both the adults and the children in a variety of ways.
Staff can, and will, alter assignments at any time to facilitate and encourage learning. Speaking and listening, reading and writing, math and problem solving, critical thinking and scientific inquiry, and computer literacy will be the focus. Staff accomplishes this by fixing the system not fixing the students. Teachers build on students strengths and work on continuous improvement through self and team evaluation. (see Dr.
Glasser’s book, The Quality School: Managing Students Without Coercion) 1. Not even close because: 2. Have begun the process by: 3. In progress because: 4. Almost there, still need to: Through measurable data gathered over time, staff and students can show where improvements in learning have occurred. Staff can, and will, alter assignments at any time to facilitate and encourage learning.
Speaking and listening, reading and writing, math and problem solving has been the main focus as the main direction of teaching and learning activities. Recently school management has tried to turn staff, parents and students attention to focus on critical thinking and scientific inquiry, and computer literacy. There is still some believing that the students need to be fixed instead of fixing the system. There is still a focus on student’s weakness instead of building on students’s strengths. 5. Achieved, we know because: Neither students nor staff can show improvements anywhere.
... school and the guidance makes a report. According the report the students are given a discipline punishment. q Between students and teacher: Teacher ... anywhere. 15. May your students chew gum or eat / drink in class School policy or teachers' q No, they may ... Of what accomplishment, programs, or facilities are the students, faculty and / or staff especially proud q Spor, basketball, swimming, folk ...
Data has not been gathered, nor is baseline data available. Staff will not alter or create meaningful assignments or individualize instruction in any way. Low expectations are accepted. Staff sees the problem as the students need fixing not the system.
Teachers focus on student’s weakness and use boss management and external control psychology to gain compliance. Emphasis on acquiring knowledge vs. using knowledge to improve our lives and the lives of others. Evaluation is always done by the teacher with no input from students or parents. Self evaluation and continuous improvement is not the focus of the school, only compliance. 3.
All students demonstrating competency and continuous improvement All students can show and explain where their learning matches up to HK Government standards. The staff has eliminated E and F grades as well as failures. Staff is moving to a more informative way of reporting progress such as narrative report cards, portfolios, and student led conferences. Retention and social promotion are also eliminated. The focus is on competency. (see Dr.
Glasser’s book Every Student Can Succeed) Input from staff, students and parents in continuously sought for continuous improvement and feedback. The staff has moved from student work that is just good enough to quality work, which meets and exceeds standards. Students strengths are maximized in all areas of the school. 3.
In progress because: Quality has been the focus instead of quantity. Parents staff and students begins to see this. Most students can show and explain where their learning matches up to HK Government standards. The staff has eliminated E and F grades as well as failures.
... first possible solution to ease tense relationships between teachers and primary school students is that school administration can apply “Child-centered play therapy” ... learning day once a week. During these classes teachers ask children about the things they aren’t satisfied with at school ... and the teacher doesn’t manage to do all the planned work because he is always interrupted by some students. As ...
Staff does all the grading without student involvement. This area needs to be worked at since both management and staff have little exposure on narrative report cards, portfolios and student led conferences. Retention is still effective. There is still resistance towards innovative ways of measuring and communicating student progress. Students are not willing to evaluate their own learning, nor do they know about their State’s standards. They demonstrate schooling (doing just enough to get by) and are resistant to anything different.
The staff does all the grading without student involvement, including failing, D and C grades. Compliance, not quality is the focus. Staff resists change and any new way of measuring and communicating student progress. Very little parent involvement occurs and is not encouraged. Boss management is seen at every level and teachers teach the same thing, in the same way, at the same time. 4.
Some students demonstrating quality work. Some students are demonstrating learning well beyond their State’s competencies (deeper, more involved, creative, etc. ).
They are proud of their learning and can show the difference between competency and quality learning.
Teaching includes multiple intelligences, emotional intelligence, student learning styles, group process and individualized instruction. The staff encourages creativity, critical thinking and high expectations and is willing to facilitate, encourage, support and challenge the student to do the best work they can. The staff creates a brain compatible learning environment; focusing on students strengths as well as continuous improvement is the norm. Teachers in this school say: When my students aren’t learning the way I teach, I need to teach the way my students learn.
