Transactional and Transformation Leadership Writers on leadership typically point to the wide range of definitions of this phenomenon and proceed to examine a sample of them. However, as Bryman points out, the problem is that there is no consensually agreed one. Nevertheless, this writer does suggest that there is a fair degree of concordance concerning the nature of leadership in the literature which focuses on the study of leadership in organizations. He proposes that the common elements in these definitions imply that leadership involves a social influence process in which a person steers members of a group towards a goal. As an influence process leadership integrates the purposes of leaders and followers into a symbiotic mutually interdependent relationship. It, therefore, constitutes the type of integrative relationship which Boulding distinguished from threat and exchange as a category of social relationship and source of power.
(Bass 1989) The distinction between transactional and transformational leadership theories has become of considerable importance in the study of leadership in general. Transactional theory implies that social workers will work within the framework, which presupposes the use of their short-term goals for the benefit of the general strategy of social work, while using transformational theory it will be necessary to change these self-interests of separate workers and to move to their strategic goals. Social workers may use transactional leadership theories for short-term goals, while transformational leadership is the way to the creation of the long-term strategy. The social worker using transformational leadership approach recognizes and exploits an existing need or demand of his followers; he looks for potential motives in followers, seeks to satisfy higher needs, and engages the full person of the follower. The result of transforming leadership is a relationship of mutual stimulation and elevation that converts leaders into followers and may convert leaders into moral agents. The transforming leader thus seeks to satisfy higher needs in terms of Maslow’s need hierarchy when he engages followers upon a quest.
Social network is a description of the social structure between actors, mostly individuals or organization (Serrat, 2009). Social network comprise community groups or organization, individual, and the relationship or connection among them. Any one individual can be part of multiple social networks, and the nature of these networks and the individual’s connection to the network can vary greatly ( ...
(Comger 1989) It is interesting to see how these two theories align with the ethics and conduct of the social worker. The Code of Ethics, used by social workers in different countries, presupposes that each of them acts beyond self-interest. This means that the notions of the transactional leadership theory are not directly applicable to the social work. The framework in which social workers operate, are absolutely different from the standard organizational environment. The ethical standards of social work are somewhat different from the work within a common organization. Transactional leadership theory may be used in a usual company for the better performance, as human psychology makes self-interests higher than that of the company, thus it is beneficial to use them for the achievement of strategic goals. In social work, on the contrary, transformational leadership approach is more applicable, and should be used to transform the framework of those workers, who are new to social work environment and don’t understand that their self-interests are to be put behind.
For my Social Work interview, I interviewed Professor Lampen. She is a social work professor here at Cornerstone. She is no longer in the profession right now. Before she came to cornerstone to teach she worked as a social worker for about sixteen years. Professor Lampen started out her schooling by getting her bachelors degree in Psychology. Then, she went on with her schooling and became a ...
However, it should also be clear that transformational leadership is in fact the expansion of the transactional leadership, and thus these two approaches cannot be used separately. (Bass 1989) Transformational leadership may contain both “charismatic” and “inspirational” elements. The concept of charismatic leadership was initially formulated by Weber. Weber’s conceptualization was summed up as having five components: a person with extraordinary gifts; a crisis; a radical solution to the crisis; followers who are attracted to the exceptional person because they believe they are linked through him to transcendent powers; validation of the person’s gifts and transcendence in repeated experience of success. (Bryman 1986) Multiculturalism is one of the key concepts for the social worker. It is also evident, that multiculturalism is mostly the responsibility of the leader through creating values, behavioral patterns, ethical standards and work requirements in relation to the people of different cultures. Simultaneously, multiculturalism is the understanding of the fact that all cultures, ethnicities and nationalities are equal in the area of social assistance.
On the one hand, social workers should have specific educational programs, aimed at clarifying the notions of multiculturalism and their importance in social work; on the other hand, there are people who come to work in social organizations not understanding the equality of all races and ethnic minorities. Thus, there is need to transform their convictions and the framework of their self-interests, in which they work. Transformational leadership appears to be the best way for performing this task. Transactional leadership is in no way applicable here, as using the worker’s preferences in relation to race and ethnicities is the direct break of the social worker’s ethics. The aim of the leader in this situation is to change the values and meanings in which the worker lives, for his better performance and results, as well as better understanding of the fact that race and ethnicity, as well as religion or culture doesn’t make people different when they come for social assistance. Through his image of being in the world a person locates himself in time, space and in the field of personal relations. This “subjective knowledge structure” is shaped and formed by those messages or “structured experiences” which gain the attention of a person. One of the most important propositions of transactional theory is that the value scales of any individual or organization are perhaps the most important single element determining the effect of the messages it receives on its image of the world.
Transactional Leader as the word implies business or exchange. Burns, 1978, opined that a transactional leader is someone who leads though social exchange. It is a process that I simply call trade by batter, you do this for me, and you get that in return. A politician can be a transactional leader when he seeks to exchange one thing for another i.e. making promises and pulling through with the ...
