There are many issues that cause life stress to children and their families e. g. bereavement, separation /divorce, long-term illnesses. This report will employ a holistic approach, incorporating life span development, and will focus on transition within early year’s education. It will assist practitioners in supporting children and their families and will focus on the effect it has on their lives. Report Summary Transition within early years education is a major life event that a child and family go through together.
Currently, educational transition is defined as the process of change that children make from one place or phase of education to overtime, Fabian and Dunlop (2002).
Starting school is a huge step in a child’s life. For some it is a natural and seamless progression, for others a major upheaval, Hamilton et al (2003).
Regardless of the process, this change requires children to cope with a re-organisation of their identity and status as they move from pre-school/home to becoming a school child. Fthenkis (1998, pg. 1) maintains that substantial changes such as this “…can induce psychological changes”. The issue for children is how they will cope with such changes and discontinuities as they start school and how they might employ strategies for dealing with such changes. Ghaye and Pascal (1998, pg. 3) state that starting school in the U. K is making “…a range of potentially stressful demands”. About Transition Practitioners working with this life event can work with the child and parents to minimise stress levels. Therefore, it is important for practitioners to endorse a holistic approach.
This article is about the group of people such as a mother and a father. For the family in biology, see Family (biology). For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). A group portrait of a mother, son and daughter on glass, Roman Empire, c. 250 AD Part of a series on In human context, a family (from Latin: familia) is a group of people affiliated by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity ( ...
The ultimate aim is to understand the child’s developmental needs within the context of the family, and to provide appropriate services that respond to these needs. Freedom in education (2007) declares Rudolf Steiner, a famous philosopher, based his own education on a holistic approach. He firmly believed in “… [Educating] the whole child”. According to the EYFS (2007) every child is a “unique child and inclusive practice should be valued”. Barnes, (1991, pg. 54) is in favour of Steiner’s Education, “when the Waldorf curriculum is carried through successfully, the whole human being-head, heart and hand has truly been educated”.
Practitioners can influence a child’s life span development by employing a variety of systems for inductions e. g. single visits, talks to parents in an afternoon/evening, home visit, parents staying with their child on the first few days. Another strategy would be a staggered start before or after other children have begun on the first day. (Whalley, 2001).
However, it might be the individuals whom they start with, rather than the induction system that is the key factor in helping children and their parent’s . e. g. a child could start with a friend, neighbour or cousin.
Margett (2002, pg. 112) found that children who commenced school with a playmate “…had high levels of social and academic competence and less problem behaviours than other children”. Ladd and Price (1987) professed this thought. A range of writings (Fabian & Dulop, 2002 ; Dunlop & Fabian, 2003) propose that the way in which transition is experienced not only creates a difference to children in the early months of a new situation but also contains a longer term impact, because the context to which they feel successful in the first transition is likely to influence subsequent experiences.
The poem, Little Boy Crying, written by Mervyn Morris is mainly about father and sons relationship. Poet shows the two main themes through this relationship; fathers love towards his child and his effort to lead his child into a right world in life. Mervyn Morris explores the child and parents relationship by using second person narration and language techniques such as allusion and emotive words. ...
Life Span Development According to Brofenbrenner, (1979) a child’s life span development could change from cradle to grave depending on environmental conditions which a child experiences (handout wk 3).
For example a child may have a smooth transition from home to school but later in adolescence the transition from college to university can be effected by the Macrosystem. Thus the burden of tuition fees can inflict anxiety upon the individual (see appendix).
Goleman, (1996) believed that children need to feel socially secure and emotionally ready to meet new challenges with confidence.
Featherstone (2004) raises concerns about the lack of emotional support and the consequences attached to it. Featherstone believes that it can cause worry and stress leading to aggression or withdrawal, all of which have the potential to impair learning capacity. Leavers et al (1997, pg. 15) describes children with high levels of well being as feeling “…like fish in water”, in their educational environments with the ability to maximise their learning potential. The EYFS (2006, 37-41) places PSED at the heart of all learning areas, but thrusts a more explicit emphasis on emotional well-being.
Practitioners are now expected to focus on children’s emotional health more directly, enabling children to understand and manage their feelings. This emphasis extends to working with families in the Every Child Matters Framework. Impact on Transition Letting Go Feelings of sadness and resistance are common as children prepare to leave a familiar setting/situation. Some may loose control, cry easily or revert to habits such as, thumb sucking. Practitioners can assist the child express their emotions by reading stories about children in similar situations. Practitioners need to acquire patience and compassion for the child and family.
The separation often proves traumatic for parents in need of support and reassurance. Hamilton et al (2003, pg 16) advise practitioners to be “…patient and understanding”. Working With Parents and professionals Single Visits This is an essential period for practitioners to lay the foundations for successful parental involvement, (Tizard et al, 1981).