1. Not even close because: 2. Have begun the process by: 3. In progress because: 4. Almost there, still need to: Some students are demonstrating learning well beyond average competencies (deeper, more involved, creative, etc. ).
They are proud of their learning and can show the difference between competency and quality learning. The school is starting to work on direction of teaching towards the multiple intelligences approach. Most of the teachers still depend very much on textbooks for teaching and giving out assignments. Little group process is involved. Not all staff can provide a brain compatible learning environment. Teachers still need to work towards the idea of:” When my students aren’t learning the way I teach, I need to teach the way my students learn.” 5.
Achieved, we know because: When asked, both students and staff will say what they are doing is not their best effort and, in fact, barely enough to get by (D-).
Fear and discouragement (giving up) dominates the conversation and the desire to work hard and do their best is not encouraged. Only low expectations are communicated and work that is just good enough, is accepted. Teaching is primarily verbal linguistic and logical mathematical. Teachers depend very much on textbooks and use many dittos for assignments. Little group process is involved.
Teachers in this school state, this is the way I teach and you better learn it! Students learning styles and multiple intelligences are not in place. 5. All students and staff knowing Choice Theory and eliminating the desire to control one another Students and staff know and understand the main concepts inherent to Choice Theory, in particular, the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on their part as well as others. They know how to evaluate themselves and improve on what they do. A need satisfying classroom is experienced by all students and teachers. The foundation for this process is the relationship we create with each other.
Classroom meetings are a regular experience and many other group processes occur like circle ups, solving circles, and cooperative learning. Teachers are constantly working on building quality relationship with their students and empowering their students towards excellence. 1. Not even close because: 2.
Have begun the process by: 3. In progress because: Students and staff know and understand the main concepts on the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on their part as well as others. They are trying and beginning to evaluate themselves and improve on what they do. Teachers are constantly working on building quality relationship with their students and empowering their students towards excellence. Students and staff still need to work on group process teaching and learning. 4.
Almost there, still need to: 5. Achieved, we know because: Neither students nor staff considers themselves responsible for their own actions. There is significant blaming, criticizing and complaining occurring individually and collectively. They are thinking externally and feeling struck and their basic needs are not being met, which is replaced by a stressful, sterile, non-brain compatible learning environment. Very little group process teaching and learning takes place. 6.
A joyful place to be where fun becomes the genetic reward for learning. Students and staff find joy in being with one another. This joy is perceived by visitors and can be expressed by the students, parents and staff. It creates energy for continuous improvement.
All parties involved know, without a doubt, that this school has their best interest in mind. Students know that their teachers are there to help them, not hurt them. In fact, everyone involved in the school believes that we are all here to help and not hurt one another. We are all here to eliminate the seven deadly habits that destroy and replace them with the seven caring / connecting habits that build relationships and creates a needs satisfying school.
People feel connected to each other and work to do their very best. 1. Not even close because: 2. Have begun the process by: 3. In progress because: 4. Almost there, still need to: Students and staff find joy in being with one another.
It creates energy for continuous improvement. Mortal of school is ” happiness and diligence.” Students know that their teachers are there to help them, not hurt them. In fact, everyone involved in the school believes that we are all here to help and not hurt one another. Occasionally people are criticized, blamed and judged and some students are being punished, this area needed to be worked on still. 5. Achieved, we know because: Students and staff are miserable and afraid, and the system shows symptoms in absenteeism, vandalism, theft, etc.
, in both the students as well as the staff populations. Most everyone feels disconnected and alone at school. People are criticized, threatened, blamed, judged, put down and punished. Boss management is seen throughout the school as external control psychology is practiced to gain compliance. Dr. William Glasser, Reality Therapy, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 1965 Dr.
William Glasser, Schools Without Failure, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 1969 Dr. William Glasser, Positive Addiction, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 1976 Dr. William Glasser, The Quality School Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 1990 Dr. William Glasser The Quality School: Managing Students Without Coercion, 2 nd Expanded Edition, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 1992. Dr.
William Glasser, The Quality School Teacher, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 1993 Dr. William Glasser, Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 1998 Dr. William Glasser Reality Therapy in Action, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 2000. Dr.
William Glasser Every Student Can Succeed, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 2000. Dr. William Glasser Counseling with Choice Theory Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 2001.