This is because a person’s resistance to accepting a message will depend on the extent to which it is hostile to or conflicts with his image of value. (Bryman 1986) A transformational leader, on the contrary, will typically share the same image of value as his followers. This will minimize the resistance of followers to the leader’s appeal for commitment. The commitment of a follower to a quest does not, therefore, represent a change in values so much as the affirmation of a “higher” value at the expense of a “lower” value in terms of a hierarchical image of value shared by leaders and followers. According to Burns, transformational leadership is elevating in that it appeals to the higher, more general and comprehensive values that express follower’s more fundamental and enduring needs. Transformational leaders do, however, need to take the initiative in making the connection with this type of potential follower. (Bass 1998) The issue of empowerment through the two leadership theories discussed may be viewed from the two perspectives. On the one hand, studies state that the use of transformational leadership positively influences the empowerment of the collective, which in its turn creates positive impact on the general efficacy of the working group. It means that as far as the transformational leadership styles are used for social workers, changing their self-interests and working frames will positively influence the outcomes and level of social assistance.
Transformational leadership is very important for the social workers, as they must follow strict principles; posses open mind and multicultural understanding and have clear ethical standards. Thus, transformation is often needed for the better performance of the worker. On the other hand, the empowerment through transactional leadership style might work better and easier, as assumed, as allowing people using their self-interests for the benefit of the social work as a whole is always easier than making them transform their inner world. However, as transactional theory is not absolutely applicable to the sphere of social work, transformation may become the only source of leadership knowledge and skills to improve the level of empowerment among workers. Transforming leadership is dynamic leadership in the sense that the leaders throw themselves in to a relationship with followers who will feel ‘elevated’ by it and often become more active themselves, thereby creating new cadres of leaders. It is submitted, though, that the integration of the hermeneutical approach implicit in Boulding’s concept of the image with the existentialist concept of commitment derived from Hirschman has reduced the individualist bias of the resulting theory of leadership.
The Relevance within Corporations by Kimberley K. Hyde A Paper Presented in Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements of LEAD500 LEADERSHIP STYLES AND THEORIES May 19, 2013 Effective leadership is the greatest tool for the success of any organization; they articulate the vision of the organization and are the motivation for others to fulfill that vision. Leaders have an impact on those they lead; ...
It may be assumed, that the use of transformational leadership skills and their role I better social workers’ empowerment is achieved through the process of changing the frameworks in which social workers operate the process of changing and understanding becomes the key engine in increasing the work efficiency: while workers mutually change with knowing each other better and understanding the values and ethical standards, which the leader tries to impose on them, they become one collective. Higher motivated and empowered, and thus displaying better operation outcomes. This is the notion of ‘person I environment’, which is present in the transformational theory and may be understood as the process of the person changing his values through the environment, which this environment uses. Social workers work in the environment of people who ask for social assistance, as well as the environment, represented by their colleagues and higher management. However, the understanding of the environment in this case is somewhat different it means that the person being a social worker must look at the environment beyond the limits of his self-interests. Environment and transformational theory are the two connected notions to be used for the better social worker’s performance. Transactional leadership and environment are not combined in this area of studies, as they even appear to contradict.
The conception of leaders and followers seeking to realize through collective action a shared image of value may therefore have some affinity with the focus of social economics upon self-transcending communal relationships. It is unlikely, however, to have much affinity with the institutionalist and marxist strands of social economics within which there is a wide acceptance of the doctrine of cultural determinism which holds that individual persons cannot influence history appreciably. (Bass 1998) Implicit in the theory presented in this paper is the presumption that leadership is causative. It has been shown that the vision which a transformational leader articulates and focusses attention upon has the integrative power to engage and bind a group of followers together in the pursuit of a common purpose and as Burns has said there is nothing so power-full, nothing so effective, nothing so causal as a common purpose. The interaction of leaders and followers is not merely transactional or a process of exchange. The result of the interactive process is a change in leaders’ and followers’ motives and goals that produces a causal effect on social relations and political institutions. That effect ranges from the small and hardly noticed to the creative and historic. The small changes are more numerous, of course, and collectively and cumulatively they bring about the ‘gradual change’ that permanently alters the course of history.
... the viewer’s mentality, demonstrating the way transformational leadership enriches the lives of others by stimulating ... understanding she will become an agent of social change with his help. With his polishing, ... inspiring encouragement to revolutionize one’s hostile environment into one of collective conquest. In the ... not be possible if she continues to work under the stringent long hours with short ...
(Bryman 1986) Conclusion Social work is the sphere where people must work according to similar ethical standards and values and to have similar understanding of the strategic goals and the ways of their achieving. It is clear, that though transactional and transformational theories appear to be contrasting, they are mutually complementary at the same time. However, in relation to social work, transactional theory appears to be less applicable than that of transformational leadership. The notions of multiculturalism, better empowerment and alignment with the social work values and ethical standards are better displayed and achieved through the use of transformational leadership notions, but of course, in certain situations transactional leadership theory is the best choice, thus its meaning (though lower than that of transformational leadership) for social work should not be neglected. References Bass, Bernard. (1998).
We know where we have been, where we are now and where we need to go – but how do we get there? A map. Theory is a map. It notes any number of known landmarks (previously achieved or applied solutions) and obstacles (issues or problems) and gives us direction so that we are able to navigate intelligently and arrive safely (minimal discomfort to all) at our destination (desired outcome/s). ...
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