Parents will feel stressed. This can reflect on the child feeling anxious if the child senses parent’s anxiety, (Learning About, 2007).
E1 Explain the needs of families which may require professional support. Families may have a variety of needs, in which they need professional support. Families with a large number of children may not have the required amount of living space, this could mean that children are sharing beds, or parents are not sleeping in a room. Children will lack of sleep are proven to concentrate less and develop ...
Providing single visits to school will guide parents to understand what lies ahead of them and their child. Fabian and Dunlop (2002, pg 46) maintain that “… nformed parents are less likely to be stressed about their child’s transition”. Transition can cause fears, concerns and mixed feeling about exactly what will happen next. Children need the opportunity to visit the setting ahead of time and practice new routines to anticipate what will be different. This is an opportunity for practitioners to provide adequate information about the setting. Practitioners can learn about the child and culture. A study by Brooker (2002) outlines how the values of home differs to school values in terms of culture e. g. play at home could differ with play at school and can cause emotional difficulties.
Practitioners should build a relationship to identify different cultural beliefs, which will enable them to celebrating diversity. Margett (2002) firmly believes that, adjustments should be made in the setting for diversity. Garnat M (2000, pg. 5) cited John Dewey (1897) he suggested that practitioners “…must be sensitive to the values and needs of families”. Practitioners need to adapt strategies to address different types of systems to meet the needs of a range of children and families in terms of disability, cultural, linguistic, ethnic, racial and socio-economic backgrounds.
Following the Childrens Act (1989) practitioners are expected to provide a service, which fosters the above. Under the Equality Act (2006) children and families are protected against discrimination, (Human Rights 2007).
Talks to Parents Any form of parental involvement is taxing for working parents. Practitioners need to understand and take into account individual needs. In the ecological model put forward by Bronfenbrenner, (1979) parents working conditions in the Exosystem can effect the child’s life span development: e. g. parents may have to take time off work which can result in a loss of earning.
This has an effect on providing food, clothing, transport etc. This financial strain can affect the environment in the Microsystems (see appendix).
Education and family plays a major role in the psychological development of a child. Parent- child relationships are unique, but vary in complexity (Barber, 1994); however, the universal element among all relationships is conflict. Child-parent conflict is defined as a struggle, or trial of strength between a child (defined in my research paper as an individual under the age of 18) and their ...
When a family is from a minority group it is important to obtain what languages are spoken at home? Prior to the visit other professionals and agencies can assist in home visits e. g. bi-lingual assistants, community workers, and social workers. Home Visits Some parents find the school environment intimidating but will be relaxed in their own home where they can be the host and attain relevant information. This will boost their confidence and shine back on their children.
Practitioners should be cautious not to alienate parents with too much information. Fabian and Dunlop (2002, pg. 36) propose that “…induction visits that is accessible both in quality and quantity helps parents…gives them confidence and reduces stress”. Practitioners can arrange a staggered start for children, enabling them to begin in small groups and welcomed individually. Parents should be encouraged to stay with their child for the first few sessions. Practitioners need to make alternative arrangements for working parents. Settling In At this stage both parent and child will have some ideas of what lies ahead.
However, this does not mean that they will settle comfortably without any fears or anxiety. The gruelling thought of separation can cause more strain than before. For some, the attachment has never separated and this will be the first. Erik Eriksson’s (1950) eight stages of development demonstrate a child in the first year who is well handled, nurtured, and loved develops trust and security. If handled badly then the negative side effects would result in the child feeling insecure and mistrustful. If the child can overcome the first stage successfully the possibility of resolving the next crisis will be positive.
However, transition can affect the child in the third stage of ‘ Initiative versus Guilt’ if the first stage was not resolved successfully. Thus the child will be affected by the fear of separation (see appendix).
Practitioners need to adhere to what the child and family needs are to guide them through this strenuous event. Practitioners need to inform parents that when the time comes to depart they must reassure their child that they are leaving and will be back for them later. Parents need to be aware of breaking the trust barrier. Parents need reassurance when they collect their child.
"Latchkey Kid" is a term that came into existence during World War II. It was used to describe the large number of youth who were left without direct adult supervision. During this period of time, most Americans were involved in the war effort. Many fathers were in military service and many mothers went to work outside of the home to support their families and help our country win the war. As a ...
Positive feedback will relieve stress, enabling tomorrow to be a brighter day. Summary This report highlighted some of the key factors that related to stress caused upon children and their families whilst going through transition. It identified the impact and illustrated the importance of working together to enhance a successful transition, taking on a holistic approach.